Activity Packet

Activity Packet

tragic prelude Pre and Post Visit Packet 7th & 8th grade students Tragic Prelude pre AND POST VISIT Packet Table of Contents Section 1 – Pre-Visi...

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tragic prelude

Pre and Post Visit Packet

7th & 8th

grade students

Tragic Prelude pre AND POST VISIT Packet Table of Contents Section 1 – Pre-Visit Materials Section 2 – Post-Visit Materials

Supplemental Math and Science Programs can be found on the Mahaffie website ( – “How Does the Cannon Work” – “Trajectory”

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Tragic Prelude pre VISIT Packet

Section 1 – Pre-Visit Materials

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Tragic Prelude Pre-Visit Lesson Plan OBJECTIVES 1. Th  e student will analyze how the issues of slavery and popular sovereignty fostered a bloody feud between the states of Kansas and Missouri. 2. Th  e student will analyze the specific events that occurred during “Bleeding Kansas” and put those events into context with the U.S. Civil War. 3. The student will identify key figures during the Kansas/Missouri Border Wars. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1. What led to the disputes between Kansas and Missouri? 2. How was the issue of slavery decided in Kansas? STANDARDS Kansas Social Studies Benchmark 1.3 - The student will investigate examples of causes and consequences of particular choices and connect those choices with contemporary issues. Benchmark 2.2 - The student will analyze the context under which significant rights and responsibilities are defined and demonstrated, their various interpretations, and draw conclusions about those interpretations. Benchmark 4.2 - The student will analyze the context of continuity and change and the vehicles of reform, drawing conclusions about past change and potential future change. Common Core CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

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Tragic Prelude LESSON OVERVIEW Lesson 1: Vocabulary Lesson 2: John Brown Visual Thinking Strategy activity Worksheet 1 – “John Brown: Friend or Foe” Lesson 3: Voting Activity Primary Document Activity - Kansas’ Constitutions Lesson 4: Crossword Puzzle Infantry Soldier Uniform Identification

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Tragic Prelude Lesson 1 instructions

Review the provided vocabulary list with your students. The list contains vocabulary about the border wars, civil war camp life, and civil war weaponry that will be discussed throughout this lesson and the tour. Choose one of the three options for reviewing the vocabulary list. 1. As a class through recitation, 2. In small groups, have students quiz each other on the terminology 3. Have students work individually and create a sentence for each of the vocab words. The vocabulary review activity should take about 30 minutes to complete.

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Tragic Prelude Vocabulary 1. Cavalry – soldiers who fought on horseback 2. Artillery – soldiers who were responsible for the large weaponry 3. Infantry – soldiers who fought on foot 4. Bayonet – sword-like blade attached to the muzzle of a rifle 5. Cannon – large piece of artillery usually on wheels 6. Mortar – artillery gun that launched shells over fortifications 7. Musket – popular infantryman’s gun with a long barrel 8. Revolver – handheld firearm with a chamber that held multiple bullets 9. Bushwackers – Pro-confederate guerrilla fighters 10. Border Ruffians – Pro-slavery fighters from Missouri who attacked Kansas territory during the border wars 11. Jayhawkers – Anti-slavery Kansans who defended Kansas territory against attacks by Missourians 12. Abolitionist – person who opposed slavery 13. John Brown – famous abolitionist from Kansas who fought during the border wars 14. Antebellum – term used to describe the period before the civil war 15. Confederacy – southern states who fought to keep slavery 16. Union – northern states who fought to end slavery 17. Bedroll – bedding rolled up and carried over a soldier’s shoulder 18. Hardtack – hard crackers issued to soldiers during the war 19. Haversack – small canvas sack used to carry soldier’s food 20. Kepi – cap worn by civil war soldiers

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Tragic Prelude lesson 2 instructions Students will utilize a new interpretation technique employed by museums called Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) to strengthen their critical thinking skills when discussing the Kansas/Missouri Border Wars. The teacher will act as the facilitator to ask their students only three questions to interpret the painting of John Brown: 1. What’s going on in this picture? 2. What do you see that makes you say that? 3. What more can we find? Make sure students know there are no wrong answers. This is a completely studentled activity, so the teacher should not offer any clues or suggestions to the students on how to interpret the image. This is a whole-class activity. The VTS activity should take between 15-30 minutes. Once the students are finished discussing the painting of John Brown, they should begin working on Worksheet 1 - “John Brown: Friend or Foe.” Worksheet 1 is two pages and should be printed front and back but can be printed as two separate pages if needed. Students should read the fact sheet about John Brown and place each of the terms in the pros / cons list provided on the back of the worksheet. Students should then decide whether they think John Brown was a hero or a terrorist. This lesson can be completed either individually or in small groups, but decisions should be discussed as a class.

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Tragic Prelude Lesson 2 Instructions Grades 3 –5 Students should read the selected excerpts from Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Little House on the Prairie to see what it was like for a child to travel by covered wagon in the 1800s. To promote public speaking skills, have the class read together by selecting one student at a time to read the excerpts out loud. After the class has finished reading Little House on the Prairie, have students work individually to complete the worksheet “Moving: Then and Now.” Students should read what it was like to move in Laura’s day on the left of the worksheet and fill in what it would be like to move today on the right of the worksheet. After each student has finished the worksheet, ask for volunteers to read what they wrote under the different sections.

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kansas/missouri border wars

“The Tragic Prelude” - John Stewart Curry (1937-1942)

1. What’s going on in this picture? 2. What do you see that makes you say that? 3. What more can we find? For a larger image vist this website:

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john brown: friend or foe? John Brown is a very controversial historical figure. Some consider him to be one of the greatest activists for abolitionism and civil rights. Others consider him a terrorist who committed violent acts against innocent bystanders. How did John Stewart Curry portray John Brown in his painting “Tragic Prelude.” Read through the following facts and information about John Brown’s life and sort them into the pros and cons list on the back of this worksheet. Once your list is completed, analyze the information to decide how history should portray Jon Brown: a hero, terrorist, friend or foe.

Became an abolitionist after witnessing the beating of an enslaved AfricanAmerican boy.

Liberated a group of slaves from Missouri and helped them find freedom in Canada.

Known as the Pottawatomie Massacre, Brown and his men murdered five men believed to be Pro-slavery supporters in a revenge mission against the sacking of Lawrence in 1856.

Led a raid on the federal armory in Harpers Ferry, holding dozens of men hostage intending to inspire a slave revolt.

Was involved in the Underground Railroad.

Believed that an act of aggression should be retaliated against with another act of aggression, eye for an eye justice.

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How do you think we should view John Brown?

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Tragic Prelude Lesson 3 Instructions

“Lecompton Constitution/Topeka Constitution Voting Activity” Students will work on two different activities today. The first will be the voting activity, and the second will be the primary document activity (instructions for the primary document activity are found on page 15). For this lesson, you will need to cut blue and red construction paper to give out as ballots. Cut more red construction paper than blue. Also, you will need a box that can be used as a ballot box. 1. Introduce the topic of the lesson by asking students for a definition of the word “freedom”. 2. Have the word “freedom” written on the white board. 3. Explain to students the following hypothetical situation: “The state of Kansas is trying to decide whether or not it should have iPads in the public schools.” 4. Divide students into two equal groups and have one group represent Kansas voters who are for the use of iPads in schools and have the other group represent Missourians who are against the use of iPads in schools. 5. Provide students with paper and pencils, instruct students to work together within their designated state to make arguments concerning why iPads should or should not be used in school. Allow adequate time for students to fully discuss various sides of their argument. 6. After students have made their points within their group, have the groups select three members each to participate in a debate and argue their points (respectfully taking turns) on why they should or should not have iPads in school. 7. Once the students have made their arguments to the groups, instruct the students that Kansas is now going to vote on whether or not to have iPads in their public schools. 8. The teacher should quietly talk to the Missouri group and tell them that the issue of iPads in schools is too important to leave up to the Kansans to decide, so they too are going to place votes against iPads in the ballot box. Give the Missouri students multiple ballots so they can vote multiple times. 9. Have Kansans place a ballot each into the ballot box. 10. Have Missourians place all of their ballots into the ballot box. The Kansans should be getting upset right now, which is to be expected. If they complain to the teacher, just keep telling them that you see nothing wrong.

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11. 12. 13. 14.

After the students have placed their votes, count them and announce that Kansas will not have iPads in their schools. Explain to students the historical context of events in the 1855 election in Kansas territory. “The election was influenced by Missourians illegally crossing over the border to vote. Election fraud put the results in dispute resulting in forming two separate schools in Kansas, one that supported iPads and one that did not.” Explain the events of voter fraud and the First Kansas Territorial Legislature, which ultimately led to what became known as the Bogus Legislature. “The First Kansas Territorial Legislature, meeting in 1855, was called the “Bogus Legislature” by its free-­‐ state opponents. Its thirty-­‐eight members were chosen for office in an election in which 5,000 Missouri “voters,” led by Senator David Atchison and his followers, illegally crossed into Kansas and took over the polls. Free state Kansans established a capital in Topeka and drafted a constitution. Pro-­‐slavery Kansans and Missourians established a capital in Lecompton and drafted their own constitution. Both sides appealed to Congress to have their constitutions approved and Kansas Territory given statehood. President Buchanan, even after hearing of the events during the Bogus Legislature, sided with the pro-­‐slavery Lecompton and approved their constitution. Have students from both sides explain observations of the activity and the implications of popular sovereignty and reflect on how the “mock election” resembles events of the First Kansas Territorial Election.

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Tragic Prelude Lesson 3 Instructions (CON’T)

“Lecompton Constitution/Topeka Constitution Voting Activity” After the voting activity, students will analyze two primary documents. These documents are available on our website should you choose to digitally display them in a larger sized format. This activity should take about 30 – 45 minutes to complete. The first document they will analyze is the Lecompton Constitution, which was drafted by pro-­‐slavery supporters on November 7, 1857. A text-­‐version of select passages is on the back of the worksheet for students to read and analyze. As a class, have students read the select passages on the back of the worksheet and discuss what they meant for the state of Kansas at the time. Next, have students read the Topeka Constitution drafted by abolitionists on October 23, 1855. A text-­‐version of select passages is on the back of the worksheet for students to read and analyze. Again as a class, have students read the select passages on the back of the worksheet and discuss what they meant for the state of Kansas at the time. Once students have read the select passages from both constitutions, ask them the following questions. 1. How can a state have two different constitutions at the same time? 2. If the issue of slavery in Kansas was to be decided based on popular sovereignty, which constitution do you think should have passed through Congress? 3. Do you think something like this could happen today? Why or why not?

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The Lecompton Constitution was drafted by pro-­‐slavery supporters on November 7, 1857. Lecompton was the pro-­‐slavery capital of Kansas until August 1858, when anti-­‐slavery Kansans rejected the Lecompton Constitution and Kansas officially became a free state.

For a larger image, or text version of thsi document visit: Page 16

Text Version of

THE LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION PREAMBLE We, the people of the Territory of Kansas, by our representatives in convention assembled, at Lecompton, in said Territory, on Monday, the fourth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-­‐seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the eighty-­‐ second’year, having the right of admission into the Union as one of the United States of America, consistent with the Federal Constitution, and by virtue of the treaty of cession by France to the United States of the Province of Louisiana, made and entered into on the thirtieth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and three, and by virtue of, and in accordance with, the act of Congress passed May the thirtieth, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-­‐four, entitled “An act to organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas,” in order to secure to ourselves and our posterity the enjoyment of all the rights of life, liberty and property, and the free pursuit of happiness, do mutually agree with each other to form ourselves into a free, independent and sovereign State, by the name and style of the STATE OF KANSAS, and do ordain and establish the following Constitution for the government thereof: ARTICLE VII -­‐ SLAVERY SECTION 1. The right of property is before and higher than any constitutional sanction, and the right of the owner of a slave to such slave and its increase is the same and as inviolable as the right of the owner of any property whatever. SEC. 2. The Legislature shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of the owners, or without paying the owners previous to their emancipation a full equivalent in money for the slaves so emancipated. They shall have no power to prevent immigrants to the State from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the United States or Territories, so long as any person of the same age or description shall be continued in slavery by the laws of this State: Provided, That such person or slave be the bona fide property of such immigrants: And provided, also, That laws may be passed to prohibit the introduction into this State of slaves who have committed high crimes in other States or Territories. They shall have power to pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a public charge. They shall have power to oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity, to provide for them necessary food and clothing, to abstain from all injuries to them extending to life or limb, and, in case of their neglect or refusal to comply with the direction of such laws, to have such slave or slaves sold for the benefit of the owner or owners. SEC. 3. In the prosecution of slaves for crimes of higher grade than petit larceny, the Legislature shall have no power to deprive them of an impartial trial by a petit jury. SEC. 4. Any person who shall maliciously dismember, or deprive a slave of life, shall suffer such punishment as would be inflicted in case the like offense had been committed on a free white person, and on the like proof, except in case of insurrection of such slave.

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The Topeka Constitution was drafted by abolitionists on October 23, 1855. Topeka was the free state capitol of Kansas until it became the official capital six years later in 1861. Congress initially rejected the Topeka Constitution, choosing to support the Lecompton Constitution instead.

For a larger image or text version of this document, visit:

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Text Version of

THE topeka CONSTITUTION Preamble We, the people of the Territory of Kansas, by our delegates in Convention assembled at Topeka, on the 23d day of October, A.D. 1855, and of the Independence of the United States the eightieth year, having the right of admission into the Union as one of the United States of America, consistent with the Federal Constitution, and by virtue of the treaty of cession by France to the United States of the Province of Louisiana, in order to secure to ourselves and our posterity the enjoyment of all the rights of life, liberty and property, and the free pursuit of happiness, do mutually agree with each other to form ourselves into a free and independent State, by the name and style of the STATE OF KANSAS, bounded as follows, to wit: Beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of Missouri where the thirty-­‐seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the eastern boundary of New Mexico; thence north on said boundary to latitude thirty-­‐eight; thence following said boundary westward to the eastern boundary of the Territory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence northward on said summit to the fortieth parallel of said latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri; thence south with the western boundary of said State to the place of beginning; and do ordain and establish the following Constitution and Bill of Rights for the government thereof. Article I -­‐ Bill of Rights Section 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and seeking and obtaining happiness and safety. Sec. 4. The people have the right to bear arms for their defense and security, but standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, and shall not be kept up; and the military shall be kept in strict subordination to the civil power. Sec. 6. There shall be no slavery in this state, nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime. Sec. 7. All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, erect or support any place of worship, or maintain any form of worship, against his consent; and no preference shall be given by law to any religious society; nor shall any interference with the rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for office, nor shall any person be incompetent to be a witness on account of his religious belief; but nothing herein shall be construed to dispense with oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality, and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass suitable laws to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools and the means of instruction. Sec. 21. No indenture of any negro or mulatto, made and executed out of the bounds of the State, shall be valid within the State. Sec. 22. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not herein delegated shall remain with the people. Page 19

Tragic Prelude Lesson 4 Instructions The last day lesson is dedicated to assessment. Students will complete two activities, a crossword puzzle and a soldier’s uniform identification activity, designed to assess their knowledge of the previous days’ content and ensure they are fully prepared for their tour at Mahaffie. Both the crossword puzzle and uniform identification assessments can be completed individually or in small groups but should be reviewed as a class.

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Tragic Prelude crossword puzzle

Down 1. Pro-­‐slavery men from Missouri who attacked Kansas territory 2. Famous man who fought to end slavery in Kansas 3. Infantryman’s gun with a long barrel 4. Southern states who fought for slavery 6. Pro-­‐confederate guerrilla fighters 7. Soldiers who fought on foot 11. Someone who opposed slavery 12. Soldiers who fought with large weapons

Across 5. Northern states that fought to end slavery 6. Sword-­‐like blade on the muzzle of a rifle 8. Anti-­‐slavery fighters from Kansas during the Border Wars 9. Large piece of artillery on wheels 10. Soldiers who fought on horseback

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Tragic Prelude crossword puzzle Key Across 5. Union 6. Bayonet 8. Jayhawkers 9. Cannon 10. Cavalry Down 1. Border Ruffians 2. John Brown 3. Musket 4. Confederate 6. Bushwackers 7. Infantry 11. Abolitionist 12. Artillery

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civil war uniform identification

1. Jacket 2. Trousers 3. Kepi 4. Canteen 5. Rifle 6. Bedroll

Infantry Private

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Tragic Prelude POST-VISIT

Section 3 – Post-Visit Materials

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Tragic Prelude Post-Visit Activity

After you have completed the tour at Mahaffie, have your students write a short essay on Kansas’ impact on the Civil War. They should use information obtained during the pre-­‐visit lesson, as well as the information from the tour. Make sure your students know this is not a graded assignment. You may collect the papers for your records, or the students can keep their essays for future reference. .

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Kansas’ impact on the civil war

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