ANCIENT GREECE: A Lasting Legacy - NYC Department of Education

ANCIENT GREECE: A Lasting Legacy - NYC Department of Education

Field Test Edition 2009-10 ANCIENT GREECE: A Lasting Legacy A SUGGESTED 6TH GRADE UNIT OF STUDY GIFTED/TALENTED& ENRICHMENT Office of Curriculum, S...

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Field Test Edition

2009-10

ANCIENT GREECE: A Lasting Legacy A SUGGESTED 6TH GRADE UNIT OF STUDY GIFTED/TALENTED& ENRICHMENT

Office of Curriculum, Standards, and Academic Engagement Department of Gifted/Talented & Enrichment

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2009-10

NYC Department of Education Department of Gifted/Talented & Enrichment Unit of Study Joel I. Klein Chancellor Santiago Taveras I.A. Deputy Chancellor for Teaching and Learning Sabrina Hope King, Ed.D. Chief Academic Officer Office of Curriculum, Standards and Academic Engagement Anna Commitante Director of Department of English Language Arts, Social Studies and Gifted & Talented Michael Adin Nicky Kram Rosen Department of Gifted/Talented & Enrichment Instructional Specialists Denise Jordan Special Assistant to Director of ELA, Social Studies and Gifted/Talented & Enrichment

52 Chambers Street New York, New York 10007 Tel • 212-374-5165

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OFFICE OF GIFTED/TALENTED & ENRICHMENT The Office of Gifted/Talented & Enrichment Education develops policy and program recommendations to meet the educational needs of exceptional students while ensuring equity to gifted programs across groups of students. We also expand enrichment programs to develop potential talent in every child and provide information to the field regarding changes in teacher certification requirements for teachers of the gifted and talented. This unit of study has been developed with, by, and for classroom teachers. Feel free to use and adapt any or all material contained herein.

Contributing Educators Lourdes Bonilla Teacher, MS 212, District12 Janette Hernández Teacher, PS 72, District 8 Elizabeth Ramos Teacher, PS 72, District 8 Olivia Kurz, College Intern, Department of ELA, Social Studies and Gifted/Talented & Enrichment

Cover image of Parthenon Temple at the Acropolis, Athens, Greece. Microsoft Online Clip Art

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Cambourne’s Conditions for Learning Principles of Learning Principles of Quality Gifted Instruction Gifted Program Goals Gifted Education Programming Criterion: Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum Compacting Classroom Options for Gifted Instruction Issues in Grouping and Acceleration Differentiation Features Inquiry in the Elementary Classroom Social Studies Skills New Research on Content Literacy and Academic Vocabulary Social Studies Content Area Reading Strategies Diversity and Multiple Perspectives: An Essential Component Interdisciplinary Models: Literacy and Social Studies as Natural Partners Project Based Learning Successful Strategies for Implementing Document-Based Questions DBQ Documents Encouraging Accountable Talk in Classroom Discussions Assessing Student Understanding Multiple Intelligences Bloom’s Taxonomy Maximizing Field Trip Potential Using a Trip Board NYC DOE Social Studies Scope and Sequence Unit Overview & Teacher Background Brainstorm Web Essential Question Interdisciplinary Unit of Study Planning Matrix Interdisciplinary Unit of Study Planning Matrix (By Section) Weekly Planning Sheet Sample Lesson Plans Suggested Final Projects Project 1: Classroom Restyle Museum Exhibit Project 2: Archcyclopedia Architecture Encyclopedia Project 3: Mythical/War Board Game Project 4: An Original Greek Myth Project 5: Contemporary Greek Model Building Project 6: Conduct a Debate Project 7: Create Your Own Greek Tragedy Checklist for Student Project Success Sample Rubrics for Projects

1 2 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 19 21 22 23 26 27 29 30 31 32 33 34 41 42 43 45 50 56 159 160 174 192 195 199 200 201 203 205

Field Test Edition Templates and Resources Brainstorm Web Template Essential Question Template Interdisciplinary Unit of Study Planning Matrix Template Weekly Focus Question Planning Templates Venn Diagram Teacher Text Selection Planner for Interdisciplinary Connections Note Taking Template Sample Class Chart Template K-W-L-H Chart Template Text Selection Planner Paraphrase Activity Sheet Opinion/Proof Think Sheet Classroom Activity Sheet: Government in Ancient Greece Classroom Activity Sheet: Philosophy in Ancient Greece Gods/Goddesses Chart Greek Alphabet Chart Bloom’s Taxonomy Activities & Products Using Bloom’s Taxonomy Ancient Greece Glossary Bibliography and Additional Resources Works Cited Books for Students Internet Resources Other Helpful Resources Photos of NYC Buildings with Greek Architectural Elements Image Credits

2009-10 208 209 210 211 212 214 215 216, 220 217 218 219 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 229 231 239 240 243 244 251 252 263

Field Test Edition

2009-10 CAMBOURNE’S CONDITIONS FOR LEARNING

In the 1960s, researcher Brian Cambourne studied the conditions under which young children acquire language. Cambourne found that children tend to learn most effectively when these eight essential conditions exist in learning environments. In the years since his initial research, Cambourne’s findings have come to be known collectively as the Conditions for Learning. Educators have studied and replicated the Conditions for Learning and found that they are consistent and flexible enough to apply to all subjects and to all learners. Immersion – Students who are learning to read and write need to be deeply involved in both written and oral language. Immersion refers to the print rich environment that makes this possible. In a learning classroom, a wide variety of meaningful texts are used which include charts, labels, books, and student work. The teacher and students often refer to this variety of texts as part of their daily lives as readers and writers. Demonstration – Students need clear and powerful examples of effective reading and writing strategies. Teachers model these strategies in a variety of contexts so that students can see what fluent readers, writers and speakers do. Is it not enough for the teacher to employ these strategies. The teacher must make them explicit by repeating them in a variety of contexts and at various times. Expectation – Effective literacy teachers have high expectations for all students. Teachers must communicate both implicitly and explicitly that their students can be fluent readers and writers. At the same time, students learn to expect that they will be fluent readers, writers and speakers. Together, teachers and students build a classroom culture centered around high expectations. Responsibility – In successful literacy classrooms, everyone shares the responsibility for success. Thoughtful teachers are careful not to create dependent students who rely on the teacher for correction and decision-making. As students begin to take responsibility for their learning, they make more informed and autonomous choices during independent reading and writing. Approximation – Literate classrooms provide a risk-free environment for students to take small steps when practicing new learning strategies. Effective teachers give students time to practice and master skills as they learn. Making mistakes is seen as part and parcel of the learning process, and students understand the opportunities to learn from mistakes. Use – Students need multiple opportunities to practice new strategies. Their skill sets grow with familiarity. Students build upon prior knowledge when practicing new skills and strategies. Response – In an effective classroom, students get accurate and supportive feedback from the teacher. Teachers need to help students build on their prior knowledge and provide timely, focused feedback. Students also need to learn how to respond or convey information effectively. As students develop a selfassessment process, they learn how to respond constructively to the ideas and work of their peers. Engagement – On-going and continuous opportunities to read, write and speak allow students to practice and gain fluency. Active involvement helps students understand to what degree they can be readers, writers and speakers, thus supporting their fluency and independence. Engagement is an essential factor in the learning process and needs to be built into all aspects of the school day. Unengaged learners have reduced, constricted opportunities to construct new understandings with little chance to independently apply newly acquired knowledge.

Department of Gifted/Talented & Enrichment

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2009-10 PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING1

The Principles of Learning are condensed theoretical statements summarizing decades of learning research. The statements are linked to several explanatory points about particular features of each principle. Some of the features are further elaborated by a series of indicators that schools and classrooms are functioning in accord with the principle. They are designed to help educators analyze the quality of instruction and opportunities for learning that they offer to students. Organizing for Effort An effort-based school replaces the assumption that aptitude determines what and how much students learn with the assumption that sustained and directed effort can yield high achievement for all students. Everything is organized to evoke and support this effort, to send the message that effort is expected and that tough problems yield to sustained work. High minimum standards are set and assessments are geared to the standards. All students are taught a rigorous curriculum, matched to the standards, along with as much time and expert instruction as they need to meet or exceed expectations. Clear Expectations If we expect all students to achieve at high levels, then we need to define explicitly what we expect students to learn. These expectations need to be communicated clearly in ways that get them "into the heads" of school professionals, parents, the community and, above all, students themselves. Descriptive criteria and models of work that meets standards should be publicly displayed, and students should refer to these displays to help them analyze and discuss their work. With visible accomplishment targets to aim toward at each stage of learning, students can participate in evaluating their own work and setting goals for their own effort. Fair and Credible Evaluations If we expect students to put forth sustained effort over time, we need to use assessments that students find fair; and that parents, community, and employers find credible. Fair evaluations are ones that students can prepare for: therefore, tests, exams and classroom assessments—as well as the curriculum—must be aligned to the standards. Fair assessment also means grading against absolute standards rather than on a curve, so students can clearly see the results of their learning efforts. Assessments that meet these criteria provide parents, colleges, and employers with credible evaluations of what individual students know and can do. Recognition of Accomplishment If we expect students to put forth and sustain high levels of effort, we need to motivate them by regularly recognizing their accomplishments. Clear recognition of authentic accomplishment is a hallmark of an effort-based school. This recognition can take the form of celebrations of work that meets standards or intermediate progress benchmarks.

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The contents of this section belong to the Institute for Learning at the University of Pittsburgh. These materials are protected by United States Copyright law. © 2004 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

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Academic Rigor in a Thinking Curriculum Thinking and problem solving will be the "new basics" of the 21st century. But the common idea that we can teach thinking without a solid foundation of knowledge must be abandoned. So must the idea that we can teach knowledge without engaging students in thinking. Knowledge and thinking are intimately joined. This implies a curriculum organized around major concepts that students are expected to know deeply. Teaching must engage students in active reasoning about these concepts. In every subject, at every grade level, instruction and learning must include commitment to a knowledge core, high thinking demand, and active use of knowledge. Accountable TalkSM Talking with others about ideas and work is fundamental to learning. But not all talk sustains learning. For classroom talk to promote learning it must be accountable – to the learning community, to accurate and appropriate knowledge, and to rigorous thinking. Accountable talk seriously responds to and further develops what others in the group have said. It puts forth and demands knowledge that is accurate and relevant to the issue under discussion. Accountable talk uses evidence appropriate to the discipline (e.g., proofs in mathematics, data from investigations in science, textual details in literature, and documentary sources in history) and follows established norms of good reasoning. Teachers should intentionally create the norms and skills of accountable talk in their classrooms. Socializing Intelligence Intelligence is much more than an innate ability to think quickly and stockpile bits of knowledge. Intelligence is a set of problem-solving and reasoning capabilities along with the habits of mind that lead one to use those capabilities regularly. Intelligence is equally a set of beliefs about one's right and obligation to understand and make sense of the world, and one's capacity to figure things out over time. Intelligent habits of mind are learned through the daily expectations placed on the learner. By calling on students to use the skills of intelligent thinking—and by holding them responsible for doing so—educators can "teach" intelligence. This is what teachers normally do with students they expect much from; it should be standard practice with all students. Self-management of Learning If students are going to be responsible for the quality of their thinking and learning, they need to develop—and regularly use—an array of self-monitoring and self-management strategies. These metacognitive skills include noticing when one doesn't understand something and taking steps to remedy the situation, as well as formulating questions and inquiries that let one explore deep levels of meaning. Students also manage their own learning by evaluating the feedback they get from others; bringing their background knowledge to bear on new learning; anticipating learning difficulties and apportioning their time accordingly; and judging their progress toward a learning goal. These are strategies that good learners use spontaneously and all students can learn through appropriate instruction and socialization. Learning environments should be designed to model and encourage the regular use of selfmanagement strategies. 3

Field Test Edition 2009-10 Learning as Apprenticeship For many centuries most people learned by working alongside an expert who modeled skilled practice and guided novices as they created authentic products or performances for interested and critical audiences. This kind of apprenticeship allowed learners to acquire complex interdisciplinary knowledge, practical abilities, and appropriate forms of social behavior. Much of the power of apprenticeship learning can be brought into schooling by organizing learning environments so that complex thinking is modeled and analyzed, and by providing mentoring and coaching as students undertake extended projects and develop presentations of finished work, both in and beyond the classroom.

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PRINCIPLES OF QUALITY GIFTED INSTRUCTION

Quality instruction in the gifted classroom must: Differentiate, adapt or modify grade-level classroom curricula and instruction to meet the unique needs of gifted learners Provide a means for demonstrating proficiency in required curriculum and provide subsequent challenging educational opportunities Consist of a continuum of differentiated curricular options, instructional approaches and resource materials Provide flexible instructional arrangements, i.e., compacting, acceleration, independent study and research projects Be designed to broaden and deepen the learning of high-ability learners

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Gifted Program Goals • To provide mastery of basic skills of reading and the mathematics at a pace and depth appropriate to the capacity of able learners • To promote critical thinking and reasoning abilities • To provide an environment that encourages divergent thinking • To foster inquiry and challenging attitudes toward learning • To develop high-level oral and written skills • To develop research skills and methods • To develop an understanding for systems of knowledge, themes, issues and problems that frame the external world • To develop self-understanding • To facilitate opportunities for learning that are external to the school but provide an important match to the needs of learners • To enhance opportunities for future planning and development • To develop creative and divergent thinking skills • To develop creative problem-solving skills • To develop social skills of relating to others and coping effectively in social contexts • To develop metacognitive skills that foster independent and self-directed learning Source: Elissa Brown, PhD, Director, Center for Gifted Education, College of William & Mary

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Department of Gifted/Talented & Enrichment

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CURRICULUM COMPACTING

Curriculum compacting is a procedure used to streamline the regular curriculum for students who are capable of mastering it at a faster pace. The compacting process has three basic phases: • • •

Determine the goals and objectives of the regular curriculum Assess students for previous mastery of these objectives Substitute more appropriate (challenging) options

These components can be broken down into eight steps: 1. Identify the relevant learning objectives in a given subject area or grade level 2. Find or develop some means of pretesting students on one or more of these objectives prior to instruction 3. Identify students who may benefit from curriculum compacting and should be pretested 4. Pretest students to determine their mastery levels of the chosen objectives 5. Eliminate practice, drill or instructional time for students who have demonstrated prior mastery of these objectives 6. Streamline instruction of those objectives students have not mastered but are capable of mastering more quickly than their classmates 7. Offer enrichment or acceleration options for students who have mastered curriculum 8. Keep records of this process and the instructional options available to “compacted” students Although enrichment and acceleration may be part of the process, compacting encompasses much more. It is, in fact, more closely associated with diagnosis and prescription: a method used in remedial education to point out learning objectives students have not yet mastered. Instruction is intended to help them catch up with the rest of the class. With compacting, pretesting identifies learning objectives already mastered, and students are allowed to test out of certain academic exercises and move on to new material.

Source Curriculum Compacting, Reis, Burns and Renzulli p. 5 & 33, 1992

Department of Gifted/Talented & Enrichment

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Classroom Options for Gifted Instruction

• • • • • • • • •

Regular classroom differentiation Projects (Self-Direction) Compacting (Diagnostic/Prescriptive) Creative or Critical Thinking Skills Interdisciplinary/Multidisciplinary learning Affective curriculum Acceleration of content, process In-depth content options Extracurricular services

Issues in Grouping and Acceleration Grouping • • • • • • •

Timeframes for grouping Subject Areas Teacher Qualifications Documentation of student growth Tailoring instruction Flexibility Type of Grouping most beneficial for student & district Acceleration

• • • • • •

Consider the degree of giftedness and specific aptitude(s) Teacher qualifications Program articulation “Natural” transition points Non-intellective characteristics Flexibility

Source: Elissa Brown, PhD Director, Center for Gifted Education College of William & Mary

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DIFFERENTIATION FEATURES 1. Acceleration • Fewer tasks assigned to master standard • Assessed earlier or prior to teaching • Clustered by higher order thinking skills 2. Complexity • Used multiple higher level skills • Added more variables to study • Required multiple resources 3. Depth • Studied a concept in multiple applications • Conducted original research • Developed a product 4. Challenge • Advanced resources employed • Sophisticated content used • Cross-disciplinary applications made • Reasoning made explicit 5. Creativity • Designed/constructed a model based on principles or criteria • Provided alternatives for tasks, products & assessments • Emphasized oral & written communication to real world audience

Source: Elissa Brown, PhD, Director, Center for Gifted Education, College of William & Mary

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INQUIRY IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM

Knowledge does not easily pass from one source to another. We cannot “make” students understand. Students learn best when they look for and discover answers to their own questions; when they make their own connections and when inquiry is at the heart of learning. Teacher’s Role The teacher is a mediator and facilitator for student learning. S/he may present a problem or question to students and ask questions such as: What can we find out about this topic? Why is it important? What impact has it had and why? What else do you need to know? S/he helps students think through strategies for investigations and ways to successfully monitor their own behavior. The teacher also helps students reflect on their work and processes. Scaffold the Learning Throughout a learning experience, the teacher must scaffold the learning for students. Minilessons are planned around student needs to help move them towards successful completion of a task or understanding of a concept. You cannot expect students to write a research report if you have not supported them with note-taking skills and strategies. Breaking tasks into manageable sub-skills (while keeping the context real and meaningful!) also helps students experience success. Students’ Role Students should be active participants in their learning. They must take responsibility for their learning, ask questions for themselves, take initiative, and assess their own learning. They must demonstrate independence (from the teacher) and dependence on others (in group projects) when and where appropriate. Assessment Assessment is a tool for instruction. It should reflect what students know, not just what they don’t know. Teachers need to utilize more than one method of assessment to determine what students know or have learned. Assessment measures can be formal and informal; tasks can be chosen by students and by teachers; speaking, writing, and other types of demonstrations of learning can be employed.

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2009-10 SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS

Comprehension Skills • making connections • comparing and contrasting ideas • identifying cause and effect • drawing inferences and making conclusions • paraphrasing; evaluating content • distinguishing fact and opinion • finding and solving multiple-step problems • decision making • handling/understanding different interpretations Research and Writing Skills • getting information; using various note-taking strategies • organizing information • identifying and using primary and secondary sources • reading and understanding textbooks; looking for patterns • interpreting information • applying, analyzing and synthesizing information • supporting a position with relevant facts and documents • understanding importance • creating a bibliography and webography Interpersonal and Group Relation Skills • defining terms; identifying basic assumptions • identifying values conflicts • recognizing and avoiding stereotypes • recognizing different points of view; developing empathy and understanding • participating in group planning and discussion • cooperating to accomplish goals • assuming responsibility for carrying out tasks Sequencing and Chronology Skills • using the vocabulary of time and chronology • placing events in chronological order • sequencing major events on a timeline; reading timelines • creating timelines; researching time and chronology • understanding the concepts of time, continuity, and change • using sequence and order to plan and accomplish tasks Map and Globe Skills • reading maps, legends, symbols, and scales • using a compass rose, grids, time zones; using mapping tools • comparing maps and making inferences; understanding distance • interpreting and analyzing different kinds of maps; creating maps Graph and Image • decoding images (graphs, cartoons, paintings, photographs) • interpreting charts and graphs Analysis Skills • interpreting graphs and other images • drawing conclusions and making predictions • creating self-directed projects and participating in exhibitions • presenting a persuasive argument •

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NEW RESEARCH ON CONTENT LITERACY AND ACADEMIC VOCABULARY Reading and writing in the content areas require our students to have high-level literacy skills such as the capacity to make inferences from texts, synthesize information from a variety of sources, follow complex directions, question authenticity and understand content-specific and technical vocabulary. Every academic discipline has its own set of literacy demands: the structures, organization and discourse that define the discipline. Students will not learn to read and write well in any content area unless they understand these demands. They need to be taught the specific demands of the discipline and to spend a significant amount of time reading, writing, and discussing with their peers and their teachers. To truly have access to the language of an academic discipline means students need to become familiar with that discipline’s essence of communication. We do not read a novel, a science text or social studies text in the same way or with the same purposes. The role of knowledge and domain-specific vocabulary in reading comprehension has been wellresearched, and we understand that students need opportunities to learn not only subject area concepts, but vocabulary also in order to have the ability to read the broad range of text types they are exposed to in reading social studies. New research has shown that one factor in particular—academic vocabulary—is one of the strongest indicators of how well students will learn subject area content when they come to school. Teaching the specific terms of social studies, science, or math in a specific way is one of the strongest actions a teacher can take to ensure that students have the academic background knowledge they need to understand the social studies content they will encounter in school.

For more information on content literacy and academic vocabulary: Alliance for Excellent Education

Literacy Instruction in the Content Areas June 2007

Vacca and Vacca

Content Area Curriculum

Robert Marzano & Debra Pickering

Building Academic Vocabulary

Reading.

Literacy

and

Learning

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Across

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2009-10 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT AREA READING STRATEGIES

Content area literacy requires students to use language strategies to construct meaning from text. Specific reading strategies support students as they interact with text and retrieve, organize and interpret information. Use Bloom's Taxonomy. From least to most complex, the competencies/thinking skills are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The taxonomy is useful when designing questions or student activities/projects. Use "academic" vocabulary. An understanding of the academic language connected to a discipline is an important component of content comprehension. Students need this knowledge to function successfully. Short identified four types of vocabulary that social studies students regularly encounter: terms associated with instructional, or directional, tools ("north," "below,"); concrete terms ("Stamp Act"); conceptual terms ("democracy," "taxation"); and functional terms (such as a request to accurately "sequence" a group of events). According to Short, students should not only be made aware of these categories, they should be encouraged to employ examples from each type of vocabulary in classroom discussions. Be aware of what SS texts demand of the reader. It is important to be cognizant of the specific demands that any given text will make on a reader. These demands can be to determine main ideas; locate and interpret significant details; understand sequences of events; make comparisons; comprehend cause-effect relationships; determine the meaning of context-dependent words, phrases, and statements; make generalizations; and analyze the author's voice and method. Anticipate the main idea. Prior to beginning a reading assignment, ask students to skim the text and then think about what they anticipate the author's main idea or message to be. Encourage them to consider clues such as the text’s title, paragraph headings, repetition of a particular name or term, and any related terms that might indicate the writer's focus. Review students' predictions, and plan to review again in the post-reading activities. Students can be made aware of which skim-reading clues proved helpful and which did not. Make connections. Before reading it is helpful for students to ask themselves "What do I think I know about this topic?" Starting with the feeling of familiarity and context tends to make students more interested — and interactive — readers. Surveying what students think they already know about a topic may also have the benefit of exposing misunderstandings and biases. Preview vocabulary. Give students a chance to preview a text’s critical "academic terms." To preview academic vocabulary, you might utilize a Wordsplash followed by student discussion and then post words on the word wall. Focus on questions. The best questions are those that students raise about the assigned topic. Students’ own curiosity will encourage attentive reading. You can also prepare questions — a reading outline that is tailored to the reading material for less-skilled readers. These guides can be either content-oriented or skill oriented, but they will focus the reader. More advanced readers can find and paraphrase the main idea of a particular paragraph or text.

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During Reading During-reading strategies help students monitor their comprehension as they read. These should be directly related to the type of text with which students are interacting. Encourage a Critical Lens Encourage students to discover the voice behind any printed material. Whether a textbook, an article, a primary document or eyewitness account, all texts are written by someone. Help students identify the publisher of the source or the writer to determine why the text was written, the audience for whom it was intended, and the purpose of the text. Aid students in making inferences as to the writer's target audience. This type of critical lens will help students develop critical reading skills and to recognize and select the best types of source for various research projects. Identify the author's style. Some writers begin with an anecdote, then explain how it does (or does not) illustrate their topic. Others set the scene for re-visiting an historic event, then focus on its chronology. Journalists often compress key information within the opening paragraph, and then follow up with more details and/or with comments by experts. Invite students to speculate on what effect each approach might have on various audiences. Challenge students to try these styles in their own writing and reports. Look for the Five W's. When working with newspaper articles have students identify the Who What Where When and Why of any major event reported by the writer. Note comparisons/contrasts. Point out that writers use statements of contrast and comparison to signal that a comparison or contrast has been made and that it is significant. Recognize cause-effect arguments. When historians, politicians, and economists explain causal relationships within their fields of expertise, they tend to use qualifying terms. Have students develop a list of the vocabulary that such writers use when making cause-effect arguments ("as one result," "partly on account of," "helps to explain why," etc.). Because of this need for qualification, you are framing questions in a specific way will allow students to sum up a cause-effect argument, without actually endorsing it. Example: "How does the author explain the causes of globalization?" But not: "What were the causes of globalization?" Interpret sequence wisely. Related events that follow one another may be elements of a cause-effect relationship or they may not. When an author "chains" events using terms like “and then.... and then.... next.... finally....” remind students to look for additional verbal clues before deciding that this sequence of events demonstrates a true cause-effect relationship. Post-Reading Review Post-reading strategies help students review and synthesize what they've read: Graphic Organizers. Students may often need assistance to grasp an author's basic argument or message. Graphic organizers — flowcharts, outlines, and other two-dimensional figures — can be very helpful. Paraphrase. After students complete a reading assignment, ask them to paraphrase, in writing, or orally using three to five sentences. Review these summaries being sure to include references to: the

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topic, the author's main idea, the most critical detail(s), and any key terms that give the argument its unique quality. Time Order and Importance. When an author's argument depends upon a cluster of linked reasons and/or a series of logical points, readers can list the author's key points, and rank them in order of importance. When knowing the chronology of events in a particular text is important, students can list the 5 to 10 time-related events cited by the author. True or False? Give students a list of 10 statements (true and false statements) related to the content of the text. Ask them to decide whether each statement is true or false, according to the author. Ask students to cite the particular part of the text on which they base their answer. This can also be adapted to help students discriminate between fact and opinion. Encourage students to preface their statements with the phrase ‘according to the author.’ Key issues. After reading is a good time to encourage students to analyze and evaluate the author's argument on a theme or presentation of an issue in the social studies topic being studied. Students need time and guidance in order to evaluate an author's argument. This evaluation can spur additional reading and research as students will want to track down and read other sources/authors on the same topic. Making Meaning. Becoming a critical reader and thinker involves acquiring a number of skills and strategies. What, can teachers do to help students comprehend the literal meaning and also read as an expert historian? One way to begin is with a Scavenger Hunt. The questions below offer some examples to guide students through a scavenger hunt of their social studies texts: 1. How many chapters/sections are in your text? 2. How is the book organized? 3. What type of information is placed at the beginning of the book, and why is this important? 4. What types of strategies or skills might a reader need to successfully read the books/texts? 5. While textbook chapters contain special features, trade books may not have the same features. What special features can you find in the book collections? Why might these features be important to your understanding the contents of the book? 6. How will the questions above help you better read the texts? Why? Doty, Cameron, and Barton’s (2003) research states that “teaching reading in social studies is not so much about teaching students basic reading skills as it is about teaching students how to use reading as a tool for thinking and learning.”

Adapted from Reading Skills in the Social Studies, www.learningenrichment.org/reading.html

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DIVERSITY AND MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES: AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT Educators who are passionate about teaching history realize the importance of including multiple perspectives. The National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) and the New York State Department of Education stress the importance of the inclusion of multiple perspectives when teaching history. Research also shows us that comparing, contrasting, analyzing, and evaluating multiple perspectives helps all students become critical thinkers engaged in the learning process (Banks, 2000; Banks & Banks, 2004). With all the demands and time constraints associated with content teaching it is easy to neglect some aspects, but the inclusion of multiple perspectives during the planning of curriculum and instructional experiences in social studies is very important and must be a core component of good social studies teaching and learning. Examining history through multiple perspectives will increase students' ability to analyze and think critically. Looking at events and problems from different angles or perspectives engages students deeply as it provides them with a skill that is essential in a democratic society as diverse and complex as our own. Teachers can help students develop multiple perspectives cultural sensitivity by modeling critical thinking skills and by using culturally diverse materials. Exposing students to multiple sources of information will cultivate an understanding and appreciation of diverse perspectives. Students will be exposed to learning that will require them to develop insight and awareness of the many perspectives involved in history making and analysis, important critical thinking skills to deal with conflicting pieces of information, the ability to detect and analyze bias, and an awareness of stereotyping. They will also experience first hand how new information can shape previously held beliefs and conclusions. Using quality trade books that reflect a variety of views and perspectives on the same topics or events can help students develop historical empathy (Kohlmeier, 2005). All citizens of a democratic society who can display historical empathy are able to recognize and consider multiple perspectives, can distinguish significant from insignificant information and can critically evaluate the validity and merit of various sources of information. When teaching topics in social studies, instead of relying on one definition or accepted sequence of events, encourage students to explore a broad range of understandings by asking important questions such as: From whose perspective is this account given? Could there be other perspectives or interpretations? Why might this be so? Whose voices are heard? Whose voices are omitted? What evidence is provided? How can we judge the quality of the evidence? How are specific groups or individuals portrayed in this account? Why might this be so?

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Why are there different versions of events and what impact does this have on our ideas of “truth” and historical accuracy? Our goal in social studies is primarily to nurture democratic thinking and civic engagement; we can achieve this goal if we provide our students with the authentic voices of many peoples and the opportunity to explore alternate ways of perceiving the world. “Powerful social studies teaching helps students develop social understanding and civic efficacy.… Civic efficacy—the readiness and willingness to assume citizenship responsibilities—is rooted in social studies knowledge and skills, along with related values (such as concern for the common good) and attitudes (such as an orientation toward participation in civic affairs). The nation depends on a well-informed and civic-minded citizenry to sustain its democratic traditions, especially now as it adjusts to its own heterogeneous society and its shifting roles in an increasingly interdependent and changing world.” from NCSS.

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INTERDISCIPLINARY MODELS: LITERACY AND SOCIAL STUDIES AS NATURAL PARTNERS What is interdisciplinary curriculum? An interdisciplinary curriculum can best be defined as the intentional application of methodology, practices, language, skills, and processes from more than one academic discipline. It is often planned around an exploration of an overarching theme, issue, topic, problem, question or concept. Interdisciplinary practices allow students to create connections between traditionally discrete disciplines or bodies of content knowledge/skills, thus enhancing their ability to interpret and apply previous learning to new, related learning experiences. Planning for interdisciplinary units of study allows teachers to not only make important connections from one content or discipline to another, but also to acquire and apply understandings of concepts, strategies and skills that transcend specific curricula. When teachers actively look for ways to integrate social studies and reading/writing content (when and where it makes the most sense), the pressure of not enough time in the school day to get all the content covered is reduced. Teachers should also think about hierarchy of content and make smart decisions as to what curricular content is worthy of immersion and knowing versus that which requires only exposure and familiarity (issues of breadth vs. depth). With these thoughts in mind, teachers can begin to emphasize learning experiences that provide students with opportunities to make use of content and process skills useful in many disciplines. “…activities designed around a unifying concept build on each other, rather than remaining as fragmented disciplines…. Creating a connection of ideas as well as of related skills provides opportunities for reinforcement. Additionally, sharp divisions among disciplines often create duplication of skills that is seldom generalized by our students. However… when concepts are developed over a period of time… young people are more likely to grasp the connections among ideas and to develop and understand broad generalizations.” (Social Studies at the Center. Integrating, Kids Content and Literacy, Lindquist & Selwyn 2000) Clearly this type of curricular organization and planning has easier applications for elementary schools where one teacher has the responsibility for most content instruction. Understanding that structures for this kind of work are not the standard in most middle schools, content teachers can still work and plan together regularly to support student learning and success. For schools immersed in reading and writing workshop structures, there are many units of study that allow for seamless integration with social studies content.

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For more information and research around integrated or interdisciplinary planning and teaching, see the work of: Heidi Hayes Jacobs

Interdisciplinary Design & Implementation, and Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating Curriculum and Assessment

Robin Fogarty

How to Integrate Curricula: The Mindful School

David B. Ackerman

Intellectual & Practical Criteria for Successful Curriculum Integration

Davis N. Perkins

Knowledge by Design

Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

Understanding by Design

Carol Ann Tomlinson and Jay McTighe

Integrating Differentiated Instruction & Understanding by Design

Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman

Subjects Matter: Every Teacher’s Guide to Content Area Reading

Stephanie Harvey

Nonfiction Matters. Reading, Writing and Research in Grades 3-8

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PROJECT BASED LEARNING Standards-focused project based learning is a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks.

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Project based learning makes content more meaningful, allowing students to dig more deeply into a topic and expand their interests.

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Effective project design engages students in complex, relevant problem solving. investigate, think, reflect, draft, and test hypotheses.

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Effective projects often involve cooperative learning. Developing strategies for learning and working with others to produce quality work is invaluable to students’ lives.

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The process of learning how to select a worthwhile topic, research and present their findings is as important as the content of the project.

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Project based learning allows for a variety of learning styles. It supports the theory of multiple intelligences as students can present the results of their inquiry through a variety of products.

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Project based learning promotes personal responsibility, making decisions and choices about learning.

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Students learn to think critically and analytically. It supports students in moving through the levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.

o Students are excited, engaged and enthusiastic about their learning. o In-depth, meaningful research leads to higher retention of what is learned.

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2009-10 SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTING DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTIONS

Document-based questions are based on the themes and concepts of the Social Studies Learning Standards and Core Curriculum. They require students to analyze, synthesize and evaluate information from primary and secondary source documents and write a thematic essay. DBQs help students develop the skills of historical analysis. They ask students to take a position on an issue or problem and support their conclusions with examples from the documents. They are criterion-referenced and employ a scoring rubric. Document-based questions should be integrated with daily classroom instruction. Effective DBQs are built on major issues, events or concepts in history and ask students to: o compare/contrast. o illustrate similarities and differences. o illustrate bias or point of view. o describe change over time. o discuss issues categorically: socially, economically, and politically. o explain causes and effects of historic events. o examine contending perspectives on an issue. When creating a DBQ for your students, begin by stating the directions and the historical context. The context represents the theme of the DBQ as it applies to a specific time and place in history. Then state the task. The task statement directs students to: o write the essay. o interpret and weave most of the documents into the body of the essay. o incorporate outside information. o write a strong introduction and conclusion. Use verbs such as discuss, compare, contrast, evaluate, describe, etc. Select documents that relate to your unit or theme. Most DBQs include 6-7 documents. A mini-DBQ can consist of two to three documents. Examine each document carefully. If using visuals, ensure that their quality is excellent. They must be clear, clean, and readable. If using text, passage length is important. Readings should not be wordy or lengthy. If the passage is longer than one-third of a page, it probably needs to be shortened. Where vocabulary is difficult, dated, or colloquial, provide “adaptations” and parenthetical context clues. Scaffolding questions are key questions included after each document in the DBQ. o The purpose of scaffolding questions is to lead students to think about the answer they will write. o They provide information that will help students answer the main essay question. Good scaffolding questions: o are clear and specific. o contain information in the stimulus providing a definite answer to the question. There is at least one scaffolding question for each document. However, if a document provides opposing perspectives or contains multiple points, two questions are appropriate. Provide 5 or 6 lines on which students will write their response. At the end of the documents, restate the Historical Context and Question. Provide lined paper for students to complete the essay.

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2009-10 DBQ DOCUMENTS

Informational Graphics are visuals, such as maps, charts, tables, graphs and timelines that give you facts at a glance. Each type of graphic has its own purpose. Being able to read informational graphics can help you to see a lot of information in a visual form. Maps and charts from the past allow us to see what the world was like in a different time. Using maps can provide clues to place an event within its proper historical context. The different parts of a map, such as the map key, compass rose and scale help you to analyze colors, symbols, distances and direction on the map. Decide what kind of map you are studying: raised relief map topographic map political map contour-line map natural resource map

military map bird’s-eye view map satellite photograph pictograph weather map

Examine the physical qualities of the map. o Is the map handwritten or printed? o What dates, if any, are on the map? o Are there any notations on the map? What are they? o Is the name of the mapmaker on the map? Who is it? All of these clues will help you keep the map within its historical context. o Read the title to determine the subject, purpose, and date. o Read the map key to identify what the symbols and colors stand for. o Look at the map scale to see how distances on the map relate to real distances. o Read all the text and labels. o Why was the map drawn or created? o Does the information on this map support or contradict information that you have read about this event? Explain. o Write a question to the mapmaker that is left unanswered by this map. Tables show numerical data and statistics in labeled rows and columns. variables because their values can vary. To interpret or complete a table: o o o o

The data are called

Read the title to learn the table’s general subject. Then read the column and row labels to determine what the variables in the table represent. Compare data by looking along a row or column. If asked, fill in any missing variables by looking for patterns in the data.

Graphs, like tables, show relationships involving variables. Graphs come in a wide range of formats, including pie graphs, bar graphs and line graphs. To interpret or complete a graph: o o o o

Read the title to find out what the graph shows. Next, read the labels of the graph’s axes or sectors to determine what the variables represent. Then notice what changes or relationships the graph shows. Some graphs and tables include notes telling the sources of the data used. Knowing the source of the data can help you to evaluate the graph.

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Timelines show the order of events as well as eras and trends. A timeline is divided into segments, each representing a certain span of time. Events are entered in chronological order along the line. Take into account not only the dates and the order of events but also the types of events listed. You may find that events of one type, such as wars and political elections, appear above the line, while events of another type, such as scientific discoveries and cultural events appear below it. Written Documents Most documents you will work with are textual documents: newspapers speeches magazines memorandums letters maps diaries telegrams

reports advertisements congressional records census reports

Once you have identified the type of document with which you are working, you will need to place it within its proper historical context. Look for the format of the document (typed or handwritten), the letterhead, language used on the document, seals, notations or date stamps. To interpret a written document: o What kind of document is this? o What is the date of the document? o Who is the author (or creator) of the document? o For what audience was the document written? o What was the purpose or goal of the document? Why was it written? o List two things from the document that tell about life at the time it was written. o Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the document. o Tell how the document reflects what is going on during this period. Firsthand Account A firsthand account is when someone who lives in a particular time writes about his/her own experience of an event. Some examples of firsthand accounts are diaries, telegrams, and letters. Firsthand accounts help us learn about people and events from the past and help us understand how events were experienced by the people involved. Many people can see the same event, but their retelling of the event may be different. Learning about the same event from different sources helps us to understand history more fully. o Identify the title and the author. What do you think the title means? o Use the title and details from the account to identify the main idea. o Read the account a few times. Determine the setting (time and place) of the account. o Determine the author’s position, job, or role in the event. What is his opinion of the event? Cartoons What do you think is the cartoonist’s opinion? You can use political cartoons and cartoon strips to study history. They are drawn in a funny or humorous way. Political cartoons are usually about government or politics. They often comment on a person or event in the news. Political cartoons give an opinion, or belief, about a current issue. They sometimes use caricatures to exaggerate a person or thing in order to express a point of view. Like editorials, political cartoons try to persuade people to see things in a certain way. Being able to analyze a political cartoon will help you to better understand different points of view about issues during a particular time period. o o o

Pay attention to every detail of the drawing. Find symbols in the cartoon. What does each symbol stand for? Who is the main character? What is he doing? What is the main idea of the cartoon?

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Read the words in the cartoon. Which words or phrases in the cartoon appear to be most significant, and why? o Read the caption, or brief description of the picture. It helps place the cartoon in a historical context. o List some adjectives that describe the emotions or values portrayed or depicted in the cartoon. o

Posters and Advertisements Posters and advertisements are an interesting way to learn about the past. Many advertisements are printed as posters. They are written or created to convince people to do something. By looking at posters, we can understand what was important during different times in history. An advertisement is a way to try to sell something. Historical advertisements provide information about events or products. By reading these advertisements, you can learn many things about what people were doing or buying many years ago. Be sure to include representations and or depictions of diverse groups of people in culturally appropriate ways. Generally, effective posters use symbols that are unusual, simple, and direct. When studying a poster, examine the impact it makes. o Look at the artwork. What does it show? o Observe and list the main colors used in the poster. o Determine what symbols, if any, are used in the poster. o Are the symbols clear (easy to interpret), memorable, and/or dramatic? o Explore the message in the poster. Is it primarily visual, verbal, or both? o Determine the creator of the poster. Is the source of the poster a government agency, a nonprofit organization, a special interest group, or a for-profit company? o Define the intended audience for the poster and what response the creator of the poster was hoping to achieve. o Read the caption. It provides historical context. o What purpose does the poster serve? Pay attention to every detail in the advertisement. Look for answers to: Who? What? When? Where? and Why? o Determine the main idea of the advertisement by reading all slogans, or phrases, and by studying the artwork. o What is the poster/advertisement about? o When is it happening? o Where is it happening? o Who is the intended audience? Identify the people who the advertisement is intended to reach. o Why is it being advertised? o Describe how the poster reflects what was happening in history at that time.

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ENCOURAGING ACCOUNTABLE TALK IN CLASSROOM DISCUSSIONS What is accountable talk? Accountable talk is classroom conversation that has to do with what students are learning. We know that students love to talk, but we want to encourage students to talk about the ideas, concepts, and content that they encounter in school every day. Accountable talk can be whole class or small group in structure. A teacher may often get students started, but real accountable talk occurs with student ownership and minimal teacher input. The teacher may function as a facilitator initially, but as accountable talk becomes an integral part of the school day, students assume more responsibility for their own learning. What does it look like? Small groups of students are engaged in focused discussions around specific topics, questions, ideas or themes. Students are actively engaged and practicing good listening and speaking skills. Accountable talk is usually qualified by the use of appropriate rubrics. What are rubrics? Rubrics in accountable talk are scoring tools that list criteria for successful communication. Rubrics assist students with self-assessment and increase their responsibility for the task. Sample Student Accountable Talk Rubrics Have I actively participated in the discussion? Have I listened attentively to all group members? Did I elaborate and build on the ideas or comments of others? Did I stay focused on the assigned topic? Did I make connections to other learning? Why is student discussion valuable? Students' enthusiasm, involvement, and willingness to participate affect the quality of class discussion as an opportunity for learning. While it is a challenge is to engage all students it is important to provide daily opportunities for students to interact and talk to each other about the topic being learned as it helps them develop insights into the content. An atmosphere of rich discussion and student to student conversation will help you create a classroom in which students feel comfortable, secure, willing to take risks, and ready to test and share important content ideas and concepts. Studies prove that students who have frequent opportunities for discussion achieve greater learning than those who do not. In fact, research maintains that students retain 10% of what they read, 20 % of what they hear, 30% of what they see, and 70% of what they discuss with others. Shared speaking helps learners gain information and it encourages more knowledgeable learners to be more sophisticated and articulate in sharing their knowledge. They then are careful about the words they use and the way they are presenting their ideas to their peers because they really want to be understood. When students listen to others and match it with the ideas that they are formulating, it can shed new light on their thinking. This type of speaking and active discussion may show the students a new way to connect to their learning. Sometimes students can overlook important ideas, but with discussion (reciprocal) students have the opportunity to compare, analyze, synthesize, debate, investigate, clarify, question and engage in many types of high level and critical thinking.

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2009-10 ASSESSING STUDENT UNDERSTANDING

Assessment of student understanding is an ongoing process that begins with teachers establishing the goals and outcomes of a unit of study, and aligning assessment tools with those goals and outcomes. What teachers assess sends a strong message to their students about what content and skills are important for them to understand. Assessments evaluate student mastery of knowledge, cognitive processes, and skills, and provide a focus for daily instruction. Assessment is an integral part of the learning cycle, rather than the end of the process. It is a natural part of the curricular process, creates the framework for instruction, and establishes clear expectations for student learning. The New York State Education Department ELA assessments are administered in January in 3rd, 4th and 5th grades. These exams measure the progress students are making in achieving the learning standards. New York City also conducts periodic assessments throughout the year in grades three and up, which can be analyzed by teachers for individual student and class needs. Teachers should consult the school’s inquiry team recommendations as well as use information from other school assessments to strategically plan instruction in areas where students need assistance to reach mastery. The International Reading Association has adopted 11 standards for assessment: 1. The interests of the student are paramount. 2. The primary purpose of assessment is to improve teaching and learning. 3. Assessment must reflect and allow for critical inquiry into curriculum and instruction 4. Assessments must recognize and reflect the intellectually and socially complex nature of reading and writing…. 5. Assessment must be fair and equitable. 6. The consequences of an assessment procedure are the first and most important consideration in establishing the validity of the assessment. 7. The teacher is the most important agent of assessment. 8. The assessment process should involve multiple perspectives and sources of data. 9. Assessment must be based in the school community. 10. All members of the educational community…must have a voice in the development, interpretation, and reporting of assessment. 11. Parents must be involved as active, essential participants in the assessment process. Effective assessment plans incorporate every goal or outcome of the unit. Content knowledge and skills need to be broken down – unpacked-- and laid out in a series of specific statements of what students need to understand and be able to do. The teaching of content and skills is reflected in the daily lesson plans. Assessment should not be viewed as separate from instruction. Student evaluation is most authentic when it is based upon the ideas, processes, products, and behaviors exhibited during regular instruction. Students should have a clear understanding of what is ahead, what is expected, and how evaluation will occur. Expected outcomes of instruction should be specified and criteria for evaluating degrees of success clearly outlined. When developing an assessment plan, a balance and range of tools is essential. Teachers should include assessments that are process- as well as product-oriented. Multiple performance indicators provide students with different strengths equal opportunity to demonstrate their understanding. Multiple indicators also allow teachers to assess whether their instructional program is meeting the needs of the students, and to make adjustments as necessary.

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An effective assessment plan includes both formative assessments – assessments that allow teachers to give feedback as the project progresses – and summative assessments – assessments that provide students with a culminating evaluation of their understanding. Teachers should also plan assessments that provide opportunities for students to explore content in depth, to demonstrate higher order thinking skills, and relate their understanding to their experiences. Additionally, evidence of student thinking allows teachers to assess both skills and affective outcomes on an on-going basis. Examples of student products and the variety of assessments possible follow.

Sample of student projects • exit projects • student-made maps and models • student-made artifacts • mock debates • class museums and exhibitions • student peer evaluation • student-made books • I-movies; photo-essays • graphic timelines • creating songs and plays • writing historical fiction and/or diary entries • creating maps and dioramas • student-created walking tours • tables, charts and/or diagrams that represent data • student-made PowerPoints, webquests • monologues

Sample assessment tools • higher level analytical thinking activities • portfolios of student work • student criteria setting and selfevaluation • teacher observations • conferences with individuals or groups • group discussions • anecdotal records • teacher-made tests • student presentations • role play and simulations • completed “trips sheets” • rubrics for student exhibitions • rubrics and checklists • reflective journal entries • student writing (narrative procedures, etc.) • video and/or audio tapes of student work • student work

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MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Students learn and respond to information in many different ways. Teachers should consider the strengths and learning styles of their students and try to provide all students with a variety of opportunities to demonstrate their learning. Intelligence

Learning preferences

Verbal-Linguistic “word smart”

Students who demonstrate a mastery of language and strength in the language arts – speaking, writing, reading, listening.

Logical- Mathematical “number-smart”

Students who display an aptitude for numbers, detecting patterns, thinking logically, reasoning, and problem-solving.

Body-Kinesthetic “body-smart”

Students who use the body to express their ideas and feelings, and learn best through physical activity – games, movement, hands-on tasks, dancing, building.

Visual-Spatial “picture-smart”

Students who learn best visually by organizing things spatially, creating and manipulating mental images to solve problems.

Naturalistic “nature smart”

Students who love the outdoors, animals, plants, field trips, and natures in general and have the ability to identify and classify patterns in nature.

Musical-Rhythmic “music-smart”

Students who are sensitive to rhythm, pitch, melody, and tone of music and learn through songs, patterns, rhythms, instruments and musical expression.

Interpersonal “people-smart”

Students who are sensitive to other people, noticeably people oriented and outgoing, learn cooperatively in groups or with a partner.

Intrapersonal “self-smart”

Students who are especially in touch with their own desires, feelings, moods, motivations, values, and ideas and learn best by reflection or by themselves.

The contents of this section are based on the Multiple Intelligences work of Howard Gardner.

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2009-10 BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

The language of Bloom’s Taxonomy was revised by his student Lorin Anderson in 2001. Anderson updated the taxonomy by using verbs to describe cognitive processes and created a framework for levels of knowledge as well. The cognitive processes are presented in a continuum of cognitive complexity (from simplest to most complex). The knowledge dimensions (factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive) are structured according to a continuum that moves from the concrete to the abstract. The taxonomy can help teachers understand how learning objectives that are identified for students relate to the associated cognitive processes and levels of knowledge. Using the taxonomy will also highlight the levels at which teachers spend the greatest amount of teaching time and where they might consider increasing or decreasing emphasis. THE KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION

A. Factual Knowledge B. Conceptual Knowledge C. Procedural Knowledge D. Metacognitive Knowledge

THE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION

1. REMEMBER Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory • Recognize (identify) • Recall (retrieve)

2. UNDERSTAND Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic information • Interpret (clarify, paraphrase, represent, translate) • Exemplify (illustrate, give examples) • Classify (categorize, subsume) • Summarize (abstract, generalize) • Infer (conclude, extrapolate, interpolate, predict) • Compare (contrast, map, match) • Explain (construct models)

3. APPLY Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation • Execute (carry out) • Implement (use)

4. ANALYZE Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose • Differentiate (discriminate, distinguish, focus, select) • Organize (find coherence, integrate, outline, parse, structure) • Attribute (deconstruct)

5. EVALUATE Make judgments based on criteria and standards • Check (coordinate, detect, monitor, test) • Critique (judge) •

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6. CREATE Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure • Generate (hypothesize) • Plan (design) • Produce (construct)

Field Test Edition

2009-10 MAXIMIZING FIELD TRIP POTENTIAL

Field trips are a great way to bring excitement and adventure to learning. As a direct extension of classroom instruction, they are an important component of standards based instruction. Field trip experiences provide structured flexibility for students to deeply explore areas of interest in their own way, discovering information that can be shared with others. A focused, well-planned trip can introduce new skills and concepts to students, and reinforce ongoing lessons. Museums and community resources offer exposure to hands-on experiences, real artifacts, and original sources. Students can apply what they are learning in the classroom, making material less abstract. The key to planning a successful field trip is to make connections between the trip and your curriculum, learning goals and other projects. Field trips are fun, but they should reinforce educational goals. Discuss the purpose of the field trip and how it relates to the unit of study. Trips need to be integrated into the big picture so that their lessons aren't lost. Begin by identifying the rationale, objectives and plan of evaluation for the trip. o o

o o o o o o

Be sure to become familiar with the location before the trip. Explore the exhibition(s) you plan to visit to get ideas for pre-field trip activities. Orient your students to the setting and clarify learning objectives. Reading books related to the topic or place, as well as exploring the website of the location are some of the ways you can introduce the trip to your class. Plan pre-visit activities aligned with curriculum goals Discuss with students how to ask good questions and brainstorm a list of open-ended observation questions to gather information during the visit. Consider using the trip as the basis for an inquiry-based project. The projects can be undertaken as a full group or in teams or pairs. Plan activities that support the curriculum and also take advantage of the uniqueness of the setting. Allow students time to explore and discover during the visit Plan post-visit classroom activities that reinforce the experience.

Well-designed field trips result in higher student academic performance, provide experiences that support a variety of learning styles and intelligences, and allow teachers to learn alongside their students as they closely observe their learning strengths. Avoid the practice of using the field trip as a reward students must earn. Field trips are an essential part of an important planned learning experience.

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USING A TRIP BOARD Many teachers utilize trip boards to help their students focus while on a class trip. Trip boards are teacher-created activity sheets that are stapled to a stiff piece of cardboard or clipped to a clipboard, and that children take along and fill out on the trip. The trip board helps direct the children to pay attention to certain features of the trip, whether cases in a museum exhibit, artifacts, or outdoor sights. When constructing the trip board, consider some open-ended questions for the students to answer as well as some that are more directed, such as, “ In the case marked A1, look for objects that relate to our trip theme. List what you find and include at least two questions that you have.” Other ideas for trip boards include: ƒ

How are these two objects different from one another?

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How do these objects relate to each other?

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Write a paragraph about this artifact under your sketch.

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Pretend you are a character in this exhibit. Describe as much as you can about your life.

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What does this artifact tell about the owner’s life?

Also try to include one or more opportunities for sketching by the students. Some teachers include a top sheet that has a checklist to work on while traveling by bus or subway, such as how many taxis you see, or how many passengers are reading on the train.

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NYCDOE SOCIAL STUDIES SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Grade K First

Units of Study School and School Community

Self and Others Families, Now and Long Ago New York City Over Time

Families are Important

Second

Our Community’s Geography

Third

Introduction to World Geography and World Communities

Fourth

Fifth

Sixth

Seventh

Eighth

Native Americans: First Inhabitants of NYS Geography and Early Peoples of the Western Hemisphere

Three Worlds Meet

The Neighborhood

Families in The Community Communities Urban, Suburban and Rights, Rules and Rural Communities Responsibilities Case Study of a Community in Africa, Asia, South America, The Caribbean, Middle East, Europe, Southeast Asia, or Australia

Teacher should select 3-6 world communities to study that reflect diverse regions of the world

Colonial and Revolutionary Periods

Growth and Expansion

The New Nation

Local and State Government

The United States

Latin America

Canada

Western Hemisphere Today

Middle East

Africa

Asia

Europe

Colonial America and the American Revolution

A New Nation

America Grows

Civil War and Reconstruction

Geography and Early Peoples of the Eastern Hemisphere Early Encounters: Native Americans and Explorers An Industrial Society

Families

The Progressive Movement

The United States as an Expansionist Nation

The United States between Wars

The United States Assumes Worldwide Responsibilities

From World War II to the Present: The Changing Nature of the American People

Ninth

Ancient WorldCivilizations & Religions

Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter

Global Interactions (1200-1650)

The First Global Age (1450-1770)

Tenth

An Age of Revolution (1750-1914)

Crisis and Achievement Including World Wars (1900-1945)

The 20th Century Since 1945

Global Connections and Interactions

Eleventh

Twelfth

Forming a Union

Civil War and Reconstruction

Industrialization, Urbanization and the Progressive Movement

Economics and Economic Decision Making

Prosperity and Depression: At Home and Abroad (1917-1940)

Triumphs and Challenges in American Democracy (1950-present)

Participation in Government

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2009-10 Unit Overview & Teacher Background

6th Grade Unit of Study Greece: The Foundation of the Modern World Background Information Ancient Greece has played an enormous part in the history and development of western civilization. A working knowledge of Greek history will provide students with essential information about the emergence of ideas that remain relevant in the contemporary world. Ancient Greece was a powerful civilization formed of many city-states, that thrived around the third millennium to the first century BCE. It was known for advances in philosophy, architecture, drama, government, and science. The term “ancient Greece” refers to both where Greeks lived and how they lived long ago. Geographically, it indicates the heartland of Greek communities on the north coast and nearby islands of the Mediterranean Sea. Culturally, it refers to the ways ancient Greeks spoke, worshiped, understood the nature of the physical world, organized their governments, made their livings, entertained themselves, and related to others who were not Greek. The most famous period of ancient Greek civilization is called the Classical Age, which lasted from about 480 to 323 BCE. During this period, ancient Greeks reached their highest level of prosperity and produced amazing cultural accomplishments. Unlike most other peoples of the time, Greeks of the Classical Age were not usually ruled by kings. Greek communities treasured the freedom to govern themselves, although they argued about the best way to do that and often warred against each other. What Greek communities shared was their traditions of language, religion, customs, and international festivals, such as the ancient Olympic Games. The city-states of ancient Greece fell to Roman conquerors in 146 BCE. When Rome split in the 4th century CE, Greece became part of its eastern half, the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. Long after Ancient Greece lost its political and military power, its cultural accomplishments deeply influenced thinkers, writers, and artists, especially those in ancient Rome, medieval Arabia, and Renaissance Europe. People worldwide still enjoy ancient Greek plays, study the ideas of ancient Greek philosophers, and incorporate elements of ancient Greek architecture into the designs of new buildings. Modern democratic nations owe their fundamental 34

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political principles to ancient Greece, where democracy originated. Because of the enduring influence of its ideas, ancient Greece is known as the cradle of western civilization. In fact, Greeks invented the idea of the West as a distinct region; it was where they lived, west of the powerful civilizations of Egypt, Babylonia, and Phoenicia. Source: http://Encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia Geography Greece lies on the crossroads of three continents, Europe, Asia and Africa. Mainland Greece forms a mountainous peninsula with deep valleys, and is almost completely surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea east of Italy. Greece has more than 1400 islands and jagged coastlines. To the south is the long island of Crete. Each island has its own history, folklore and customs which have contributed to the culture of the country as a whole. These Greek islands are tips of ancient underwater mountain ranges that shift and move because of forces inside the earth. The climate in Greece has some variation depending whether you are on the mainland or the islands. Southern Greece (comprised of the island of Crete and the Aegean Islands) has mild winters and long, dry summers. Northern Greece (made up of Macedonia, Thessaly, and Thrace) has a moderate climate, with cool summer temperatures and mild winters. Snow is common in the mountains. The average January temperature in Athens is 10ºC (50ºF); the July average is 28ºC (82ºF) History The term “Ancient Greece” usually refers to the time period from the Dark Ages, around 1100 BCE, to the Roman conquest, about 146 BCE. This period of Greek history is considered foundational to modern Western civilization. All of ancient Greek history is divided into three main periods: the Stone Age, from prehistory until 4000 BCE, the Bronze Age, from 3000 to 1100 BCE, and the Iron Age, from 1100 BCE until 30 BCE. The Iron Age is the period of history with the most lasting achievements and accomplishments of the Ancient Greeks. Stone Age The Greek Stone Age is further divided into the Paleolithic (to 9000 BCE), Mesolithic (9000 to 7000 BCE), and Neolithic ages (seventh to fourth millennia BCE). There is evidence that Greece was an agricultural society 35

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beginning in the early Neolithic age. Villages were small during this time, and the social structure was relatively egalitarian, with farmers depending on neighbors and social ties in the event of a crop failure. By the end of 5000 BCE, settlements were growing and economic production and consumption took place primarily in the household. Bronze Age The period from 3000 BCE to 1100 BCE is referred to as the Bronze Age. It is so named because of the development of and improvements in metal working during this time. The Bronze Age of Greece was characterized by increased exploitation of natural resources, involvement in overseas exchange, and alternating periods of geographic expansion and contraction. Various tribes entered the peninsula and settled on the islands in the Aegean Sea and on the coast of Asia Minor, warring and eventually integrating with the native populations of Minoans and Mycenaeans. This time was full of strife; many wars helped to spur the formation of city-states to provide protection. City-states were political units that included a city and the land surrounding it. Unlike the U.S. today, these city-states never became a nation; an ancient Greek was loyal only to his or her city. At certain points over the years, some city-states became more powerful or expanded their control through colonies. Iron Age The period dating from 1100 BCE to 30 BCE is called the Iron Age of Greece. It includes the Greek Dark Ages, the Classic Period, the Hellenistic Period, and includes the time when Greece was ruled by the Roman and Byzantine Empires. The first Olympic Games were held in 776 BCE, which is often considered the starting point of the most significant period of Ancient Greece. Few written records exist for the period known as the Dark Ages. This era is thought to represent a lull in Greece’s growth. Over the span of the Iron Age, the governments evolved from monarchy to oligarchy, and then to tyranny, where a eupatrid, or wellborn Greek would seize power. In the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, democracy was established in nearly all of the Greek city-states. Athens and Sparta were the two most influential and powerful city-states. Athens was the first city-state to evolve into a democracy, emerging as an aristocratic government, meaning it was ruled by officials (archons), whom were elected by nobles. The aristocracy was overthrown by Pisistratus, supported by the people, in reaction to harsh laws, in 560 BCE. Though Sparta was the most powerful military state in Greece, Athens had a strong naval force. With its naval fleet, Athens succeeded in defeating the invading 36

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Persians in 480 BCE, and in uniting Greek cities of the coast of Asia Minor and the Aegean islands. Thus, Athens became wealthy and powerful, able to invest in art, architecture, philosophy, and other intellectual endeavors. The culmination of this fruitful age was the age of Pericles, also called the Golden Age, from 460 BCE to about 430 BCE. It was around this time that philosophy reached its pinnacle, with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle contributing to its development. An important factor that contributed to Athens’ success was the institution of slavery. Between two-fifths and four-fifths of the population were slaves. Their labor produced much of the wealth that allowed the free Greeks to engage in artistic, cultural, and political pursuits. A supply of slaves was provided by the military: prisoners who were captured in conquered cities, usually non-Greek states, became slaves. Some slaves were skilled and educated, and worked as craftspeople, while others with fewer skills provided physical labor. At times slaves were able to obtain their freedom, then becoming metics, or resident aliens. The Peloponnesian War broke out due to Sparta’s jealousy of Athens’ power. This war lasted from 431 BCE to 404 BCE, with Sparta emerging as the victor. After power changed hands several times, Alexander the Great came to power around 338 BCE and proceeded to unite many city-states and to build an empire. This Hellenistic Age was a time of wealth and splendor, where art, science, and the humanities developed; cities’ infrastructures and peoples’ lifestyles improved greatly. This age ended around 146 BCE when the Greeks came under the power of Rome. From this time forward Greece underwent many invasions and defeats. Ancient Greece is considered to be the most influential civilization in the Western world. The philosophical debates, dramatic plays, literature, and laws of Greece are in use and continue to be relevant to Western society. Bibliography and Resources Antony J. S. Spawforth "Greece (prehistory and history)" The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Ed. Simon Hornblower and Anthony Spawforth. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Columbia University. 9 July 2009

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t 111.e2894 Cartledge, Paul. “The Democratic Experiment.” 2001. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/greeks/greekdemocracy_01.shtml 37

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“Ancient Greece.” Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Accessed Jul 8 2009. http://student.britannica.com/comptons/article-9274648/ANCIENT-GREECE Timeline of Ancient Greek writers and thinkers: http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/greecehellas1/a/bltimegkwriters.htm

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Ancient Greece’s Influences on and Similarities to the U.S.A. Democracy

Education

Melting pot

Literature and Philosophy

Art and Architecture Slavery

Greece Athenian democracy Participation: only adult males of full Athenian descent, excluded women and slaves Officials: selected by lot and not by voters Not compulsory, but widespread, including most boys and some girls. Included a wide range of knowledge and skills, and higher education Included varying cultures and city-states, including present-day Turkey Epic poetry: Hesiod and Homer; comedies: Aristophanes; tragedies: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides; poetry: Sappho, philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates; history: Thucydides, Herodotus Pottery, murals, temples, theaters Slaves had few rights, could not participate in politics, could sometimes buy freedom

U.S.A. Democracy unites all states Participation: Until 1870, only white males allowed to vote. Until 1920, only males allowed to vote. Officials: elected by voters Plato and Aristotle’s higher education institutions provide a model for our own.

Includes diverse states, cultures, languages, immigrants Forms and ideas still influence our literature and still widely read, many allusions in modern writings (Ex. Freud’s theory of the Oedipus Complex, epics by Milton, Eliot, Neruda, Keats, and Longfellow). Many Greek ideas re-cultivated during the Renaissance. Grecian columns, influence in art 18th century laws codifying slavery influenced by Greek and Roman codes, slaves had few rights and could not participate in politics 39

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Goals and Outcomes In sixth grade, students study and explore another country’s culture and history. The New York City Department of Education’s suggested units of study for social studies in sixth grade are ancient cultures of Europe such as the Celts, Franks, Anglo Saxons, Romans or the Greeks. We selected The Ancient Greeks because their legacy to us is enormous, ranging from philosophy to architecture, from word roots to drama, from education to history, and from science to democracy. The Ancient Greeks were great thinkers and fortunately wrote down their many theories, poems, plays, investigations, experiments and histories. They have left us many and varied texts as well as a rich architectural and archaeological heritage. The existence today of the United States is a result of our forefathers following the Ancient Greeks’ debates about the best form of government, their ideas about citizenship and their philosophical discussions. Their myths and legends can stimulate imagination and creativity in their readers, as well as give us an opportunity to examine the link between traditional stories and historical events.

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2009-10 BRAINSTORM WEB TEMPLATE History/Social Studies

Math • • • • • • • •

Reading graphs and charts Creating maps, graphs, and charts Patterns, textiles Architecture Timeline Draw to scale Number system Games, Olympics

Language Arts • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Physical Education/Health

• •

• • •

Geography Geographical land features Natural Resources Government Structure, leaders Politics Philosophers Major events: Wars/Battles Roles of men, women, and children Festivals, Celebrations Religion, Pagans, Belief Systems Create timelines Create topographical/relief map

Write Myths and Tragedies Elements of myths Read Greek mythology Read Tragedies Mythological figures Write a play/drama Biographies Write a textbook on History of Greece Teach research skills Listening skills Symbolism Metaphors/Similes Debates

• •

Science/Technology

Olympic Sports Modern sports related to Olympic Games Games Nutrition

• • • • • • • •

Weather/Climate Constellations Elements of Fire, Air, Water, and Earth Agriculture, plants Transportation Medical Contributions Inventions Weapons/Tools Homer Current archeological discoveries Watch and analyze movies

Dance/Music/Drama & Visual

Ancient Greece

• • • • • • • • • •

Perform a tragic play/drama Sculptures String Instruments Celebrations and Festivals Christianity/Greek Orthodox Pottery Weaving (looms) Music ( Bouzouki resembles mandolin) Traditional Dances (Sirtaki) Study artwork and architecture

Field trips/Culminating Activities • • • •

Metropolitan Museum of Art The Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History Walking Tours of lower Manhattan/financial/government districts Field Trip to Washington DC federal government buildings

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Essential Question

Why do we study ancient cultures and civilizations? Focus Questions • • • • • • •

Where in Europe is Greece located? What is the geography? How did geography affect its development? Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live? What events led to the rise and fall of the Greek empire? What do Greek myths reveal? What role did geography and politics play in the formation of the Ancient Olympic games? How did early Olympics shape modern sports? What features does Ancient Greek government share with modern day democracy? How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influenced the modern world?

Student Outcomes Think about what you want the student to know and be able to do by the end of this unit.

Content • • • • • • • • • •

Read and understand myths and tragedies Key geography and climates of Greece Timeline of Greece’s history Dress, food, customs and religions Natural resources and economy

Process • • • •

Art, music, dance, oral traditions Current events Government and politics Recognize contributions to architecture Recognize contributions to sports

• • •

Create a tragic play describing important events and figures Create timeline and maps Construct mock trial of Socrates (debates) Produce original artwork showing evidence of observation and understanding of Greek culture Organizing Olympic Games Design an Olympic sport or an Olympic Game Design a board game

Skills • • • • • • • • •

Components of a drama/play Establishing voice, point of view Identifying value conflicts Supporting a position Use timeline to determine the order of a historical sequence of events Using and understanding maps Brainstorming, cooperative learning, creating list, problem solving Genre of myths and tragedies and their major features Elements of a board game

Possible student projects/products: Students will produce original Myths, write/perform a Greek tragedy, design and create a contemporary model building using elements of Greek architecture, conduct a debate.

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Interdisciplinary Unit of Study - Planning Matrix Template Unit of Study: Grade 6 Unit 5 Ancient Greece Essential Question: What impact does Ancient Greece have on modern society? Focus Questions 1. Where in Europe is Greece located? What is the geography? How did geography affect its development? 2. Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live? 3. What events led to the rise and fall of the Greek empire? 4. What features does Ancient Greek government share with modern day democracy? 5. What do Greek myths reveal? 6. How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influence the modern world? 7. What role did geography and politics play in the formation of the Ancient Olympic games? How did early Olympics shape modern sports?

Content: The student will: • • • • • • •



E

Read and understand myths and tragedies Know key geography and climates of Greece Know the timeline of Greek history Learn about the dress, food, customs and religions of Greece Learn about the natural resources and economy Gain an understanding of Greek art, music, dance, oral traditions Comprehend health, environmental, and governmental current events in Greece Comprehend Greece’s contribution to Democracy

Disciplines

Literacy

I. Initial activities that introduce, build and engage students with content knowledge, concept, skill • • • • • •

Read and examine features of Greek myths, plays, dramas, tragedies, fables, and poetry Compile a list of Greek gods and mythological creatures Read and comprehend different resources on a variety of topics List new vocabulary words Understand the root of a word Examine features of a debate

II. Extension activities that challenge students to deepen their understanding through inquiry and application, analysis, synthesis, etc. of knowledge, concept, skill • • • • • •

Math/ Science

• • • • • • • • • • •

Social Studies

• • • • •

Examine various maps Examine charts and graphs of natural resources and infer their impact on Greek economy Introduce basic math/scientific theories contributed by the Greeks Study a time-line Explore changes in Greek economy-impact of the Euro dollar Explore constellations for stargazers Learn about Greek architecture Study Greek scientists and their contributions Explore various climates and how they affect settlement Examine past and present agriculture Explore different plants/animals of the regions

• • •

Introduce students to Ancient Greece Explore cultural explosionliterature, art, architecture Understand/explain origins of demos, polis, democracy, etc. Read and discuss the Persian Wars and their impact on Greek prominence, Athens and Sparta Study great Greek conquerors



• • •

Create a story map of a Greek myth, plays, dramas, tragedies, fables, and poetry Write to a pen-pal requesting information about Greece (school, fun, etc.) Write a tragedy or myth following the structure of the ancient Greeks Compare and Contrast Greek myths, plays, dramas, tragedies, fables, and poetry Acquire strategies for reading with a purpose Keep a journal about your life as a Greek sixth grader Understand Pythagorean theory Apply mathematical theories Define and explain Greek columns and their use in modern architecture Create map or graphs showing natural resources Create a topographical map of Greece Draw own constellation map

Resources Needed III. Culminating activities for independent or small group Books o Aliki (Illustrator). Gods and investigations that allow students to Goddesses of Olympus. create, share or extend knowledge Harper Collins Publishers, while capitalizing on student interests 1997. • • • •

Write and perform your own myth, tragedy, fable, or poem Write an essay on the contribution of Greek literature to world cultures Write a persuasive essay convincing people to visit Greece Create a word search using the Greek alphabet

o o

o

o o o

• • • •



Create Greek Island board game on mythology or wars Create a 3-dimensional Greek city/building Create a constellation using own mythological figure Search the entertainment, sports, or comics section of the newspaper for an example of a person known for their vanity and pretend this person is part of a Greek myth Label the stars in the following constellations: Cassiopeia, Gemini, Taurus, Little Dipper/Big Dipper

o

o

o

o

o

• • • •

Create a timeline from Paleolithic Age to the Byzantine period Analyze Greek concepts of government Compare and Contrast the leaderships of Cleon and Demosthenes Discuss Alexander the Great’s vision for Greece and his war tactics and strategies Create a timeline of key events related to the development of Greece

• • • • •

Conduct a debate on opposing historical issues Compare and contrast impact of Greek political philosophy on the development of contemporary European governments Re-create a war battle Create and stage a mock trial Design and stage the Olympic Games

o

o

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Ancient Greece. Rainbow Horizon Publishing. Barnes, Jonathan. Early Greek Philosophy. Penguin Classics, 2002. Coolidge, Olivia. Greek Myths. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1977.. Fry, Erin. 25 Mini-plays, World History. Girard, Sherry. 15 Greek Myth Minibooks. Scholastic. Hanson, Victor Davis. Wars of the Ancient Greeks. Smithsonian Books, 2004. Hart, Avery and Montell, Paul, and Kline, Michael P. Ancient Greece!: 40 Hands on Activities to Experience This Wondrous Age. Ideal Publishers, 1999. Keenan, Sheila. Gods, Goddesses, and Monsters: A Book of World Mythology. Scholastic, 2003. MacDonald, Fiona. I Wonder Why Greeks Built Temples and Other Questions About Ancient Greece. Kingfisher, 2006. Martin, Thomas R. Ancient Greece From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times. Yale University Press, 2000. Merrill, Yvonne Y. and Simpson, Mary. Hands-On Ancient People, Vol.2. ArtActivities About Minoans, Mycenaeans, Trojans, Ancient Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans. Kits Publishing, 2004. Morkot, Robert. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece. Penguin Books, 1996. Mythology: Greek Gods, Heroes, and Monsters.

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Process: The student will:

• • • •

• • • • •

Compose and perform myth/tragic play Create timeline and maps Construct/role play mock trial of Socrates (debates) Produce original artwork showing evidence of observation and understanding of Greek culture Organizing Olympic Games Design a board game Design an Olympic game Create relief map of Greece Design and create contemporary model building using elements of Greek architecture

• • • • • • •

The Arts





• •

Appreciate Ancient Greek art forms Acquire a framework for Greek’s history, culture, and geography and its impact in the modern world Recognize the diversity and contributions Greece has made to democracy and today’s civilization Understanding of debates Understanding of Greek literature

• • • •

n Attitudes and Attributes: The student will: •

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• •

Technology

• •

• • •

Analyze Hellenistic Culture and the way in which it transforms Greek culture and literature into a world heritage Wrap-up Ancient Greece from the Renaissance to today Describe Go for the Gold: The Olympic Games Explore and chart events of the growth of the Greek Empire Examine different landforms Visit museums Explore the customs, religious beliefs, and traditions of the Ancient Greeks Examine the impact of Ancient Greek history on Western Civilization Explain the elements of Ancient Greek art Define Kouroi and Korai sculptures Explore vase paintings: the stories they tell Define the “relief style” in Greek art Explore the different sculptures, artifacts, and photographs of the time period Study the structure of Ancient Greek architectural designs Research a Greek mythology Research website links connected to ancient Greece and new developments in archeological findings Explore long distance learning to visit a classroom in Greece using the Internet Using CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) to create Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian columns Watch videos/movies on/or related to Ancient Greece

o

o

o o

Candlewick Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pearson, Anne. Eyewitness Ancient Greece. DK Publishing, Inc., 2007. Plato. The Last Days of Socrates. Penguin Classics, 2003. Price, Sean Stewart. Ancient Greece: A complete Resource. The Philosophy of Aristotle.

Websites o

o • • • •

Discuss how the Greeks used art to tell a story Explore how different sculptures were made and materials used Create a “relief style” mini wall Learn how/why the Greeks used masks in their plays

• • •

Create own masks for a Greek play Make a Greek style painted vase or plate Create own sculpture of a Greek god or mythological figure

o o o o o o

• • • •

Use the Internet to do research on: Greek mythology, astronomy, mythological creatures Create a list of websites on everything Greek Use computer to design Greek buildings and sculptures Conduct weekly conversations/interviews with students at a Greek school using LDL (Long Distance Learning) connection

Design a contemporary model building using elements of Greek architecture.

Other o

Create a travel brochure/book selecting one of the following: 1. Greek architecture in NYC buildings 2. Inviting Americans to visit Greece (Tourism presentation) 3. Create a documentary using penpal/students in a Greek school

o

• • • • • • • •

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“Greece: The Isles of Greece & Crete” (2005) - video “MacGillivary Freeman’s Greece – Secrets of the Past” (2006) - video

Student Assessment •

Design a web page on Greece

http://school.discoveryeducat ion.com/lessonplans/program s/ancientGreece www.ahistoryofgreece.com/a thens-democracy.htm www.historyforkids.org http://www.crystalinks.com/g reeksocial.html http://www.primaryhistory.o rg http://atschools.eduweb.co.u k/carolrb/greek/greek1.html http://www.greekmythology. com/ www.reisenett.no/map_collec tion/greece.html

Rubric for Writing Assignments Scoring rubrics designs of building, documentary, maps, travel brochures Check list of criteria for debate Student self scoring and evaluation Post Unit assessment Grades/evaluations of written reports Field trip reflections Close observations of student work and group dynamics Student conferences

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Interdisciplinary Unit of Study - Planning Matrix (by section) Unit of Study: Grade 6 Unit 5 Ancient Greece Essential Question: What impact does Ancient Greece have on modern society? Focus Questions 1. Where in Europe is Greece located?

What is the geography? How did geography affect its development? 2. Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live? 3. What events led to the rise and fall of the Greek empire? 4. What features does Ancient Greek government share with modern day democracy? 5. What do Greek myths reveal? 6. How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influence the modern world? Content: The student will: • Read and understand myths and tragedies • Know key geography and climates of Greece • Know the timeline of Greek history • Learn about the dress, food, customs and religions of Greece • Learn about the natural resources and economy • Gain an understanding of Greek art, music, dance, oral traditions • Comprehend health, environmental, and governmental current events in Greece • Comprehend Greece’s contribution to Democracy

Disciplines Literacy

Math/ Science

• Examine various maps • Examine charts and graphs of natural resources and infer their impact on Greek economy • Introduce basic math/scientific theories contributed by the Greeks • Study a time-line • Explore changes in Greek economyimpact of the Euro dollar • Explore constellations for stargazers • Learn about Greek architecture • Study Greek scientists and their contributions • Explore various climates and how they affect settlement • Examine past and present agriculture • Explore different plants/animals of the regions

Social Studies

• Introduce students to Ancient Greece • Explore cultural explosion-literature, art, architecture • Understand/explain origins of demos, polis, democracy, etc. • Read and discuss the Persian Wars

E Process: The student will: • Compose and perform myth/tragic play • Create timeline and maps • Construct/role play mock trial of Socrates (debates) • Produce original artwork showing evidence of observation and understanding of Greek culture • Organizing Olympic Games • Design a board game • Create relief map of Greece • Design and create contemporary model building using elements of Greek architecture

I. Initial activities that introduce, build and engage students with content knowledge, concept, skill • Read and examine features of Greek myths, plays, dramas, tragedies, fables, and poetry • Compile a list of Greek gods and mythological creatures • Read and comprehend different resources on a variety of topics • List new vocabulary words • Understand the root of a word • Examine features of a debate

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n Attitudes and Attributes: The student will: • Appreciate Ancient Greek art forms • Acquire a framework for Greek’s history, culture, and geography and its impact in the modern world • Recognize the diversity and contributions Greece has made to democracy and today’s civilization • Understanding of debates • Understanding of Greek literature

• •

• • • • • • • The Arts

• • • • • •

Technology

• •

• • •

and their impact on Greek prominence, Athens and Sparta Study great Greek conquerors Analyze Hellenistic Culture and the way in which it transforms Greek culture and literature into a world heritage Wrap-up Ancient Greece from the Renaissance to today Describe Go for the Gold: The Olympic Games Explore and chart events of the growth of the Greek Empire Examine different landforms Visit museums Explore the customs, religious beliefs, and traditions of the Ancient Greeks Examine the impact of Ancient Greek history on Western Civilization Explain the elements of Ancient Greek art Define Kouroi and Korai sculptures Explore vase paintings: the stories they tell Define the “relief style” in Greek art Explore the different sculptures, artifacts, and photographs of the time period Study the structure of Ancient Greek architectural designs Research a Greek mythology Research website links connected to ancient Greece and new developments in archeological findings Explore long distance learning to visit a classroom in Greece using the Internet Using CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) to create Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian columns Watch videos/movies on/or related to Ancient Greece

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Interdisciplinary Unit of Study - Planning Matrix (By section continued) Unit of Study: Grade 6 Unit 5 Ancient Greece Essential Question: What impact does Ancient Greece have on modern society?

Disciplines

Literacy

Math/ Science

Social Studies

II. Extension activities that challenge students to deepen their understanding through inquiry and application, analysis, synthesis, etc. of knowledge, concept, skill

• Create a story map of a Greek myth, plays, dramas, tragedies, fables, and poetry • Write to a pen-pal requesting information about Greece (school, fun, etc.) • Write a tragedy or myth following the structure of the ancient Greeks • Compare and Contrast Greek myths, plays, dramas, tragedies, fables, and poetry • Acquire strategies for reading with a purpose • Keep a journal about your life as a Greek sixth grader • Analyze Greek economy: value of currency; impact of Euro dollar • Understand Pythagorean theory • Apply mathematical theories • Define and explain Greek columns and their use in modern architecture • Create map or graphs showing natural resources • Create a topographical map of Greece • Draw own constellation map • Create a timeline from Paleolithic Age to the Byzantine period • Analyze Greek concepts of government

Resources Needed III. Culminating activities for independent Books o Aliki (Illustrator). Gods and or small group Goddesses of Olympus. Harper investigations that allow Collins Publishers, 1997. students to create, share or extend knowledge while o Ancient Greece. Rainbow Horizon Publishing. capitalizing on student o Barnes, Jonathan. Early Greek interests Philosophy. Penguin Classics, • Write and perform your 2002. own myth, tragedy, o Coolidge, Olivia. Greek Myths. fable, or poem Houghton Mifflin Company, • Write an essay on the 1977. contribution of Greek o Fry, Erin. 25 Mini-plays, literature to world World History. cultures o Girard, Sherry. 15 Greek Myth • Write a persuasive Minibooks. Scholastic. essay convincing people o Hanson, Victor Davis. Wars of to visit Greece the Ancient Greeks. • Create a word search Smithsonian Books, 2004. using the Greek o Hart, Avery and Montell, Paul, alphabet and Kline, Michael P. Ancient Greece!: 40 Hands on Activities to Experience This Wondrous Age. Ideal Publishers, 1999. o Keenan, Sheila. Gods, Goddesses, and Monsters: A • Create Greek Island Book of World Mythology. board game on Scholastic, 2003. mythology or wars o MacDonald, Fiona. I Wonder • Create a 3-dimensional Why Greeks Built Temples and Greek city/building Other Questions About Ancient • Create a constellation Greece. Kingfisher, 2006. using own mythological o Martin, Thomas R. Ancient figure Greece From Prehistoric to • Label the stars in the Hellenistic Times. Yale following constellations: University Press, 2000. Cassiopeia, Gemini, o Merrill, Yvonne Y. and Taurus, Little Simpson, Mary. Hands-On Dipper/Big Dipper Ancient People, Vol.2. ArtActivities about Minoans, Mycenaeans, Trojans, Ancient Greeks, Etruscans, & Romans Kits Publishing, 2004. • Conduct a debate on o Morkot, Robert. The Penguin opposing historical Historical Atlas of Ancient issues Greece. Penguin Books, 1996. • Compare and contrast o Mythology: Greek Gods, impact of Greek

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The Arts

Technology

• Compare and Contrast the leaderships of Cleon and Demosthenes • Discuss Alexander the Great’s vision for Greece and his war tactics and strategies • Create a timeline of key events related to the development of Greece • Discuss how the Greeks used art to tell a story • Explore how different sculptures were made and materials used • Create a “relief style” mini wall • Learn how/why the Greeks used masks in their plays • Use the Internet to do research on: Greek mythology, astronomy, mythological creatures • Create a list of websites on everything Greek • Use computer to design Greek buildings and sculptures • Conduct weekly conversations/interviews with students at a Greek school using LDL (Long Distance Learning) connection

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political philosophy on the development of contemporary European governments • Re-create a war battle • Create and stage a mock trial • Design and stage the Olympic Games • Create own masks for a Greek play • Make a Greek style painted vase or plate • Create own sculpture of a Greek god or mythological figure • Design a contemporary model building using elements of Greek architecture. • Create a travel brochure/book selecting one of the following: o Greek architecture in NYC buildings o Inviting Americans to visit Greece (Tourism presentation) • Create a documentary using pen-pal/students in a Greek school • Design a web page on Greece

Heroes, and Monsters. Candlewick Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. o Pearson, Anne. Eyewitness Ancient Greece. DK Publishing, Inc., 2007. o Plato. The Last Days of Socrates. Penguin Classics, 2003. o Price, Sean Stewart. Ancient Greece: A complete Resource. o The Philosophy of Aristotle. Websites o http://school.discoveryeducatio n.com/lessonplans/programs/a ncientGreece o www.ahistoryofgreece.com/ath ens-democracy.htm o www.historyforkids.org o http://www.crystalinks.com/gre eksocial.html o http://www.primaryhistory.org o http://atschools.eduweb.co.uk/c arolrb/greek/greek1.html o http://www.greekmythology.co m/ o www.reisenett.no/map_collecti on/greece.html Other o “Greece: The Isles of Greece & Crete” (2005) - video o “MacGillivary Freeman’s Greece – Secrets of the Past” (2006) - video __________________________________ Student Assessment • Rubric for Writing Assignments • Scoring rubrics designs of building, documentary, maps, travel brochures • Check list of criteria for debate • Student self scoring and evaluation • Post Unit assessment • Grades/evaluations of written reports • Field trip reflections • Close observations of student work and group dynamics • Student conferences

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Grade 6 Unit 5 Ancient Greece WEEKLY PLANNING SHEET Day 1 *Lesson Plan Included*

2

Social Studies Focus Question Where in Europe is Greece located? What is the geography? How did geography affect its development?

Where in Europe is Greece located? What is the geography? How did geography affect its development?

What Learning Experiences Will Answer the Focus Question? Focus/ Objectives: What do the maps tell us about Greece? Utilizing maps of Greece 480 BCE and current maps students will locate Greece, its islands, and city-states. Have students name the three seas that touch Greece and use the information to infer the importance of the sea to the ancient people of Greece. Students will compare and contrast the maps of ancient and modern Greece. Focus/Objectives: How did the different types of terrain influence the civilizations of ancient Greece? What were the major political and geographic divisions of Greece and its surrounding areas of the Aegean, Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Africa and Europe? Students will work in small groups and read the hand-outs, Geography of Greece and Farming in Ancient Greece. They will create a list of geographical factors that might have had an effect on how the civilization of Ancient Greece developed. They will fill out cause-and-effect sheet. Students will create a 3-D relief map showing the topography of a region.

Literacy Connection • • •

• • • • • •

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Accountable Talk Make Inferences/ Draw Conclusions Compare & Contrast

Compare/Contrast Accountable Talk Make Inferences about text Note taking Interpret Information Infer the reasons why Ancient Greece was composed of many city-states

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Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live? (Explain the Greeks fundamental perspectives of life: Harmony, Excellence, Spirituality, and the Cosmos)

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Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live?

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What events led to the rise of the Greek Empire?

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Focus/Objectives: Why is it important to study Ancient Greece? How do the perspectives of the Ancient Greeks compare to the perspectives of contemporary societies/cultures? Construct a K-W-L chart as students contribute what they already know about Greece and what they want to learn. Guide this activity around the following topics: Ancient Greece, culture, cities, religion, education and myths. View the video, MacGillivary Freeman’s Greece, Secrets of the Past (2006) to get the students interested into the unit. Focus/Objective: How was the daily life of an ancient Greek structured? - Young, men, women, marriage, slaves old people, foreigners, etc. - examine the rights, responsibilities and statuses of citizens, slaves and foreigners Provide students with a list of suggested sites and have them work in groups and research an aspect of ancient Greek life to compose a journal entry page, a day in the life of an Ancient Greek… Focus/Objective: What are the major periods of Greek and Aegean civilization? Examine the characteristics of each period - Art and architectural styles - Literature and religion - Everyday life

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Listening Skills Note-Taking Observations Listening and understanding main idea Listen for important details Using functional documents

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Reading for meaning Researching key facts Note-taking Writing

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Reading for meaning Researching key facts Note-taking Writing Begin timeline of Ancient Greece: take as the starting

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Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live?

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Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live?

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What events led to the rise of the Greek empire?

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- The importance of knowledge Introduce students to the Minoans civilization of Crete and give them some experience of the people that influenced the later civilization of mainland Greece. Have students make inferences about the events that may have led to the end of the Minoan civilization Focus/Objective: What can Greek mythology teach us about Ancient Greek life? Introduce students to Greek mythology Have students make inferences about the facts about Ancient Greek life that are imbedded in the mythology. Focus/Objective: How did the Mycenaeans live? What were the contributions to the development of Greek society? In what ways did the Minoans influenced the Mycenaeans? Discussion of the Bronze Age (3000 to 1150 BCE) and the Mycenaean society Give students an introduction of the Mycenaean civilization by taking one aspect of their lives and examining it. A focus on trade will move the students to the Bronze Age. Obtain a copy of National Geographic, Vol. 172; No. 6 December, 1987 which gives an account of what is believed to be a Mycenaean shipwreck. Students will read the given text and extract relevant information to complete activities. Focus/Objective: What major events define the end of the Dark Ages (1150BCE – 750 BCE) and the re-birth of Greece?

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point the year 2000 BCE, when the Minoan civilization flourished in Crete; continue until the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE Make inferences/draw conclusions Reading for meaning Researching key facts Note-taking Make inferences/draw conclusions Summarizing Sequencing Accountable talk Continue timeline Reading for meaning Organizing information Compare and Contrast the civilizations of the Minoans and the Mycenaeans. Writing Researching

• Organizing information • Reading for Meaning • Summarizing

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New settlements and expansion of trade; the development of the alphabet via the Greek alphabet and the Phoenician alphabet; Trojan War. Students will read article The History of the Trojan War or The Origin of the Trojan War printed from the websites and discuss. www.stanford.edu/~plomio/history.html http://www.2020site.org/trojanwar/origin.html The students will take the role of a reporter for a newspaper and report on the events from either a Trojan or a Greek perspective. They will report on the events as accurately as possible. You may want to suggest some links or have the students find some additional information. Focus/Objective: Who was Alexander the Great? What were his contributions? - Expansion of Greek Empire under the rule of Alexander the Great Students will create a poster of Alexander’s contributions. -

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How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influenced the modern world?

Focus/Objective: What major contributions were made during the Ancient Greece period (750 BCE – 490 BCE) The Archaic Period (revival of Greek culture and civilization) contribution to art, literature, philosophy, and architecture, First Olympics, Birth of democracy in Athens,

• Sequencing • Researching Key Facts • Writing

• Reading non-fiction for sequence of events • Summarizing important events • Writing • Accountable talk • Create timeline of Alexander’s journey • Completion of Ancient Greece historical timeline • Sequence of events • Main Idea • Reading to extract implicit/explicit information • Make inferences/draw conclusions • Make judgments

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How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influenced the modern world?

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What events led to the rise of the Greek Empire?

*Lesson Plan Included*

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Homer’s writings The Iliad and The Odyssey, the development of city-states Through the story, Perrhasius and Helena, the students are given a body of knowledge that provides a base to further explore the topics of Athenian democracy, law, social class, customs and roles of Athenian society. Focus/Objective: How did the early Olympics shape modern sports? Students will be introduced to early Olympic games. Students may research the Olympics and develop their own version of the Olympics (with the assistance of Physical Education Teacher.) Focus/Objective: How did the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars define the Greek Classical period (490 BCE- 323 BCE)? Students will compare and contrast Athenian and Spartan life in three categories: political, economic, and social.

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Focus/Objective: How were Greek Alliances formed? How did city-states come together? Why? - develop understanding of Greek warfare - acquisition of land and power of trade

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What events led to the fall of the Greek Empire?

Focus/Objective: What significant events led to the fall of the Greek Empire? - The Roman Empire 27 CE- 565 CE - Byzantium 565 CE- 1453 CE

• Develop critical thinking skills • Make generalizations • Writing

• Use evidence to support idea • Note-taking • Compare and Contrast informational text • Discuss the characteristics of daily life using accountable talk • Compare and contrast • Writing • Summarizing text • Use of evidence to support ideas • Generalizations • Researching • Make inferences • Draw conclusions • Critical thinking skills • Summarizing

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• Researching • Sequence of events

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What events led to the rise and fall of the Ancient Greek Empire?

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What features does Ancient Greek government share with modern day democracy?

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What events led to the rise and fall of the Greek Empire?

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What do Greek myths reveal?

Focus/Objective: What significant events shaped Ancient Greek history and culture? Students make a class timeline of historic and cultural events over the course of the Greek Empire. Focus/Objective: How were Greek governments organized in different city states? - kinds of political systems - citizens, precinct, and tribe (polites, demos, phyle) - demos at work (assembly. executive, council) - demos and the courts Focus/Objective: What significant events shaped Ancient Greek history? - students create timeline of important events

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Focus/ Objective: How did myths and archetypes influence Greek culture? What part did religion play in the myths? Introduction to Greek myths: Characteristics and features of a myth and how it is used to explain happenings of everyday life. Read aloud a myth from Triumph of the Hero: Greek & Roman Myths. In groups the students will analyze the structure of myths. Read the myth Theseus and the Minotaur,

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Sequence of events Make judgments Develop critical thinking skills

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Researching Summarizing Recognizing connections Use evidence to support ideas Compare and contrast Exploration of different Ancient Greek forms of government

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Make inferences Draw conclusions Critical thinking skills Summarizing Researching Sequence of events Introduction to Greek myths Characteristics and features of a myth and how it is used to explain happenings of everyday life. Identify important facts and details Understand the close relationship between religion and government, and how a

• •

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students are given an experience of the Minoan civilization through mythology. Have students create a list of facts from the story and compare it against one aspect of Minoan society that might have given rise to the facts.

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How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influenced the modern world?

Focus/Objective: What impact has ancient Greece had on Western and Eastern cultures? How the ancient civilization of Greece impacted the birth and growth of art/ architecture, science/medicine, philosophy, sports, drama/literature, and the law/government?

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How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influenced the modern world?

Focus/Objective: How has Greek civilization influenced modern society? Athenian democracy vs. Modern Democracies Roots of democratic tradition Totalitarianism vs democracy Social structure of Ancient Greece

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Brainstorm Final Projects to students or conduct week-long integrated mythology study

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*Lesson Plan Included* See handouts 32 *Lesson Plan Included*

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create a mythical board game based write/perform Greek tragedy write a modern version of a Greek myth Create contemporary model building using elements of Ancient Greek architecture Conduct a debate



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society’s beliefs influence its politics Comprehension skills Writing Listening Introduce project – creating own myths Compare & contrast Listening skills Writing Reading for meaning Summarizing

Making inferences Compare and Contrast Summarizing Reading to identify important facts Using evidence to support ideas Reading functional documents Note taking Accountable talk Evaluate and analyze Debating, public speaking Analyze and interpret information Researching Cause and effect

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SAMPLE LESSON PLANS

Youths, a warrior and a winged figure. Black-figure Attic amphora, ca. 550–530 B.C. Image: Amasis Painter, Creative Commons, Wikimedia.org

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Lesson Plan: Geography of Ancient Greece Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece Focus Question: Where in Europe is Greece located? The Teaching Points: • Students will learn how to recognize and use appropriate geographic tools and technology (e.g. maps, globes, graphs, diagrams) • Students will investigate and identify important physical geography of Greece • Students will investigate the connection between the physical geography of Greece and the settlement of the region (explorers, merchants and traders) • Students will understand the uses of maps and their importance both in past histories and today • Students will locate places and explain geographic information or relationships by reading, and interpreting maps and other geographic representations. • Students will read, interpret, and prepare maps, charts, graphs, and other visual representations to understand geographic divisions of Greece and its surrounding areas of the Aegean, Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Africa, and Europe • Students will create a topographical/relief map to scale of Ancient Greece Why/Purpose/Connection: • To understand the geography of Greece and its influence on civilizations. Materials/Resources/Readings: • Classroom map of Greece • Globes, maps • Handout maps of Greece and Ancient Greece • Handout Venn Diagram • Pencils • Rulers • Where in Europe is Greece Located - Handout Minilesson (model/demonstration): • Discuss with the students why maps are important. Talk about the importance of mapping and map reading in both the past and today and give them some examples of daily map use that they already know. Use examples that they can relate to such as a map of a bus route, the map of

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the subway, or a road map, etc. How would they know how to get somewhere they weren’t familiar with without a map? • Discuss the timeframe of Greece in relation to Egypt and the location of the two civilizations in relation to each other. Have the students look at a timeline and point out how much later Greek civilization was in comparison to Europe, other countries, and continents. • Show students map of Ancient Greece. Introduce the geography of Greece and discuss with them how the physical landscape had an affect on the settlement of the area. Have students take notes on Greece’s physical characteristics. What affect do mountains have? (They limited settlement because of the rugged terrain). What about the seas? (Port cities were more easily established and it also meant the Greeks were great seafarers). Ask them to think about the South Street Seaport in lower Manhattan and how it was used during the time of colonization. Why might the Greeks have been great travelers and traders? Have them locate the different seas surrounding Greece. Did the Greeks need to make maps of some kind? Why? Student Exploration/Practice: • Remind students to pay careful attention to the ways one can locate places on a map: use of color and symbols in maps, the explanation of the scale of maps. • Hand out copies of the map of Greece. Discuss with students what political boundaries are and have them shade in lightly with pencils the political boundaries of Greece. • Hand out copies of “Where in Europe is Greece Located?” worksheet and map of Ancient Greece. Students complete worksheets and copy of Venn Diagram. Share/Closure: • Ask students to orally review what was learned through their use of the Venn Diagram and the charts created on reasons as to how the different types of terrain influenced the civilizations of both Ancient Greece and Modern Greece. Assessment: • How does the physical environment reflect on settlement and what people might do for their livelihood? • Why might have maps been important to the Ancient Greeks? • How did the different types of terrain influence the civilizations of Ancient Greece? • How might maps be important to you? • Vocabulary: o Longitude o Latitude

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o o o o o o

Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Cartography Equator Scale (1:1, etc.) Plain

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o Cardinal directions (East/West, etc.) o Peninsula o Archipelago o Gulf o Mountainous terrain o Mountain passage

Next Steps: • In groups, students create own 3-D relief map showing the topography of a region using information from other maps. Students use alternate materials such as sand, toothpicks, etc. to create a 3-D physical map of Ancient Greece and Modern Greece. Students are to complete maps with place names, mountains, and seas, etc. Explain to students that cartographers (map makers) start with an outline of the natural boundaries (the blank outline map) and then add on the layers to make a complete map. • Students write reflections of the maps of Greece and speculate how the geography might have affected the way people made a living in Ancient Greece and how people make a living in Modern Greece.

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2009-10 Geography of Ancient Greece Activity Sheet

Directions: Working in partners or small groups, answer the following questions. Write your answers on a sheet of paper or in your notebooks. 1. Using the map of Greece, locate and name the surrounding countries. 2. How many seas are near and around Greece? Locate and name the seas on the maps. 3. Locate and name the major cities and the capital of Greece. 4. Identify the location of Athens by using the longitude and latitude. 5. Using the same map, explain how you would travel from Athens to Knossos on the island of Crete. Locate Knossos using longitude and latitude. 6. How far it is from Athens to Knossos? Use the scale bar: measure the length of the bar and then measure off the distance between the two places. If you were to travel directly over land and by sea, how many miles is it? 7. Using the map of Ancient Greece and a Venn Diagram compare and contrast Ancient Greece to Modern Day Greece. What looks different between the maps? What do these maps tell us? Use a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast map of Ancient Greece to the map of Modern Greece. 8. Where might farming take place in Greece by looking at the physical map of Greece? 9. Is the scale the same for both maps? Measure the length of Crete in both maps. Explain why the measurements of distance on various maps will not be the same if the scale is different. 10. Write an explanation and a short description of the different physical characteristics of Greece.

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Image: CIA World Factbook, Wikimedia Commons (public domain)

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Map: CIA. Perry Canstaneda Library Map Collection, www.lib.utexas.edu

See also • National Geographic (www.nationalgeographic.com) for their Xpedition series of printable maps • www.in2greece.com/english/maps/maps_of_Ancient_Greece.jpg

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http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:Homeric_greece.png

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Map of Greece. Image: United Nations. Available: www.un.org/depts/cartographic/map/profile/greece.pdf

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Historic Map of Greece. Perry-Castaneda Map Collection, University of Texas. Available: www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/beginnings_hist_greece.jpg

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Blank Map of Greece: Public Domain. Wikimedia Commons, www.wikimedia.org

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Field Test Edition Teacher’s Note: Use with lessons on major periods of Greek Civilization

2009-10

The Birthplace of Greece In 1899, Sir Arthur Evans discovered the Minoan Palace Knossos and what was to become known as the Minoan civilization on the isle of Crete, named after the mythical Cretan King Minos. Evans discovered both an influential civilization with extensive trade routes covering the vast territories of Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Afghanistan and Italy, and the birthplace of ancient Greek civilization as well.

The Palace of Knossos The Palace of Knossos

The palace of Knossos and the Minoan Civilization thrived in the Bronze age (roughly 3,000 BCE- 1,100 BCE) within the Aegean. The product of early Phoenician settlement upon Crete, the Minoans hosted three great palaces known as Knossos, Kato Sakro (also known as Phaestos), and Mallia. Of the three great palaces, none surpasses the exquisite palace of Knossos.

The palace of Knossos was a multi-storied building, on five and a half acres of land, and housed not only the King of the Minoan State, but also his advisors and several craftspeople. The palace had a central court yard, a throne room, large baths, enormous storerooms for the goods that were traded, craft workshops, administrative chambers, and a plumbing system.

Large pots, such as these found at Knossos, were part of a large storeroom. Evans measured the capacity of each, and found the storeroom could hold roughly 19,000 gallons of material in total.

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 The palace itself changed over time. Over many years it was renovated, with the latest building on top of the old. The palace changed as the administrative center of Minoan civilization grew, but it was always rebuilt according to a plan. Outside of the palace of Knossos were many houses, a smaller palace, and some craft workshops. The palace's trade routes were important to the status and power of the Minoan state. The trade route followed the extensive stream systems of Crete, its intricate roads, and utilized the naval strength of the Minoan civilization itself. While the Egyptians feared the treacherous seas of the Aegean and Mediterranean, the Minoans did not. The trade routes from Knossos established communications and goods from such diverse areas as Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Scandinavia. Goods traded with Knossos were copper, ivory, amethyst, lapis-lazuli, carnelian, gold, and amber, among other important commodities. The palace of Knossos was destroyed twice in its history, once from fire and a wall collapse (roughly in 1700 BCE); the second from a major earthquake which ravaged Crete. The later earthquake not only brought destruction to Knossos, but to both Kato Sakro and Mallia as well. These events, however, were not to end Minoan civilization. It lasted until 1450 BCE. The final collapse of the Minoan state remains a . half-solved mystery. Two factors are thought to have contributed to the end of the Minoan: the possible eruption of the volcano Thera and the rise of the Mycenaean civilization upon Crete, which may have vanquished the Minoan world.

Fresco of three Minoan Women

The Myth of Knossos and King Minos Greek mythology immortalized Crete and Knossos with its legends. According to myth, Mount Ida, which is found on Crete, was the location where Rhea, the Earth Mother, gave birth to Zeus. He was fed a diet of honey and goat’s milk, was tended by a group of nymphs, and was guarded by an army of youths against his father, Cronus, whose reign was threatened by Zeus’ existence. Zeus fathered a son, Minos, who became the The Throne of King Minos

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King Minos' son, Androgeus, according to the myth, was a strong, athletic youth. He was sent to represent Crete in the Athenian games and was successful in winning many events. The King of Athens then murdered Androgeus out of jealousy. When Minos heard about the death of his son, he was enraged and deployed the mighty Cretan fleet to attack Athens. The fleet conquered Athens; instead of destroying the city, Minos decreed that every nine years Athens was obligated to deliver to him seven young men and seven pure women. When the Athenians arrived, King Minos threw them into a labyrinth where they were sacrificed to the Minotaur. Theseus, the Athenian King’s son, volunteered to be one of the seven sacrificial young men with the intention of killing the Minotaur and ending the suffering of Athens. He told his father that if he succeeded in his mission, as a signal he would raise white sails instead of the black sails on his ship. Theseus arrived at the palace of the Cretan King, and with the help of Minos’s daughter, Ariadne, who fell in love with Theseus, he was able to kill the Minotaur. When returning home, Theseus in his excitement forgot to change the sails on the ship from black to white. The King of Athens saw the black sails. Thinking that his son's plan failed and that Theseus was dead, the king flung himself into the sea and died.

The Remains of the Minoan Civilization

Bull-Leaping Ritual shown in Fresco

What remains of Minoan culture is a half understood mystery. The language of the Minoans, known as 'Linear A,' has never been deciphered. The lack of a decipherable language has made attempts at a definite description of Minoan life and culture nearly impossible. However, what archeologists have learned about Minoan life comes from the exceptional art, architecture, and tools that have been left as artifacts of the Minoans. Minoan life was ruled by a King and nobles who governed all aspects of Minoan life, including trade, art, and religion. The government of the Minoans was theocratic, and the religion of Minoan was matriarchal, centered around the worship of several goddesses and high priestesses. The Minoans took part in many ritual acts, including "bull leaping." Bull leaping involved leaping mid-air onto the back of a charging bull. Class categories in Minoan culture were noble, citizen, and slave. However, the Minoans appear to have awarded their slaves and citizens certain privileges and rights. Slaves were said to have been treated fairly by their masters. The only religious act slaves could not

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 partake in was bull leaping. Additionally, research has not revealed any data about women having fewer rights than men. Frescos of the time show women working alongside men.

Links: Minoans, Mycenaeans and the Greek Dark Ages http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MINOA/coNTents.HTM Additional Information can be found by following the links below /sites/Europe/knossos.html http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/aegean/workscited.html Adapted from: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/aegean/pregreece/minoan/minoan.html

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2009-10 Lesson Plan: Introduction to Mythology

Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece Focus Question: Who were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live? The Teaching Point: • Students will be introduced to Greek mythology • Students will understand characteristics and features of myths • Students will understand how Greeks used myths to explain happenings of everyday life and creation • Students will read a story that embodies aspects of life in Ancient Greece as described in their mythology Why/Purpose/Connection: • The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to Greek mythology and give students some sense of how much of Western culture reflects familiarity with these myths. Materials/resources/Readings: • Triumph of the Hero: Greek & Roman Myths (or any other collection of Greek mythology) • Copies of “Theseus and the Minotaur,” provided in this guide • Loose leaf paper or notebooks, pencils • Chart paper, markers Minilesson (model/demonstration): • Ask the students if they are familiar with any aspects of Greek mythology. • Have them give some examples of myths, gods or goddesses they have read about or know about. • Explain how myths have been told from generation to generation by story tellers. • Explain how, in ancient civilizations myths were told to explain a creation or a happening, but that they included some facts about their culture and history, and this makes it difficult to verify what is based on fact and what came from the storyteller’s imagination. Because facts are included in the myths, readers can learn something about a culture when they read myths.

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 • Tell students: “Today we are going to hear a Greek legend called ‘Theseus and the Minotaur.’ Listen to the story. As you listen, make a list of things which you think might be facts from the story. At the end of the story, we will share our lists and figure out if we were right.” • Have the students create a three column organizer headed Definitely True, May have been True, Definitely Not True. • Read the story aloud. Stop one or two times during the reading to model how you might deduce that what you read is a fact from the story. Put your proof on the chart in the correct column, so that each item shows your thinking. • At the completion of the read aloud, discuss with the students their interpretation of their story and have them offer reasons for their ideas. For example, “May be true that Aegeus threw himself into the sea because the Aegean Sea was named after him and it does exist.” Student Exploration and Practice: • Have the students look at the list of facts they created from the story and write aspects of Minoan society that corroborate each one. Have them use Internet history sites (that you have chosen in advance) or classroom resources to cross check their information. Share/Closure: • Review student response and create a chart of information from the myth • Each group contributes the information they have written as teacher completes the class chart. Sample chart Definitely True Athens is the capital of Greece (The introduction states this) Crete is an island (Introduction)

May be True King Minos was king of Crete (need to research this) Crete has a labyrinth (need to research)

Definitely not True Minotaur is not real (monsters don’t exist) Pasiphae and bull couldn’t have children (this is not possible)

Greeks sailed ships Theseus was a real Greek King (the story says he founded democracy)

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Assessment: • Students’ input will be assessed for accuracy and for participation. Next Steps: • The students may turn the text into a script with dialogue. • This can be an entry point to further investigate a unit in Greek Mythology, in conjunction with the ELA teacher, or for independent projects by students.

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The Legend of the Minotaur

The ancient Greek myths often blend a story with events that actually happened, so it becomes difficult to separate where the story ends and the myth begins. Pronunciation guide to this story: Aegean (ay-gee-in) Aegeus (ay-gee-us) Ariadne (a-ree-adnee)

Dionysus (Di-o-nysus) Knossos (no-sos)

Poseidon (po-sy-dun) Theseus (thee-seeus)

Minotaur (min-o-tor)

Crete (creet)

Minos (my-nuhs)

Daedalus (ded-a-lus).

Pasiphae (pas-i-fuh)

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One of the most popular of the myths is the story of Theseus and the Minotaur. It centers around an early civilization on the island of Crete. It is a myth told long before Athens became the ruling capital of Greece. It is the legend of the Minotaur. King Minos had angered the Greek God Poseidon by not sacrificing a great white bull that had been sent to him. Poseidon decided that he would punish King Minos by making his wife Pasiphae fall in love with the bull. Pasiphae hid herself within a hollow wooden cow statue to get away from the bull. Unfortunately the bull found the statue attractive. As the result of their union Pasiphae gave birth to the Minotaur, a fierce creature with the head and torso of a bull, and the lower half of a man. The Minotaur was kept inside a huge maze called a labyrinth, built by the chief architect at Knossos, Daedalus. In ancient Greece, the Athenians had a great fear for the island of Crete and its King Minos. Years earlier, King Minos had defeated King Aegeus of Athens and had threatened to destroy his country unless he gave seven young women and men for sacrifice to the Minotaur every nine years. King Aegeus had agreed to these terms and every nine years without fail a ship with black sails would set sail from Crete to Athens to collect the prisoners. Once the ship arrived in Crete, the young men and women were prepared for sacrifice. They were dressed in the finest of robes and fed with the most delicious foods but then they were taken to the doors of a huge labyrinth, were the Minotaur lived. One by one, each of the prisoners would enter the labyrinth. Horrific screams could be heard from the outside. No one ever returned from the labyrinth. The Athenians would then be safe for another nine years. Theseus, King Aegeus's young son, had no idea why every nine years his father was so sad and begged his father to tell him why. Aegeus told him of the sacrifice he made to King Minos. Theseus decided that he must go to Crete as one of the prisoners and slay the Minotaur. King Aegeus protested that Theseus was his only son and heir to the throne, and no one had ever been seen alive after entering the labyrinth. Theseus was determined to be a hero, and set sail on the ship with the other prisoners. Once in Crete he was fed at a huge banquet that was given in honor

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 of the young men and women to be sacrificed. At the banquet he sat next to King Minos's daughter Ariadne. Theseus and Ariadne began to talk and she became entranced with his handsome features and his courage. Ariadne decided that she would help Theseus in exchange for him marrying her and taking her back to Athens. Ariadne gave Theseus a ball of silken thread and explained that as he walked around the labyrinth he should unwind the thread so he could find his way back out of the maze. Once Theseus had entered the maze, he attached the thread to the door and took hold of his sword. He could hear the heavy breath of the Minotaur sleeping in the distance. He kept walking deeper into the maze, unraveling the silken thread as he walked, and after a while no longer heard the Minotaur. Theseus crept along quietly and found that he had entered a large dark cave. A half-man, half-bull creature, the Minotaur, was awake and looming in front of him. Theseus dropped his sword in fright at sight of the terrifying, huge beast. The Minotaur began to attack Theseus, but Theseus managed to grasp his sword and plunge it into the Minotaur, killing it. Theseus and Ariadne boarded the ship back to Athens. On the journey home Theseus had a dream where the god Dionysus visited him. He requested that Theseus should not marry Ariadne because he, Dionysus, had already chosen her as his bride. Dionysus told Theseus that he must leave Ariadne on the island of Naxos for Dionysus to collect later. Theseus did leave Ariadne on the island but was so full of sorrow on the way home that he forgot to change the black sails on the ship to white, to indicate that he has survived the Minotaur. Theseus’s father King Aegeus was watching for the safe return from a cliff and saw the ship with the black sails. He assumed that his beloved son was dead. A disconsolate Aegeus jumped into the sea, drowning himself. That is why this stretch of water is called the Aegean. Theseus became King and was the great hero of Athens; he is known as the founder of Athens democracy and as a king who helped the poor. Late in life Theseus died in exile from Athens, but soldiers at war often reported seeing his ghost, so his bones were brought back to Athens and were placed in a sacred tomb to honor his memory. Adapted from: http://www.greekfoodanddrink.com/culture/mythology/LegendsMinotaur.htm

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Field Test Edition Lesson Plan: How did the Mycenaeans live?

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Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece Focus Question: What significant events led to the rise and fall of the Greek Empire? The Teaching Points: • Students will take one aspect of the Mycenaean civilization, namely trade, and examine it. • Students will read a text and extract relevant information. • Students will write descriptions of the shipwreck from different points of view. Why/Purpose/Connection: • The purpose of this lesson is to give students an introduction of the Mycenaean civilization through the aspect of trade and examining it in detail. Materials/Resources/Readings: • Copies of National Geographic, Vol. 172, No. 6, December, 1987 • Chart paper • Loose leaf paper • Pencils • Map of Bronze Age trade obtained from the Internet if possible Minilesson (model/demonstration): • Ask students what they know about “trade.” • Inform students that they will be studying the Mycenaean civilization, an ancient Greek civilization, by examining the aspect of trade. • Hand out copies of the National Geographic article. • Explain to students that in 1982, a Turkish sponge-diver was diving near a rocky peninsula off the coast of Turkey and discovered a trove of copper ingots. He reported his findings and for many years archeologists have excavated and studied the find. The find was the earliest shipwreck known to man dated to be a trading vessel of the 14th Century BCE when the Mycenaean civilization was flourishing. Although the origin of the vessel is still uncertain, it is thought to be a Mycenaean ship laden with valuable goods.

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 • Students will read the article and make a list to extract relevant information such as identifying the ship’s probable route and cargo. • Students will share and discuss their findings. Student Exploration/Practice: • Students will be broken up into two groups to conduct writing activities (see handout) o A sailor on board the trade vessel o Captain of the doomed ship Share/Closure: • Students will share and evaluate each other’s written work. Assessment: • Students create and use rubrics to evaluate each other’s work. • Teacher will assess student learning by listening for accountable-talk and observing individual participation in the group work. • Teacher will assess learning by evaluating the groups’ completed work. Next Steps: • Students will write a descriptive essay from the discoverer’s point of view describing the find. • Student may work in partners or small group to write and conduct an interview with the discoverer of the shipwreck/find for a newspaper article. • Students may provide an oral presentation of their essay or role play/perform the interview. Adapted from: http://members.cox.net

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2009-10 Mycenaean Trade Activity Adapted from: http://members.cox.net

The work of archeologists can be compared with that of a good detective. They find and gather evidence, and slowly put it together like a puzzle. They compare finds from one source with those from another and make inferences. Sometimes, they make an informed guess, and then search for proof of their ideas. For the following activities, you will find information on what has been discovered in the Bronze Age wreck. Re-read the article carefully and use your knowledge about the Mycenaean civilization, complete one of the following activities.

Activity # 1: Imagine that you are a sailor aboard this ship. Write an account of some of your experiences. Answering the following questions first will help you write your account. 1. Who are you? 2. Where do you come from? 3. Where are you going? 4. What cargo are you carrying? 5. What stops have you made along your voyage? 6. What are your proposed ports of call? 7. Who owns the ship? 8. What cargo might you carry on the return journey? 9. Who are your fellow crewmen? 10. What is the most pleasant and most unpleasant experience you have had on the voyage? You can get some of the information from the archeological find in the Wreck, some from your knowledge of the Mycenaeans, and the rest from your imagination.

Activity # 2: Imagine that you are the Captain of the doomed ship. Once you knew there was no hope of saving the ship, you told the crew to abandon it. You were the last to leave, but managed to reach shore. Write a report for the owners of the ship describing the events leading up to the shipwreck and the eventual outcomes.

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2009-10 Information Page Alexander the Great 356 – 323 B.C.E.

Alexander the Great was King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire in the fourth century BC E. He is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times, and is one of the most famous men in history. Alexander was a prince. He was born the son of Philip II of Macedon, and of Olympias, the daughter of King Neoptolemus of Epirus. Macedonia was a large country in the north of Greece. According to Plutarch, legend has it that when he was twelve he saw a fine horse and wanted it. No one had been able to ride the horse. He offered a wager to his father: if Alexander was able to ride the horse, his father would get it for him. If he failed he would pay for the horse himself. Alexander watched the skittish horse and figured out that it was afraid of its own shadow. He turned the horse so it was facing the sun (and so would not see its shadow). He got on the horse and was able to ride it. His father was very impressed with his son. He bought the horse and told Alexander, “O my son, look thee out for a kingdom equal to and worthy of, thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.” Alexander named the horse Bucephalus (bue SEF uh lus), which means “ox head.” Many horses at this time were branded with a symbol of an ox head. Years later, Alexander and his horse fought in many battles together. After the horse died in battle, Alexander named a city, Bucephala, after it. The famous teacher and philosopher Aristotle was Alexander’s personal tutor from age 13 to 16. Under his training, Alexander developed his curious mind and discovered a life-long interest in a variety of subjects including philosophy, literature, science, and medicine. Alexander was taught military technique as a teenager. At age 16, he became a captain in the Macedonian army. Alexander quelled a Thracian rebellion, which became his first mark of distinction. Under his father’s direction he gathered a small army, stormed the rebel stronghold, overcame the rebels and renamed the stronghold after himself, Alexandroupolis (“City of Alexander”). Alexander gained the respect of his soldiers for his bravery and his battle strategies. Alexander became king at age 20 when his father was murdered by political enemies. Alexander spent over a decade conquering Greece and Persia in order to combine them into an empire. He marched his troops from battle to battle, conquering more and more territory. He would become known as “Alexander the Great, Conqueror of the Ancient World.” Every nation he conquered was forced, at pain of death, to learn about the Greek culture and to speak Greek. Alexander became ill, possibly from malarial fever (the historical record is unclear) and died on June 13, 323 BCE. He was 33 years old. Alexander the Great’s interests helped to shape his beliefs and inspire his passions. Here is a list of some of his greatest interests.

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Medicine Alexander founded the City of Alexandria which is in present day Egypt. A school of medicine, named the Empirical School, was founded in Alexandria in 330 BCE. The school attracted some of the best physicians and scholars from Greece. Their research and findings eventually were transmitted throughout the Roman empire. Sports The Ancient Olympic games were only open to the Greeks to compete in. Most competitors were soldiers who took time off from fighting to compete. The original Olympics consisted of nine events: boxing, discus, equestrian events, javelin, jumping, pankration (a combination of boxing and wrestling which often ended in the death of a competitor), pentathlon, running, and wrestling. Philosophy Alexander the Great was tutored by Aristotle. He taught him about his ideals, rhetoric, and public speech. He opened Alexander’s eyes to the world. Science Alexander the Great worked in many areas of the Sciences including: physics, chemistry, biology, zoology, and botany. Some of his work in zoology was not surpassed by modern zoologists until the nineteenth century.

Discussion Questions 1. Homer’s The Iliad profoundly inspired Alexander. He carried a copy of The Iliad with him into every battle and tried to live by its theme of “might tempered by mercy.” • Discuss what the words in the phrase mean: might, tempered, and mercy. After figuring out an alternate way to say the phrase (such as “strength soothed by compassion” or “power moderated by pity”). After coming up with a couple of alternatives, try to figure out what this theme meant to Alexander. • Give examples of other events in history or current events when might was—or should have been—tempered by mercy. 2. Alexander was relatively young to be a leader of such huge power and influence.

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Could a leader his age succeed today? Would people take him seriously? Explain why or why not. Can you name a young leader in the military or in other areas?

3. Once Alexander conquered Egypt, he was crowned pharaoh and regarded as a divine leader, descended from the gods. • Research other leaders, past and present, which have been regarded as divine. • Evaluate the impact such a belief has had on these rulers and their people. 4. The number of leaders in world history who have been called “the Great” is very small. • What unique qualities in Alexander’s personality and heritage may have contributed to his “greatness” and popularity? • Do we have a similar or different definition of “greatness” for today’s leaders? 5. During his 20,000-mile campaign, Alexander spread Greek culture throughout his conquests. • Explain the strategy and methods he used to accomplish this. • Evaluate the lasting effect of his efforts. What, if any, Greek culture remains evident in the world today?

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES Create an "Alexander The Great" Portfolio • Provide students with an opportunity to supplement their knowledge about one element of Alexander the Great's life, times, or accomplishments. • Help each student select an element that is of a manageable size—a topic about which plenty of information exists but not a topic so broad that students will be overwhelmed by what they find. • Then ask students to create portfolios with various materials that they have come across. • The portfolio should include: anecdotes, quotations, time lines, pictures, maps, other. • Each item will include a detailed citation about where the student found it. • On a contents page, students will identify each item in their portfolio and give a reason they included it. The “Great” Debate One significant by-product of Alexander’s reign was the establishment of Greek as a universal language throughout the empire. Historians say that a single, universally spoken language helped to simplify and improve commerce, education, and daily

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communication in the vast empire Alexander created. In the century, people in modern countries often disagree over whether a single national language is still a beneficial concept. • Divide students into 3 groups. • Have one group research and construct an argument for having a national language. • Have second group of students research and construct an argument against having a national language. • Have third group research the rules of debate, define the parameters of the debate and serve as moderators and judges. • Have class debate the advantages and disadvantages of having a national language today. Alexander the Great Living in Today's Media Age • Assign each student to view or read examples of current news conferences, talk shows, or interviews with heads of state or other high-level diplomats, or the class as a whole may watch clips or footage of news programs and to read interviews in periodicals. • Lead a discussion that analyzes what the students have watched or read. • Help students identify the types of questions and discussions that the news media customarily ask nowadays. • Ask students to consider what they would we might see and hear in a media event featuring Alexander the Great. • Direct students to work in small groups to select one of the following scenarios: o

o



Scenario A: Alexander conducting an empire-wide televised news conference at a critical point in his reign. What questions might reporters ask? How will Alexander respond? Scenario B: Alexander close to death, granting an interview to a writer for the Inquiring Macedonian. What kind of publication is the Inquiring Macedonian? What accomplishments is Alexander proud of? What regrets about his life does Alexander have? What are Alexander’s parting words to the world?

Have each group read its written product, or perform their selected scenario for the rest of the class.

Activities and Extensions Adapted from http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/programs/alexander/#ext

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Alexander the Great Board Game • Students work together in cooperative groups to design an Alexander the Great board game. • The game should teach or review important biographical information about Alexander, such as key dates, battles and military strategies, related historical figures, medicine, philosophy, or sports, and/or geography. • Teacher provides the supplies—thin-tip markers or colored pencils, butcher paper or poster board, and plenty of space to spread out. • Invite students to bring in small items that can function as playing pieces. • Use standard dice, or have students create spinners or instruction cards that players use to move their playing pieces. • Have students incorporate both original student artwork on the game boards and reproductions of graphics from other sources. • Once each group figures out a goal for a game and the physical format that the game will take, the students will need to compose and print out a clear set of instructions. • Then groups should exchange their games and instructions and try out each other's creations.

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2009-10 IMAGES OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Silver tetradrachm coin showing Alexander the Great. Greek, 306-281 BCE. Art Institute of Chicago Upon conquering Egypt, Alexander visited the temple of Zeus Ammon, where he was declared the son of the god. This coin shows Alexander wearing the symbol of Zeus, a ram’s horn, which curls around his ear. Photo: Denise Jordan

Image: www.Mymacedonia.net

Alexander in India Image: www.Mymacedonia.net

Image: wwwWikimediaCommons.com

Alexander and Bucephalus:

Bronze statue of Alexander on Bucephalus. Museo Nazionale di Villa Guilia, Rome. Image: www.mymacedonia.net

Detail, Alexander the Great Mosaic. House of the Faun, Pompeii, 80 BCE. National Archaeologic Museum, Naples, Italy Image: www.mymacedonia.net 86

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Alexander the Great. Mosaic fragment. Pompeii, House of the Faun. Image:Wikimediacommons.org

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Materials for teaching about Alexander the Great: Chrisp, Peter. Alexander the Great: Legend of a Warrior King. Dorling Kindersley, 2003. Green, Robert. Alexander the Great (Ancient Biographies, Number 1) Children’s Press, 1996. Greenbalt, Mariam. Alexander the Great and Ancient Greece. Benchmark, 2000. Gunther, John. Alexander the Great. Sterling, 2007. McGowen, Tom. Alexander the Great: Conqueror of the Ancient World (Rulers of the Ancient World). Enslow, 2006. Morley, Jacqueline, et al. You Wouldn’t Want to Be in Alexander the Great’s Army! Children’s Press, 2005. Conquerors: Alexander the Great (DVD, VHS) Discovery Education Ancient Greece DVD. Discovery Education. Useful web sites: Social Studies for Kids – www.socialstudiesforkids.com This site contains glossaries, timelines, newsletters, stories about military and political figures, and links to further resources. Odyssey Online – Greece – http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/GREECE/welcome.html This is an expansive website that gives students an interactive tour of life in Ancient Greece. The website features colorful interactive features that include: Victory and Conquest, American Cities/Greek Names, and Epics and Actors.

An extensive site from The British Museum including historical information and virtual and interactive tours: http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/

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2009-10 Lesson Plan: The Olympics

Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece Focus Questions: What role did geography and politics play in the formation of the Ancient Olympic games? How did early Olympics shape modern sports? Time Needed: 2 sessions The Teaching Points: • Students will understand the connection between the physical geography of Ancient Greece and how the location and political climate of Ancient Greece helped create and expand the ancient Olympic Games. • Students will understand the use of maps and the importance geography both in past histories and today. • Students will identify key locations in the story of the ancient Olympic Games. • Students will analyze the ways in which Greek athletes worked for excellence in overcoming physical challenges. • Students will use a variety of information sources to gather and synthesize information. • Students will discuss time, continuity and change; the ways human beings view themselves in and over time. • Students will understand the relationship between the Ancient Olympic games and the Modern Olympic games. • Students will analyze today’s Olympic games in order to find roots in the Ancient Olympic games. Why/Purpose/Connection: The philosophy of Olympism was created in a society that valued individual efforts toward perfection as a way of life. Materials/Resources/Readings: • Overhead Projector or Smartboard • Map of Ancient Greece http://www.unc.edu/awmc/downloads/wlAncientGreece_blankMed.jpg • Teacher copy of “Why were they held at Olympia?” • Dry Erase Markers • Chart Paper • Markers • 6 Manila Folders • 5 copies of the following online essays*:

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“The Context of the Games and the Olympic Spirit” "The Greek City-States and the Religious Festival" “Ancient Olympic Events” “Excellence and the Competitive Spirit” “The Ancient Athlete: Amateur or Professional?” “Did politics ever affect the ancient Games?”

“What prizes did Olympic victors get?” These essays are part of "The Ancient Olympics" exhibit at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Olympics * Note: You will need to thoroughly review all material before distributing it to classes or sending students to websites. Ancient Greek athletes competed in the nude, as is reflected in some of the illustrations from the online Olympics exhibit/essays. You may need to have a discussion with your class about expectations for handling the material in a mature way. Minilesson (model/demonstration): • • •

Present a map of ancient Greece. Identify key locations in the story of Olympic Games. Review brief timeline for ancient Olympic Games.

Student Exploration/Practice: • • • • • •

Divide class into groups of approx. 5 students. Distribute packet of essays; 1 for each group member. Each student silently reads his/her essay. (Approx. 5 min.) Then each student report to other group members about what s/he read. (Approx. 10 min.) Have group decide on 3 facts that they felt were most worth noting from the reading. (3 min.) Group assigns one student to share with whole class the 3 things that group decided was most memorable from readings.

Share/Closure: • Have class come back together as a whole group • Then each student chosen by group reports out to rest of class. • Ask whole group: How did the Olympics help to foster peace among the various city-states of Greece?

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Emphasize the personal determination that ancient athletes used to become Olympic champions.

Assessment: • Students will discuss and develop competitions for promoting peace and equity in their school and community. They must determine the appropriate members to present, and determine what things must be in place to ensure success and sustainability. Next Steps: • Have students read "The Sacred Truce" and then discuss how the spirit of Ekecheiria can be transferred to the modern Olympic Games. • Research the life of a modern-day Olympic athlete to demonstrate how they set goals and overcome challenges to reach those goals. • Create and design a public service campaign to encourage middle school students to commit their lives to the Olympic ideal. • Research the roles of the modern female Olympic athlete and discuss this impact on today’s society.

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2009-10 Images of the Ancient Olympics

Mount Olympia. Image: http://karenswhimsy.com/ancient-olympics.shtm

Ancient Olympics: Disthenes at the Olympic Games Image: http://karenswhimsy.com/ancientolympics.shtm

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Etruscan black-figured amphora (c. 500 BCE) showing boxing. British Museum. Image: www.about.com/ancienthistory

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Mosaic showing Olympic athletes at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia, Greece. Image: Tkoletsis, CreativeCommons.com

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Discobolus. Marble, Roman copy of bronze Greek original from 500 BCE. Villa Adriana, near Tivoli, Italy. Image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Discobolo_4.jpg

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Panathenaic amphora (c.530 BCE) Greek, terracotta. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York "Attributed to the Euphiletos Painter: Panathenaic prize amphora (14.130.12)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_14.130.12.htm (October 2006). Used with permission. This amphora would have been filled with oil and awarded to a victor in the Panathenaic games in Athens. Each vessel holds about 42 quarts. Five sprinters are depicted on the pot.

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Field Test Edition Classroom Activity Sheet: Reflections of Ancient Greece Source: DiscoverySchool.Com

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Sports in Ancient Greece Name: Directions: Research your topic and answer the questions below. Be sure to add at least one question of your own. When you are finished, use the information gathered to help design your own Olympic Games that show how ancient Greek culture is reflected in modern-day society. 1. Who played sports in Ancient Greece? 2. What sports did they play? 3. Who watched sports in Ancient Greece? 4. When and where did the Olympic Games of Ancient Greece take place? 5. How did athletic competition develop in Ancient Greece?

6. How did the ancient Greeks feel about athletes?

7. Add your own question here.

8. Write at least three ways that Ancient Greek culture is reflected in today’s society.

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Lesson Plan: Persian and Peloponnesian Wars Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece Focus Question: What events led to the rise of the Greek empire? How did the Persian and Peloponnesian wars define the Greek Classical period (490 BCE-323 BCE)? A Tale of Two Cities: Athens and Sparta This lesson spans two days. Teaching Point: • Students will locate Athens and Sparta on a map of Greece • Students will locate information from various websites and other resources to complete a chart showing differences between Athens and Sparta • Students will categorize statements about the two cities • Students will determine in which city state students would rather live in and why • Students will assess advantages and disadvantages of the lifestyles and government of each city-state Why/Purpose/Connection • Students will gain and expand their understanding of the roles and lives of individuals from Athens and Sparta. Materials • chart paper • markers • Internet • maps • article on Sparta and Athens • reference books • textbooks • Athens/Sparta City-State Checklist Mini-lesson

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 • Begin the lesson by having the students list some of the terms they would use to describe New York City and New York State. • Then ask students how they think people who do not live in New York City would describe it. • How would they describe people in another state in the U.S.? • How do different states and regions in the U.S. vary? • Wrap up mini-lesson with brief discussion of the differences between a modern U.S. state and an ancient Greek city-state. Exploration/Practice • • •



Students will look closely at the similarities and differences between Athens and Sparta. Teacher will divide students into small groups. Once divided students can choose the resources they want to use, i.e. book, video and/or website. To begin, have students in their small groups read introductory handout on Athens and Sparta. Conduct brief discussion on similarities and differences between Sparta, Athens and a modern-day city (i.e. New York, San Francisco, Little Rock, Arkansas) Students will then spend the remainder of the class period uncovering the differences between Athens and Sparta. Students will examine and study their resources, then discuss and categorize statements about the two cities in the provided chart. (See attachment.)

FOR HOMEWORK: Each student will answer the following questions: • If you were a teenage girl of the citizen class in which city-state would you rather live and why? • If you were o a soldier, o a boy of citizen class, o a slave, o or a very wealthy person of the citizen class, in which city-state would you rather live and why? Share/Closure Students select an area of particular interest from the chart and give a brief oral presentation on what they learned, liked and why.

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Next Step The teacher can extend this lesson by having the students choose either Athens or Sparta and conduct a debate on which is a better place to live.

Day II Mini-Lesson Students will discuss their categorized statements on each city-state based on their city-state checklist and article previously read in class, in preparation for debate activity (15) minutes Culminating Activity A panel of ten students should be selected for the debate (5 for Sparta 5 for Athens). Debate question: Which city-state is a better place to live based on political systems and social status? Students must show evidence of knowledge of historical facts about the topic, comprehension and employ critical thinking skills to support their point of view (25 minutes). Share /Closure Closing statements from audience.

Source: http://www.pbs.org/empires/theGreeks/educational/

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HANDOUT I (Source: http://www.pbs.org/empires/theGreeks/educational/ )

CITY-STATE CHECKLIST Name ___________________________ Date________________________ Put your answers in the blanks. Some characteristics may belong to both city-states. ATHENS SPARTA Which has the larger population? Government Which was a limited democracy? Which was a military oligarchy? Which had two kings? Why two kings? Which had an assembly? What’s an assembly? Social Structure Which had citizens of the upper class? Which had foreigners as a working class? Which had slaves? Where did the slaves come from? Allies Which was the leader of the Delian League? Which was the leader of the Peloponnesian League? Military Strength Which had the strongest navy? Why? Which had the strongest land hold? Why? Life styles and values Which had militaristic values? Which had democratic values? Role of Women Which limited women in politics? Which gave the most freedom to women? Education Which valued choral dance and music, i.e. the arts, over academics?

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Field Test Edition Which valued athletics? Which gave more education to girls? Why? Cultural Achievements/legacy What are the achievements /legacy of each?

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Source: http://www.studyworld.com/newsite/ReportEssay/History/European%5CSparta_Vs_Athen s.htm

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In Ancient Greece there were two different major forms of government, oligarchy and democracy. Oligarchy refers to a small group of people who govern a nation together. Democracy refers to a system of government in which every person has the right to participate. The two city-states that best represent each form of government were Sparta (oligarchy) and Athens (democracy). The democratic government in Athens, though equal, fair and advanced for its time, did not meet all the needs of the Greeks. Athens focused more on culture than on war, while Sparta did the opposite. The oligarchy structure in Sparta enabled it to keep war as a top priority. The Athenian democratic government gave the citizens in Greece more freedom. The democracy in Athens cannot be called a modern democracy but it was the forerunner to modern democracy. Ten percent of the total population of Athens had voting rights and all of these citizens were upper class men who were over thirty years old. Women, no matter what their class or age, were given no freedoms at all. They were first owned by their fathers and then were passed from them to their husbands who then gave them the responsibilities of managing the household and educating the children. During a meeting of the Assembly, a policy could be adopted and formed into a law but once the meeting of the assembly ended, the enforcement of that law was left in the hands of people who may not have agreed with that specific law. One rule of the Assembly stated that if a certain speaker became too powerful, the Assembly could vote, by majority rule, that he be expelled from the country. This rule could be abused, and fear of expulsion kept some from speaking out. Ancient Athens did not have the freedom of speech that is a feature of most modern democracies. The Assembly was made up of five hundred men who were chosen from a list of those who were eligible to serve on the council. Since most of the population was of a low economic class, the time taken away from their normal work by serving on the Assembly likely affected their earnings. Life was sophisticated and graceful in Athens but the Athenians were often mocked by opposing countries and other city-states for lacking bravery, patriotism and courage. Athens was repeatedly attacked since Athenians

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 didn’t have a war-like reputation. These conflicts eventually led to Athens losing power in Ancient Greece. In the city-state of Sparta, the government was controlled by an oligarchy in which the power was held by a group of five men called ephors. It may not seem fair to modern readers that the citizens had little say in the decisions made by the government but, at the time, this was the structure that existed. The Spartans gave up an emphasis on comfort and culture for a more disciplined military approach in order to control the rebelling Messenians. This approach led to battles which eventually turned Sparta into an effective, deadly war machine. Over the years, the Spartans’ ruthless and brutal reputation in war grew, so that other nations and city-states chose not to attack Sparta, even though the Spartan army was not larger than eight thousand men. The Spartan men in the army started their military training at the age of seven and were trained to be tough and very self-sufficient. Every man in the army fought with a great deal of passion for his country. Life in Sparta may have been hard but the rest of the Greeks envied the Spartans for their simplicity, straightforwardness, and fanatical dedication to their country. There was a law in Sparta that banned all foreign trade and foreign travel. This kept out all foreign ideas and allowed the Spartans to use the element of surprise when it came to attacks, since outsiders were not familiar with their land or military strength. Even though there was no trade going on, this law did not have a negative effect on the Spartan economy, which was already selfsufficient. Unlike other Greek women, Spartan women had equal rights with men, except for voting rights. Since men were in the military and often away from home, the women had full authority over their households. In 404 B.C. the Spartan army was able to conquer the mighty power known as Athens during the Peloponnesian War. After its victory over Athens, the Spartan government was able to counter and hold off the many attacks that were launched by its enemies and maintained power for over 40 years.

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Left: Spartan Warriors; Below: Spartans at Plataea. Both images public domain. Available at www.karens whimsy.com

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History Lesson: Athens vs. Sparta I posed the question, “Which was a better city overall, Athens or Sparta” to a friend of mine. He chose Athens. He explained that the Athenians were thinkers, philosophers, politicians, and writers. Many of the great authors of the time (Pericles, Aeschylus, Oedipus, and Antigone) lived in Athens which made it the center for all philosophical learning and training. Also, because Athens was a sea city with a large port, they were highly involved in the trading industry. Its leading exports were manufactured goods and olive oil, and its main import was grain. Athens held a high standard of living for its citizens. Most people were very wealthy and enjoyed the finer things of life at that time. But as you study Athens’ way of life, you can’t help but notice that while they employed a democracy form of government, fewer than ten percent of the population enjoyed voting rights. Political decisions were made by a body of men called “The Assembly.” These men were chosen mostly from the “elite” class of men in society (men of great wealth and wisdom, who were over thirty years of age). Women were looked on as possessions and had little worth or value in Athenian life. They were the possession of their father until transferred to their husband for a dowry. Their main purpose in life was to tend the house and take care of and teach the children. On the other hand, Sparta couldn’t have been more different. The main focus of this city-state was that of war. At age seven, boys were taken from their homes and were trained in the art of warfare. They were only given a cloak and little food and were expected to steal to survive and develop their skills in fighting. The women were trained in reading, writing, gymnastics, and weaving. Women were treated with respect: their main duty was to produce healthy children, manage their husbands’ affairs, and protect their property and their households while their husbands were at war. The political aspect to Sparta was also different. They used an oligarchy (rule by few) form of government, headed up by five men, called ephors, who were

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 essentially the “elders,” as it were, of the city. They ran the day-to-day affairs of the city and had the right to veto anything the council or assembly decided. Trade in Sparta was seemingly non-existent, not because their economy was weak (which is not true because they were self-supporting) but as an act of military strategy. By not allowing any outside influence or foreign visitors, their enemies had no idea of Sparta’s military strength or tactics. This proved to be key in many of their victories over the years. So in summary, we see Athens with more freedoms, more wealth, and more influence in the world through the arts. And Sparta had more military strength and independence, as far as their economy. So which one would you choose? It may not be as easy as you think. Most of us after looking at these facts would choose Athens. Who doesn’t want freedom, wealth, and influence? But these were in fact things that led to the downfall of Athens. Rather than focusing on the good of the people, this city tried to develop itself into a political powerhouse. While Athens did have a larger city, Sparta was the one who flourished. Athens was blinded to the times in which they lived. You see, the other countries surrounding Greece were building their armies and overtaking cities at that time. Athens didn’t need more thinkers but more fighters. They needed to focus on their military rather than their money which is where Sparta comes in. Sparta was more prepared for the dangers that surrounded them and the threats possible. They embraced the topics and culture relevant to the times. They were prepared. Athens and Sparta eventually fought in what is known as the Peloponnesian Wars and in 404 BC Athens surrendered to Sparta after facing poverty and starvation. So in the end, Sparta was the stronger city-state. Now you know. So whenever anyone asks you, Sparta or Athens, you can reply, “Sparta. And let me tell you why….” Source: Adapted from: http://laurengoddard.wordpress.com/2007/11/29/history-lessonathens-vs-sparta/

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2009-10 Lesson Plan: Timeline

Teaching Point: Students will help decide on the scale and size of a timeline for this unit of study. Students will create illustrated, annotated entries to add to the timeline. In advance: Find some space in the room or hallway to dedicate to this timeline. The space should be accessible to students if possible. This lesson follows research the students have done on important events in Ancient Greek history (online and using books/library research). Materials/Resources: Index cards Colored pencils Colored string Long roll of paper (adding machine tape, for example) Construction paper Model/Demonstration: • Challenge students to think of the scale that might work to record accomplishments in Greek history. You might give them some space constraints if you wish. Remind them that we are talking about 3000 years of history that need to be recorded. • A suggested scale might be 1 inch = 50 years (1 thousand years = 20 inches, 3 thousand years = 60 inches/five feet) • Show students an example of a “timeline card” and point out the different parts: o Date o What happened o Some details o Significance of the event (why it mattered) o Visual/illustration Guided Practice/Independent Exploration: Students will work with partners or small groups to create timeline cards based on the information they have collected about Ancient Greece. As students work, encourage them to think about the significance of the events they are adding. Are there some events that are less important than others? Have students make decisions together about the importance of events. Have students pin their cards to the timeline, using a piece of string to connect to the date. See next page for example:

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Share/Closure: Ask students to reflect a little bit on just how much time is included in this timeline. You might ask students to free-write about their “sense of time” at this point. See time line and important events in Ancient Greek history on next pages which can be adapted for teacher use.

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2009-10 Ancient Greece Timeline (All events BCE)

3000 – 1200 Bronze Age (so called because of the discovery and use of bronze) - Arrival of the first Greek-speaking people to Greece (3000) - Height of Minoan civilization (1700-1450) - Height of Mycenaean civilization (1400-1200) - Trojan War (1200) 1200 – 800

Dark Age (so called because very little is known about this time) - Series of invasions and migrations throughout Greece

800 – 500

Archaic Period (revival of Greek culture and civilization) - City-states began to develop across Greece (800) - First Olympic Games were held (776) - Greeks began using the Phoenician alphabet (750) - Homer wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey (700) - Greeks begin using coined money (600) - Beginning of Greek Science, Mathematics and Philosophy (600) - Democratic government formed in Athens (510)

500 – 330

Classical Period (the Arts flourish) - Temple of Zeus built at Olympia (500) - Greco-Persian Wars (490-448) - The Golden Age – Athens reaches highest glory under Pericles (461-429) - Parthenon built in Athens (447-438) - Age of great drama and theater (484-400) - Peloponnesian War between Sparta and Athens (431-404) - Greek study of History and Geography begin (430) - Macedonia conquers all of Greece (371-338) - Expansion of Greek Empire under rule of Alexander the Great (336-323)

330 – 146

Hellenistic Age (period of Greek influence and power under Macedonian rule) - Great age of Greek scientific discovery (200s) - Series of wars between Rome and Macedonia (215-146) - Greece becomes part of the Roman Empire after defeating Macedonia (146)

Source: Rainbow Horizons Publishing, Inc.

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2009-10 Lesson Plan: Ancient Greece’s Impact on Western and Eastern Cultures

Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece Focus Question: What significant events led to the rise of the Greek Empire? The Teaching Points: • Students will recognize the foundations of modern medicine in Ancient Greece • Students will compare ancient Greek medical practices with those of modern day • Students will describe the relationship between modern and ancient medicine • Students will describe the development of medicine from ancient to modern medicine • Students will compare and contrast ancient and modern medical practices Why/Purpose/Connection: • The purpose of this lesson is to incorporate and tie Ancient Greece to modern civilization as well as to identify an aspect of which the Ancient Greek civilization has made an impact in modern day society. Materials/Resources/Readings: • Medicine in Ancient Greece • Venn Diagram template • Note-taking Template • Paper and Pencils Minilesson (model/demonstration): • Teacher begins by asking students, “How do people become doctors? How do you think people in the old days knew how to become doctors?” Discuss with students. • Tell students that unlike today, doctors in ancient times did not have to have licenses in order to practice medicine. • Say to students, “Today we are going to learn about Ancient Greek medical training to help us understand the origins of Greek medicine and compare it with modern medicine”.

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 • Hand out copies of the article, “Medicine in Ancient Greece” and the Venn diagram template. • Shared Reading: teacher models how to identify important information in the first part of the article about the development of Ancient Greek medicine. • List specific items that have been revealed in the section of ancient Greek medicine in the Venn diagram. • Discuss and compare the listed items with the development of modern medicine practice. Student Exploration/Practice: •

• • •

Students will continue reading the sections “Greek Medical Practice” and “Modern Medical Practice” and compare the way doctors learn their practice today with the way doctors learned their practice 2500 years ago in Greece. What is similar and what is different? Students will work in pairs to continue comparing and contrasting for additional information such as: What did Ancient Greek doctors do to acquire patients? Compare that with how doctors acquire patients now. How did ancient Greek doctors live? Compare that with how doctors live today. For more challenging thinking, students may use additional resources (if available) to give more depth to their analyzes (books, encyclopedia, Internet, etc.).

Share/Closure: • Students share the information they placed in the template before and during reading will help. Assessment: • Assess questions based upon thoroughness and accuracy of responses. Encourage students to respond with careful and detailed answers. Next Steps: •

Students will further investigate the subject of medicine by reading the section, The Hippocratic Oath and write a description of what the doctor pledges to do and pledges not to do (specifically).

Source: www.learnnc.org

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2009-10 Medicine in Ancient Greece-- Overview

Greek Medical Training In the late sixth century B.C.E., two Greek city-states were famous for their doctors: Croton (in Southern Italy) and Cyrene (in Northern Africa). One hundred years later the most famous centers were Cos, the birthplace of Hippocrates, considered the father of Western medicine, and Cnidus, just opposite Cos on the mainland of Asia Minor. Both Cos and Cnidus developed flourishing medical schools which became the main centers for the teaching of medicine. The doctors associated with either place shared certain medical practices and learned from each other. The instruction in these schools was very informal, compared to nowadays. No set term was made to the period of training that a medical student should undergo. No certificate was given to the doctors at the end of training giving them a right to practice. No rules existed to prevent an amateur, an inadequately trained apprentice, or someone incompetent from practicing. One’s establishing oneself as a doctor depended not on how one had been trained, but on one’s own conscience, the reputation one acquired in practice, and the ability to keep the confidence of one’s patients. It may appear odd that the Greeks, after raising medicine to a new level of sophistication, didn’t have some way that they could protect themselves from those physicians who had no clue about what they were doing. But if you think about two circumstances typical of the Greek world, you will understand why this was so. First, the apprentice system, in which Greek crafts were organized, is a selfpolicing one. That is, each of the masters (the actual physicians) would watch the apprentices and make sure they were able to do their job. Second, the fragmentation of the Greek world into its hundreds of independent states made the kind of system that could have provided a check upon the medical profession almost impossible. The Hippocratic Oath may have provided some kind of evidence of completed training. Also, attendance at one of the schools, usually that of Cos, would provide evidence as to the doctor’s qualifications. As part of “liberal” learning, medicine would be a matter of lectures and readings. After all of this training most free physicians would

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 receive instruction in the theoretical aspects of their craft at an organized school. Greek Medical Practice In general, Greek doctors practiced privately, with occasional employment by a city-state for a year at a time. To be sure that the doctors didn’t make too much money, they were ordered to, when necessary, treat their patients without payment. The usual rule was that doctors charged their patient for their services. While some doctors were permanent residents in a particular city, a large number traveled from place to place in search of a living and in response to the demand for doctors. Since the doctors often traveled and were not known to new patients, one of the goals of the diagnosis was to impress the patient and win his confidence. Greek doctors would try to tell their patients not only what was going to happen to them but also their present and past symptoms. The practice of prognosis (predicting the outcome of the patient’s condition) was evidently an important psychological tool in the battle to win the patients’ confidence. By divining and announcing beforehand which patients were going to die, he would avoid any blame. Modern Medical Practice Modern medical practice has some similarity to its roots in Ancient Greece. Doctors still have a liberal education and take all sorts of classes to prepare for becoming a doctor. They also do lots of reading. After spending four years in college to get a degree, they take at least another four years of college classes that involve in-depth study of medicine and practicing with doctors in a yearlong internship and a residency that can take from two to six years. In the internship, the student doctor learns from the master doctor by watching and assisting with actual medical cases. In the residency, student doctors get onthe-job, paid training in different specialties. After successfully completing the residency, the new doctor graduates and can start practicing medicine on his or her own.

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The Hippocratic Oath I swear by Apollo the physician and Aesculapius, and Health, and all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath and this requirement — to treat him who taught me this Art equally dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his burdens if required; to look upon his children in the same way as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee; and that by every mode of instruction, I will share a knowledge of the Art to disciples bound by oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others. I will follow that system of which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and avoid whatever is unhealthy. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest. With purity and with holiness I will pass my life and practice my Art. Into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will avoid every act of mischief. Whatever in connection with my professional service I see or hear which ought not to be secret, I will keep secret. While I continue to keep this Oath, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art, respected by all men, in all times. But should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse happen to me. Source: www.learnnc.org.

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2009-10 Images of Early Greek Medicine

Instruments used by Ancient Greek surgeons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ancientgreek_surgical_lang_neutral.jpg.

The Caduceus is a staff entwined by two serpents and topped with two wings. Great Britain and the U.S. often use it as a symbol for doctors, medicine, and health-related agencies.

The god Hermes (also known as Mercury by the Romans) holding a caduceus, which is one of his symbols.

Medical Corps logo

NYC Department of Sanitation (double snakes are under the S)

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Temple of Aesculapius. Aesculapius is the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2460659312/ Other parts of the world use the staff of Aesculapius to denote doctors or medicine. The staff of Aesculapius has one snake wrapped around it.

Roman statue of Aesculapius

World Health Organization (WHO) logo

Universal Medic Alert Logo 118

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Stamps for marking semi-solid sticks of eye ointments (collyria) before they harden, inscribed with four remedies prepared with saffron by a Junius Taurus from a prescription of a Pacius. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stamp_ointments_BM_GR1879.916.1.jpg

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Decree from Stasicypros, king of Idalion in Cyprus, in favor of a public physician, Onesilos, and his brothers: the king and the city will pay them medical fees for the treatment of the wounded after the siege of Idalion by the Medes. Image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Decree_Stasicypros_CdM.jpg

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The Plinthios Brokhos, a string figure described by Greek physician Heraklas in his first century monograph on medical knots and slings. The purpose described for the sling was to set and bind a fractured jaw. In practice, the four loops would be made longer in order to be tied atop/behind the patient's head with the chin in the center of the figure. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heraklas_Plinthios_Brokhos_Jaw_Sli ng.jpg

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Field Test Edition Classroom Activity Sheet: Reflections of Ancient Greece Source: DiscoverySchool.Com

2009-10

Architecture in Ancient Greece Name: Directions: Research your topic and answer the questions below. (Be sure to add at least one question of your own.) When you are finished, design and create a contemporary model building using elements and features of Greek architecture.

1. What did buildings look like in Ancient Greece? What were the different styles of architecture? 2. What types of art could be found Ancient Greece? 3. How did temples play a part in Greek life? What did they look like? 4. Who were patrons of the arts in Ancient Greece? 5. What did you learn about the artists of Ancient Greece? 6. Add your own question here.

7. Write about at least three ways that Ancient Greek culture is reflected in today’s society.

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Farming in Ancient Greece Farming in ancient Greece was difficult due to the limited amount of good soil and cropland. It is estimated that only twenty percent of the land was usable for growing crops. The main crops were barley, grapes, and olives.

Greek farmland in distance, and rougher terrain in foreground.

Harvesting olives.

Vase showing women with wine jug.

Grain crops, such as barley and wheat, were planted in October and harvested in April or May. Olives were harvested November through February. Grapes were normally picked in September. Barley was the main cereal crop for the ancient Greek farmers. They made the barley into porridge or ground it into flour to make Above: coin showing ear bread. of barley, sign of wealth. Below: woman kneading bread

Olive oil was used for cooking oil or in oil lamps. Grapes were primarily used for wine production, although they could be eaten or dried into raisins. The Greeks watered down wine, mixing one part wine with two parts water. Drinking wine straight was considered barbaric. Most farms were small with four or five acres of land. Farmers grew enough food to support their families and, at

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 times, they grew a small surplus to sell at the local market. There were some very large farms run by overseers while the owner lived in the city. One record showed a farmer making 30,000 drachmas in a year off his large farm. (An average worker made about two drachmas a day.) This was the exception because most farms were small to medium-sized. In addition to crops, some farms had livestock. Goats and sheep were able to handle the rocky terrain and were raised to provide meat, wool, and cheese. A smaller number of farms also raised pigs for pork and chickens for eggs and meat. Adapted from: http://www.historylink102.com/greece3/jobs-farming.htm Image credits: black-figure neck-amphora showing olive harvest, circa 520 BCE. British Museum. Public domain. Barley coin, circa 530-510 BCE. Wildwinds, Creative Commons license, www.wikimedia.org Woman kneading bread, 500-475 BCE, National Archaeological Museum of Athens. Marsyas, Creative Commons license. www.Wikimedia.org Wine jar, circa 450 BCE, Greek, Attica. Art Institute of Chicago.

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Source: Adapted from http://members.cox.net Use the following information to draw a large illustration of a Greek farm. The information will give will give you a guide for dividing the land into high grounds, fertile plain, hill slopes, areas for growing fruit and vegetables, and raising animals. Greek farms had an area of land near the farmhouse to cultivate fruit and vegetables for the family.

Fish were plentiful in the seas around Greece, and farmers supplemented their diet with a large variety of fish that they either caught or obtained

Horses were very expensive to keep, because pasture land was in short supply. They were only kept by the rich. It was more common to own oxen to pull the plow, and mules as beast of burden.

Flatland suitable for planting crops was in short supply. What was available was used to grow wheat and barley for making bread.

Farm buildings were quite simple with a small house for the farmer, his family, hired help and slaves. Other buildings were used to house some of the animals.

Sheep and goats were raised on the farms. They supplied milk, meat and wool, and their hides were used for leather. They grazed on the rocky hillsides.

Below the olive groves, on the slopes of the lower hill, the land was terraced and planted with vines. The conditions were ideal for vines and so large crops would be grown.

Most of the farm was on the slope of a hillside. The soil was too poor to grow any crops, and so olive trees were planted in abundance.

Pigs and poultry were common on some farms and provided meat.

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2009-10 Lesson Plan: Roots of Democracy

Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece Focus Question: How has the legacy of Ancient Greece civilization influenced modern society? What features does Ancient Greek government share with modern day democracy? This lesson spans two days. The Teaching Points: • Students will learn about the historical roots of democracy. • Students will identify the difference between totalitarianism and democracy. • Students will learn about the social structure of Ancient Greece. Why/Purpose/Connection: Explore the roots of two political systems: totalitarianism and democracy. Both forms of government exist in modern world, with the roots of each found in ancient Greece Materials/Resources/Readings: • Multiple resources with descriptions of Athens and Sparta • Computer with Internet Access • Quotations on Resource Page • “Comparing Sparta and Athens” handout: http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/worksheets/spartans/w orksheet1.html Mini-lesson (model/demonstration): • Students will explore the roots of two political systems: totalitarianism and democracy. • Explain that both forms exist in the modern world, but the roots for each can be found in ancient Greece. • Introduce the term totalitarianism. o Explain that it is a form of government that uses force and power to rule a people. o This form of culture had its roots in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta.

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 o Within Sparta there existed three groups: slaves, known as Helots; Spartan females, who were taught to be fit, brave, and patriotic; and Spartan males, all of whom became warriors. o Newborn males judged to be weak were left to die of exposure. o At the age of seven, boys left home to live in barracks and receive military training from older boys. o Boys went barefoot, wore minimal clothing (even in winter), practiced all forms of athletics, and received military instruction. o They married at age 20 but continued to live in the barracks. o The Helots provided the necessary food and labor for Spartan males and females. •

Next introduce the term democracy. o Explain that the democratic political system used as its model Athenian democracy. o In the ancient Greek city-state of Athens all citizens participated in Athenian governmental activities. o All citizens were equal before the law and participated in the government. o Slaves and women, however, were not allowed citizenship. o Athenians eventually abolished slavery and developed a direct democracy where citizens chose the members of the powerful Assembly. o Athenian youth were encouraged to develop artistic and intellectual talents to such a degree that historians refer to their developments in the arts and politics as a “Golden Age.”

Student Exploration/Practice: • Divide the class into groups and present each group with one of the quotations. • Students will read and discuss them and then determine which civilization—Athens or Sparta—may have influenced the authors of each quotation. • Have each group present their explanation as to why. • Explain to students that the first extract is taken from a speech Adolph Hitler delivered in 1926, and the second is taken from our Declaration of Independence. • Distribute “Comparing Sparta and Athens” handout with your students and review,

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Share/Closure: • Return to whole group discussion and ask students to use what they’ve learned about the two civilizations and imagine what their lives would be like if they lived in Athens and Sparta. Ask them to consider their age and gender when considering their response. Assessment: • Ask students to consider and respond in writing to the following questions: 1. Who benefited most in each society—the rich or poor, males or female? 2. Who benefited least? What are the pros and cons of each civilization? 3. Which state would you have rather lived in, Athens or Sparta? Explain why. 4. Where do we see the seeds of their governments in today’s world? Next Steps: • Have students write a two-page fictional piece that describes their life as a Spartan or Athenian youth. Each story should contain at least three aspects of Spartan or Athenian life. Ask students to be creative in their storytelling. Invite students to share their stories with the class. Essays should be at least two pages in length, and exhibit some level of creative thinking. They should contain at least three examples of life in Athens or Sparta. • Have students research the role of the slaves in Athenian society and the Helots in Sparta and then write an essay that compares the two. • Spartan society depended heavily on their Helots (slaves). Discuss whether their society could have existed without slaves. • Analyze how a “democratic” society can deny rights to some individuals. • Despite Sparta’s accomplishments, the state did not leave an artistic legacy as Athens did. How does this reflect the philosophy of Spartan society? Should a society make art a priority? Do all great societies have a legacy of art? • How democratic a society was Athens? Compare Athens to our society. What are the similarities? What are some differences?

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Quotation 1 “The fundamental motif through all the centuries has been the principle that force and power are the determining factors. All development is struggle. Only force rules. Force is the first law. . . . Only through struggle have states and the world become great. If one should ask whether this struggle is gruesome, then the only answer could be—for the weak, yes, for humanity as a whole, no. Instead of everlasting struggle, the world preaches cowardly pacifism, and everlasting peace. These three things, considered in the light of their ultimate consequences, are the causes of the downfall of all humanity.”

Quotation 2 “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,* that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.”

* You may wish to explain the concept of unalienable rights as well as discuss the meaning of “just powers from the consent of the governed.”

Brief Timeline 800 BC = The majority of Greek states were governed by groups of rich landowners, called aristocrats; this word is derived from 'aristoi', meaning best people. This was a system known as 'oligarchy' the rule by the few. 750 BC = Athenian power in the Archaic Period was controlled by Aeropagus, or council. Their policies were delivered through three magistrates called Archons. 500 BC = Democracy was introduced by an aristocrat, Cleisthene from 508-502 BCE. Cleisthene was from the family of the Alcmaeonids, a powerful family of Athens. In 508 BCE, after 2 years of civil war, Cleisthenes took power, was then expelled by the Spartans, and was returned to power by a popular uprising. As a reformer, Cleisthene enfranchised all free men living in Athens and the surrounding area to be

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citizens. He established a governing council that had executive and administrative control. The Assembly was given the power to veto the council and to declare war. Additional Background Information

Greece in the Archaic Period was made up of independent states, called Polis, or city states. The polis of Athens included about 2,500 sq kilometers of territory, but other polis in Greece had smaller areas of 250 sq kilometers. Greek Society was mainly divided between free people and slaves, who were owned by the free people. Slaves were used as servants and laborers, without any legal rights. Sometimes the slaves were prisoners of war or bought from foreign slave traders. Many slaves lived closely with their owners; few were skilled craftsmen and even fewer were paid. As Athenian society evolved, free men were divided between citizens and metics. Citizens were born with Athenian parents and the most powerful group and could take part in the government of the Polis. After compulsory service in the army they were expected to be government officials and take part in Jury Service. A metic was of foreign birth from a family that had migrated to Athens, to either practice trade or a craft. A metic had to pay taxes and sometimes required to serve in the army. However, a metic could never achieve full rights of a citizen nor could he own property or land, and he was not allowed to speak in law courts. The social classes applied to men only, as women all took their social and legal status from their husband or their male partner. Women in Ancient Greece were not permitted to take part in public life.

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Lesson Plan: ELA and Science Integrated Five-Day Study of Greek Mythology Unit of Study: Ancient Greece Focus Questions: Who Were the Ancient Greeks? What did they believe? Value? How did they live? What meanings did myths about gods, goddesses, and heroes have for the ancient Greeks? How can Greek myths help explain nature and science? What meanings do the Greek myths have for us today? Teaching Point: • Activate prior knowledge and relate it to reading selection • Read for literary experience and information, read and interpret Greek Myths • Discuss two types of themes in Greek myths: Explanatory Myths and Creation Myths • Respond to literature through writing and discussion • Write to address the following purpose: to inform and express personal ideas. Why/Purpose/Connection Students in the sixth grade will be provided with a comprehensive introduction to the genre of Greek mythology; the values of Greek Literature, and its impact in the development of contemporary thinking. The students will be introduced to the definitions and distinctions of myths, the main characters of the Greek myths, an overview of the Ancient Greek gods and Greek religion in practice, and how the Greeks themselves and others interpreted their myths. Materials: • Copies of various Greek myths: Pandora’s Box, Narcissus, Theseus and the Minotaur, Icarus, Pegasus, Arachne,Persephone, The Labours of Heracles, The Trojan Horse, Perseus and Medusa, Icarus, Atalanta, The Iliad and the Odyssey, and Jason and the Golden Fleece. • Access to Jim Henson’s The Storyteller: Greek Myths at www.tv.com/jimhensons-thestoryteller-greekmyths/show/6774/summary.html

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Students will receive handouts of: • Article: Greek Mythology: Myths and Legends of the World Greek Gods and Mythological Creatures • Elements of Mythology Checklist • Thinking Questions Template • Chart paper • Markers Mini-lesson Day 1 90 minute block period Reading/Writing Reading • Have the students brainstorm and create a KWL chart about myths (10 minutes) • Explain to the students that myths usually teach a lesson • Ask students to read introductory article: Greek Mythology: Myths and Legends of the World (10 minutes) • Discuss elements of myths according to the article (approx 5 min.) Exploration/Practice • Divide students into groups of four, assign individual/group responsibilities • Have each group choose a myth from the following list: • Pandora’s box, Narcissus, Theseus and the Minotuar, Icarus, Pegasus, Arachne, The Labours of Heracles, The Trojan Horse, Perseus and Medusa, Icarus, Atlanta, The Iliad and the Odyssey, and Jason and the Golden Fleece. • Review the Elements of Mythology Checklist, which students will complete after reading their myths (20 minutes). Share/Closure Each group will be given approx. 5 minutes to present the following about the myth they chose: • Who are the Main Characters? • Are they human? An animal? God or Goddess? • What is the problem in the story? The resolution? • Are there elements of magic? If so, what are they? • Details of time • Place and situation • Lesson learned/impact to self/world (5 minutes). Homework assignment:

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Each student will read an additional selected myth and complete the Elements of Mythology Checklist. WRITING (45 minute block-Day 1) Focus Question/Theme: How can myths help to explain nature and science? Teaching Point: The students will write, respond to literature through writing and discussion, and write to inform and to express personal ideas. Materials • Handouts of: Greek Gods and Mythological Creatures Chart • Opinion/proof Chart • Selected myth • Myth of Hercules • Myth of Persephone Internet Resources: Greek Mythology/Myths and Legends of the World at: • http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx_5219/is_2000/ai_n1913392 7 • http://www.geocites.com/Athens/Delphi?8991/greek.html • Myths of Creation, Greek Mythology by Carlos Parada at • http://www.homepage.mac/cparada/GML/MythCreations.html • Greek Mythology in Cyberspace at http://www.mythweb.com • The Constellation Table at the site The Constellations, a link from EDSITEment’s Exploring Ancient World Cultures History Channel suggested programs for viewing: • Ancient Discoveries Series: Episode Ancient Computers; The Most: Trojan Horse • Ancient Mysteries Series: The Trojan War, the Siege of Troy • History of Ancient Civilizations: Schliemann’s Gold • Engineering and Empire • Biographies: Alexander the Great • Modern Marvels Series: Stadiums and Technology • Human Weapons Series: Man, moment, machine Alexander and the Catapult; Pankration: The Original Martial Art • Surviving History Series: Ancient Greece: the Golden age; April 6, 1896 • The First Modern Olympics Mini Lesson Ask students: How can myths help explain nature and science?

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Ask students to think back to their childhood and try to remember questions they may have had about the world around them. For example, “Where did the oceans come from? What are the stars?” Explain that ever since time began people also asked these questions. The Greeks created stories (which today we call myths) that can be categorized as creation myths and explanatory myths, to answer these questions. Spend some time discussing the students’ personal experiences or their experiences with young children asking such questions (10 minutes). Tell the students to imagine a time when no one understood why the seasons change. With no scientific information to explain these changes, how do the students think ancient peoples reacted? Might they have seen these changes as punishment from the gods? Explain that the myth of Persephone has an explanation as to why the seasons change (5 minutes). Have them read an abbreviated version of Persephone and find out why. Ask students to write a journal entry on what they found out. (15 minutes). Remind students of the small group roles and responsibilities previously established. Review the project, expectations, rubrics, and related activities. Project: Each student will write a scientific, research based report (5 pages) and a fantastic story about a physical phenomenon of their choosing (3 to 5 pages), making note of the differences between these two approaches to explaining the world around them. Inform students that they will receive appropriate websites to do their research. Students can choose a variety of presentation formats subject to the approval by the teacher. Suggested topics: • How did the Echo story explain what causes an echo? • How did the Phaeton story explain how the sun moves across the sky and

why the land of Libya is a desert?

• Spiders have adapted to catch prey through the creation of webs. How does

the story of Arachne explain the origin of spiders? How does the story of Cassiopeia, explain a constellation? Exploration/Practice Have students read an abbreviated version of Persephone and find out why. Ask students to write a brief essay on what they found out and complete opinion/proof chart (20 minutes).

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Share/Closure Student groups will discuss their findings and share opinion/proof chart (5 minutes). Mini-lesson Day 2 90 minute block period Reading/Writing Reading (Mini Lesson 45 minutes) Review previous day’s work. Have students comment about their myths, clarify any questions and vocabulary. Have students share what they have read so far and collect home-work assignment. Exploration and Practice At this point students should have selected a myth to read, if they haven’t then let them do so. Have them continue to read their selections. Teacher should begin to do individual conferencing. Share/Closure Describe (physically) and explain the purpose of the mythological character in the selected myth. Homework Assignment: Complete the Mythological Characters chart Writing (Mini Lesson 45 minutes) Review previous day’s lesson, return assignments corrected. Clarify questions, expectations, vocabulary and purpose of the lesson. Collect homework assignment (15 minutes) Exploration/Practice Divide students into groups of four and remind them of their small group roles and responsibilities previously established. Review the project, expectations, rubrics, and related resources. Continue to read myth. Project: • Each student will write a scientific, research based report and a fantastic story about a physical phenomenon of their choosing, making note of the differences between these two approaches to explaining the world around them.

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Hand out Internet resources and advise students to use them to do their research on the theme they have selected for their project. Have students begin to write the first draft of their report. Use rubric for individual conferences

Share/closure: Students will report on project progress. Homework Assignment: Finish first draft and complete God or Heroes Activity Sheet. Mini-lesson Day 3 90 minute block period Reading/Writing Reading (Mini Lesson 45 minutes) Review previous lesson. Return homework assignment, clarify questions. Explain the concept of compare and contrast. Read the Myth of Hercules to the students and have them compare and contrast with the myth they are already reading. Discussion (20 minutes) Exploration and Practice Students will continue and finish reading their myths. Teacher should conference with students to determine comprehension and progress. Share/closure Students will share Mythological characters chart Homework Assignment How are the Greek myths relevant today? Research the history of words that come from Greek mythologies such as “achillies tendon”; a huge task is said to be “Herculean.” Write a one-page report including at least five examples of words derived from Greek mythology. (e.g.: arachnid, echo, narcissist, and siren are some possible answers) Writing (Day 3 Mini Lesson 45 minutes) Students will continue working on their project, they will use Internet resources for scientific information, the teacher will address individual student needs to complete their project; remind students that the due date is two days away. Share/Closure: Students will discuss homework assignment: How are the Greek myths relevant today (15 minutes)

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Reading and Writing Day 4 90 minute block period Reading/Writing On this day the students should dedicate the entire 90 minute block period to finishing their projects and prepare for individual presentations on the following day (5) Teacher should address individual student needs and check quality and progress of project. Reading and Writing Day 5 90 minute block period Reading/Writing Presentation Day 5 Teacher will begin class by presenting a brief review of the lesson and activities, express her excitement to see student’s finished product. Select a judging panel and begin presentations. Share/Closure: Students share their learning experience. Assessment: Individual and group assessments: finished product, writing pieces, quiz/tests, homework, participation, peer evaluation.

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The Trojan War http://www.stanford.edu/~plomio/history.html

The Apple of Discord The Trojan War has its roots in the marriage between Peleus and Thetis, a sea-goddess. Peleus and Thetis had not invited Eris, the goddess of discord, to their marriage and the outraged goddess stormed into the wedding banquet and threw a golden apple onto the table. The apple belonged to, Eris said, whomever was the fairest. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each reached for the apple. Zeus proclaimed that Paris, prince of Troy and thought to be the most beautiful man alive, would act as the judge. Hermes went to Paris, and Paris agreed to act as the judge. Hera promised him power, Athena promised him wealth, and Aphrodite promised the most beautiful woman in the world. Paris chose Aphrodite, and she promised him that Helen, wife of Menelaus, would be his wife. Paris then prepared to set off for Sparta to capture Helen. Twin prophets Cassandra and Helenus tried to persuade him against such action, as did his mother, Hecuba. But Paris would not listen and he set off for Sparta. In Sparta, Menelaus, husband of Helen, treated Paris as a royal guest. However, when Menelaus left Sparta to go to a funeral, Paris abducted Helen (who perhaps went willingly) and also carried off much of Menelaus' wealth. In Troy, Helen and Paris were married. This occured around 1200 B.C. (Wood, 16).

Greek Armament Menelaus, however, was outraged to find that Paris had taken Helen. Menelaus then called upon all of Helen's old suitors, as all of the suitors had made an oath long ago that they would all back Helen's husband to defend her honor.

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Many of the suitors did not wish to go to war. Odysseus pretended to be insane but this trick was uncovered by Palamedes. Achilles, though not one of the previous suitors, was sought after because the seer Calchas had stated that Troy would not be taken unless Achilles would fight. One of the most interesting stories is of Cinyras, king of Paphos, in Cyprus, who had been a suitor of Helen. He did not wish to go to war, but promised Agamemnon fifty ships for the Greek fleet. True to his word, Cinyras did send fifty ships. The first ship was commanded by his son. The other forty-nine, however, were toy clay ships, with tiny clay sailors. They dissembled soon after being placed in the ocean (Tripp, 584-584). The Greek fleet assembled, under Agamemnon's inspection, in Aulis. However, Agamemnon either killed one of Diana's sacred stags or made a careless boast. Either way, Diana was outraged and she calmed the seas so that the fleet could not take off. The seer Calchas proclaimed that Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon, must be sacrificed before the fleet could set sail. This was done, and the Greek ships set off in search of Troy.

Finding Troy Finding Troy proved difficult, however, and the Greek fleet at first landed in Mysia. According to Herodotus, the Greeks were under the impression that Helen had been taken by the Teuthranians (Teucrians), and though the Teuthranians denied such allegations, the Greeks laid siege to the city (Herodotus, Bk. II.118). The Greeks ultimately prevailed, but suffered heavy casualties at the hands of Telephus, king of the Teuthranians, and, at the end, were still without Helen. Telephus, in the course of the war, was wounded by Achilles. With no where else to turn, the Greeks returned home. The Trojan War might not have happened had not Telephus gone to Greece in the hopes of having his wound cured. Telephus had been told by an oracle that only the person who wounded him (in this case, Achilles) could cure him. Achilles assented and Telephus told the Greeks how to get to Troy.

Embassy to Priam

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Odysseus, known for his eloquence, and Menelaus were sent as ambassadors to Priam. They demanded Helen and the stolen treasure be returned. Priam refused, and Odysseus and Menelaus returned to the Greek ships with the announcement that war was inevitable.

The War The first nine years of the war consisted of both war in Troy and war against the neighboring regions. The Greeks realized that Troy was being supplied by its neighboring kingdoms, so Greeks were sent to defeat these areas. As well as destroying Trojan economy, these battles let the Greeks gather a large amount of resources and other spoils of war, including women (e.g., Briseis, Tecmessa and Chryseis). The Greeks won many important battles and the Trojan hero Hector fell, as did the Trojan ally Penthesilea. However, the Greeks could not break down the walls of Troy. Patroclus was killed and, soon after, Achilles was felled by Paris. Helenus, son of Priam, had been captured by Odysseus. A prophet, Helenus told the Greeks that Troy would not fall unless: a) Pyrrhus, Achilles' son, fought in the war, b) The bow and arrows of Hercules were used by the Greeks against the Trojans, c) The remains of Pelops, the famous Eleian hero, were brought to Troy, and d) The Palladium, a statue of Athena, was stolen from Troy (Tripp, 587). Phoenix persuaded Pyrrhus to join the war. Philoctetes had the bow and arrows of Hercules, but had been left by the Greek fleet in Lemnos because he had been bitten by a snake and his wound had a horrendous smell. Philoctetes was bitter, but was finally persuaded to join the Greeks. The remains of Pelops were gotten, and Odysseus infiltrated Trojan defenses and stole the Palladium.

The Trojan Horse Still seeking to gain entrance into Troy, clever Odysseus (some say with the aid of Athena) ordered a large wooden horse to be built. Its insides were to be hollow so that soldiers could hide within it.

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Once the statue had been built by the artist Epeius, a number of the Greek warriors, along with Odysseus, climbed inside. The rest of the Greek fleet sailed away, so as to deceive the Trojans. One man, Sinon, was left behind. When the Trojans came to marvel at the huge creation, Sinon pretended to be angry with the Greeks, stating that they had deserted him. He assured the Trojans that the wooden horse was safe and would bring luck to the Trojans. Only two people, Laocoon and Cassandra, spoke out against the horse, but they were ignored. The Trojans celebrated what they thought was their victory, and dragged the wooden horse into Troy. That night, after most of Troy was asleep or in a drunken stupor, Sinon let the Greek warriors out from the horse, and they slaughtered the Trojans. Priam was killed as he huddled by Zeus' altar and Cassandra was pulled from the statue of Athena and raped.

After the War After the war, Polyxena, daughter of Priam, was sacrificed at the tomb of Achilles and Astyanax, son of Hector, was also sacrificed, signifying the end of the war. Aeneas, a Trojan prince, managed to escape the destruction of Troy, and Virgil's Aeneid tells of his flight from Troy. Many sources say that Aeneas was the only Trojan prince to survive, but this statement contradicts the common story that Andromache was married to Helenus, twin of Cassandra, after the war. Menelaus, who had been determined to kill his faithless wife, was soon taken by Helen's beauty and seductiveness that he allowed her to live. The surviving Trojan women were divided among the Greek men along with the other plunder. The Greeks then set sail for home, which, for some, proved as difficult and took as much time as the Trojan War itself (e.g., Odysseus and Menelaus).

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www.philipresheph.com/demodokos/troy/pic47.htm

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The Origin of the Trojan War http://www.2020site.org/trojanwar/origin.html

At the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis all the gods had been invited with the exception of Eris, or Discord. Enraged at her exclusion, the goddess threw a golden apple among the guests, with the inscription, "For the fairest." Thereupon Juno, Venus, and Minerva each claimed the apple. Not willing to decide so delicate a matter, Jupiter sent the goddesses to Mount Ida where Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy, was tending his flocks. Till that moment the shepherd-prince had been happy. He was young and beautiful and beloved-- "White-breasted like a star," says the nymph whom he had wedded. White-breasted like a star Fronting the dawn he moved; a leopard skin Dropp'd from his shoulder, but his sunny hair Cluster'd about his temples like a god's: And his cheek brighten'd as the foam-bow brightens When the wind blows the foam, and all my heart Went forth to embrace him coming ere he came. (From Tennyson's "The Death of Cenone.") But to him was now committed the judgment between the goddesses. They appeared: And at their feet the crocus brake like fire, Violet, amaracus, and asphodel, Lotos and lilies: and a wind arose, And overhead the wandering ivy and vine, This way and that, in many a wild festoon Ran riot, garlanding the gnarled boughs With bunch and berry and flower thro' and thro.' (From Tennyson's “The Death of Cenone.”) Juno promised him power and riches, Minerva glory and renown in war, Venus the fairest of women for his wife, -- each attempting to bias the judge in her own favor. Paris, forgetting the fair nymph to whom he owed fealty, decided in favor of Venus, thus making the two other goddesses his enemies. Under the protection of the goddess of love, he soon afterwards sailed to Greece. Here he was hospitably received by Menelaus, whose wife, Helen, as fairest of her sex, was unfortunately the prize destined for Paris. This fair queen had in time past been sought by numerous suitors; but before her decision was made known, they all, at the suggestion of Ulysses, son of Laertes, king of Ithaca, had taken an oath that they would sustain her choice and

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avenge her cause if necessary. She was living happily with Menelaus when Paris, becoming their guest, made love to her, and then, aided by Venus, persuaded her to elope with him, and carried her to Troy. From this cause arose the famous Trojan War, -- the theme of the greatest poems of antiquity, those of Homer and Virgil. Menelaus called upon the chieftains of Greece to aid him in recovering his wife. They came forward with a few exceptions. Ulysses, for instance, who had married a cousin of Helen's, Penelope, daughter of Icarius, was happy in his wife and child, and loth to embark in the troublesome affair. Palamedes was sent to urge him. But when Palamedes arrived at Ithaca, Ulysses pretended madness. He yoked an ass and an ox together to the plow and began to sow salt. The ambassador, to try him, placed the infant Telemachus before the plow, whereupon the father, turning the plow aside, showed that his insanity was a mere pretense. Being himself gained for the undertaking, Ulysses lent his aid to bring in other reluctant chiefs, especially Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis. Thetis being herself one of the immortals, and knowing that her son was fated to perish before Troy if he went on the expedition, endeavored to prevent his going. She, accordingly, sent him to the court of King Lycomedes of the island of Scyros, and induced him to conceal himself in the garb of a maiden among the daughters of the king. Hearing that the young Achilles was there, Ulysses went disguised as a merchant to the palace and offered for sale female ornaments, among which had been placed some arms. Forgetting the part he had assumed, Achilles handled the weapons and thereby betrayed himself to Ulysses, who found no great difficulty in persuading him to disregard his mother's counsels and join his countrymen in the war. …. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and brother of Menelaus, was chosen commander in chief. Preeminent among the warriors was the swift-footed Achilles. After him ranked his cousin Ajax, the son of Telamon, gigantic in size and of great courage, but dull of intellect; Diomede, the son of Tydeus, second only to Achilles in all the qualities of a hero; Ulysses, famous for sagacity; and Nestor, the oldest of the Grecian chiefs, to whom they all looked up for counsel. But Troy was no feeble enemy. Priam the king, son of Laomedon and brother of Tithonus and Hesione, was now old; but he had been a wise prince and had strengthened his state by good government at home and powerful alliances with his neighbors. By his wife Hecuba he had a numerous family; but the principal stay and support of his throne was his son Hector, one of the noblest figures of antiquity. The principal leaders on the side of the Trojans, beside Hector, were his relative, Aeneas, the son of Venus and Anchises, Deiphobus, Glaucus, and Sarpedon. ….

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Classroom Activity Sheet: Reflections of Ancient Greece Source: DiscoverySchool.Com

Mythology in Ancient Greece Name: Directions: Research your topic and answer the questions below. Be sure to add at least one question of your own. When you are finished, use the information gathered to help you write your own Greek myth. 1. How did people in ancient Greece use storytelling to explain the world around them?

2. Who are some of the mythological heroes of ancient Greece and describe them?

3. Name as many gods of ancient Greece as possible. Explain what each god stood for.

4. What are the characteristics of a myth?

5. According to the ancient Greeks, what happened to people when they died?

6. Add your own question here. 7. Write at least three ways that ancient Greek culture is reflected in today’s society.

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NAME:_______________________________

DATE: __________________________

MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTER CHART Name of Mythological Character

Attributes of Mythological Character

Symbol of Mythological Character

Myth Attributed to Mythological Character

How is this Mythological Character Meaningful?

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OPINION/PROOF THINK SHEET Name___________________________ Date__________________ Title ___________________________ Genre_________________ What I think I think the author is stating that…

Evidence I know this because…

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Resolution

Conflict

Place events occur-real or fiction

Moral/lesson learned

Extraordinary Events

Supernatural Beliefs

Name of God, Goddess

Type of Myth (Explanatory, Creation)

Name of Myth

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ELEMENTS OF GREEK MYTHOLOGY

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Greece, Italy and Asia Minor http://www.britannica.com/ebc/art-54571/This-map-shows-the-chief-cities-and-divisions-of-ancient?&articleTypeId=31

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Field Test Edition CATEGORY Research Question

Selection of Sources

Note-taking & Keywords

Organization and Synthesis

EXEMPLARY 3 PTS. Wrote thoughtful, creative, well-worded specific questions that were relevant to the assigned topic. Identified highly appropriate sources in a variety of formats (books, journals, electronic sources). Extracted relevant information. Wrote notes including succinct key facts which directly answered all of the research questions and were written in the student’s own words. Presented content clearly and concisely with a logical progression of ideas and effective supporting evidence. Selected an appropriate and effective format to creatively communicate research findings.

2009-10 PROJECT ASSESSMENT RUBRIC PROFICIENT 2 PTS. Wrote well-worded, specific questions that were relevant to the assigned topic. Identified mostly appropriate sources in a variety of formats (books, journals, electronic sources). Extracted mostly relevant information. Wrote notes which included facts that answered most of the research questions and were written in the student’s own words. Presented most of the content with a logical progression of ideas and supporting evidence. Selected an appropriate format to structure and communicate research findings.

PARTIALLY PROFICIENT 1PT. Wrote questions which lacked focus, were poorly stated, and were not entirely relevant to the assigned topic.

Points

INCOMPLETE 0 PTS. Wrote questions which lacked a specific focus, were poorly stated, and not relevant to the assigned topic.

Identified a few appropriate sources but made little attempt to balance format types.

Identified no appropriate sources in any format

Extracted a lot of information which wasn’t relevant Wrote notes which included irrelevant facts which did not answer the research questions. Some notes were copied directly from the original source.

Extracted irrelevant information.

Presented content which failed to maintain a consistent focus, showed minimal organization and effort, and lacked an adequate amount of supporting evidence. Needed to select a more effective format to structure and communicate research findings.

Wrote notes which included a majority of facts which did not answer the research questions. Most or all notes were copied word-forword from the original source. Presented content which was unfocused, poorly organized, showed little thought or effort and lacked supporting evidence. Failed to select an appropriate format to communicate research findings.

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Field Test Edition Citations/ Documentation

Cited all sources of information accurately to demonstrate the credibility and authority of the information presented. Used information ethically all of the time.

2009-10 Cited most sources of information in proper format and documented sources to enable accuracy checking. Used information ethically most of the time.

Cited most sources of information improperly and provided little or no supporting documentation to check accuracy.

Created citations which were incomplete or inaccurate, and provided no way to check the validity of the information gathered.

Failed to use information ethically some of the time.

Failed to use information ethically.

Source: http://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/rubrics/middlelschresearchrubric.html

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 Homework Handout: How have myths influenced our language? The following is a partial list of mythological references and some words they have inspired to get you started. Atlas: A mythical giant who supported the heavens on his shoulders. (The book of maps known as an atlas is named after a legendary African king, sometimes thought to be descended from the Atlas of Greek myth.) Hercules: Also known as Heracles, the greatest hero of Greece. (A particularly great exertion is said to be a Herculean effort.) Labyrinth: A dangerous maze built for King Minos. Sacrificial victims were sent into the Labyrinth from which it was almost impossible to escape. At the center was the monstrous minotaur. The English words labyrinth and labyrinthine may derive from certain double-headed axes, archaeological examples of which have been found on the Greek island of Crete, site of the kingdom of mythological King Minos and the Labyrinth.) Midas: A king who had the power to change all he touched to gold. This blessing became a curse. (The Midas touch.) Pan: Shepherd god, son of Hermes, with legs and horns of a goat. (Pan was considered to be the cause of the sudden fear that sometimes comes for no reason, especially in lonely places. That’s why it’s called “panic”. ) Procrustes: Man who offered his “one-size-fits-all” bed to passing travelers, adjusting his guests to the bed by stretching or chopping their bodies as appropriate. (An article in The New York Times referred to art historians who try to force the famous painter Pablo Picasso into “the Procrustean bed of theories.”) Sisyphus: Sinner condemned rolling a rock uphill for eternity. (A Sisyphean task.) Tantalus: A king allowed to partake of the nectar of the gods. He abused his privilege by stealing the divine beverage to share with his human friends. For this sin he was condemned to the Underworld, where he stood in fresh water that receded whenever he tried to drink and under a tree filled with ripe fruit always just beyond reach. (tantalize)

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Titans: An ancient race of giants who were overcome by Zeus in a struggle that shook the world. (titanic) Source: *Courtesy of http://mythweb.com

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NAME: __________________________ DATE: ______________________ Mythology Glossary myth: a story of unknown authorship that people told long ago in an attempt to answer serious questions about how important things began and occurred. Myths generally involve nature or the adventure of gods and heroes. God (male)/ goddess (female): a supernatural being having special powers over nature and people phenomenon: anything that is extremely unusual; an extraordinary occurrence conflict: in a story, conflict is the struggle that grows out of opposing forces between character and events. Conflict helps to create suspense in a story plot: the plan of action of a play, story, or novel resolution: the outcome of a story metamorphosis: to change form, shape, structure, or substance; a complete change of appearance or condition research-based: based on facts narrator: a person who tells a story

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Handout for Day 1 Greek Mythology Source: Myths and Legends of the World, (2000) Greek Mythology The mythology of the ancient Greeks included a dazzling array of deities, demigods, monsters, and heroes. These figures inhabited a realm that stretched beyond the Greek landscape to the palaces of the gods on snowcapped Mount Olympus, as well as to the dismal underworld. In time, Greek mythology became part of European culture, and many of its stories became known throughout the world. Despite their awesome powers, the Greek gods and goddesses were much like people. Their actions stemmed from recognizable passions, such as pride, jealousy, love, and the thirst for revenge. The deities often left Mount Olympus to become involved in the affairs of mortals, interacting with men and women as patrons, enemies, and sometimes lovers. They were not above using tricks and disguises to influence events, and their schemes and plots often entangled people. Heroes and ordinary humans in Greek myths frequently discovered that things were not what they appeared to be. The underlying moral principle, though, was that the gods rewarded honorable behavior and obedience, and people who dishonored themselves or defied the gods usually paid a high price. Roofs and Sources Geography helped shape Greek mythology. Greece is a peninsula surrounded by sea and islands. Rugged mountains and the jagged coastline break the land into many small, separate areas. Ancient Greece never became a unified empire. Instead, it consisted of small kingdoms that after about 800 B.C. became city-states. Because travel was easier by sea than by land, the Greeks became a nation of seafarers, and they traded and established colonies all over the Mediterranean and the Near East. Greek mythology is a patchwork of stories, some conflicting with one another. Many have been passed down from ancient times in more than one version. The roots of this mythology reach back to two civilizations that flourished before 1100 BC: the Mycenaean, on the Greek mainland, and the Minoan, on the nearby island of Crete. The ancient beliefs merged with legends from

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 Greek kingdoms and city-states and myths borrowed from other peoples to form a body of lore shared by most Greeks. For hundreds of years, these myths passed from generation to generation in spoken form. Then, around the time the classical Greek culture of the city-states arose, people began writing them down. The works of Hesiod and Homer, which date from the 700s BC, are key sources for the mythology of ancient Greece. Hesiod’s Theogony tells of creation and of the gods’ origins and relationships. The Iliad and The Odyssey, epics said to have been written by Homer, show the gods influencing human destiny. In addition, Pindar, a poet of around 600 BC, wrote poems called odes that contain much myth and legend. Non-Greek sources also exist. The Romans dominated the Mediterranean world after the Greeks and adopted elements of Greek mythology. The Roman poet Ovid’s poem, The Metamorphoses, retells many Greek myths. The Greek Pantheon The word pantheon, which refers to all the gods of a particular culture, comes from the Greek pan (all) and Theoi (gods). The pantheon of the ancient Greeks consisted of the Olympian gods and other major deities, along with many minor deities and demigods. Olympian Gods. The principal deities, six gods and six goddesses, lived on Mount Olympus, the highest peak in Greece. Zeus (called Jupiter by the Romans) was the king of the gods and reigned over all the other deities and their realms. He was the protector of justice, kingship, authority, and the social order. His personal life was rather disorderly, however. Many myths tell of his love affairs with various goddesses, Titans, and human women, and their effects. Hera (Roman Juno), queen of the gods, was Zeus’s sister and wife. She could cause all kinds of trouble when her husband pursued other women. Major Themes and Myths Stories about the gods along with other supernatural beings, demigods, heroes, and ordinary mortals; illustrate the major themes of Greek mythology. They explain how the world came to be and offer examples of how people should and should not live. The myths provided support for the Greeks’ idea of community, especially the city-state. Origins of Gods and Humans. The theme of younger generations overcoming their elders runs through the history of the Greek gods. Creation began with Chaos, first imagined as the gap between earth and sky but later

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Field Test Edition 2009-10 as formless confusion. The mother goddess, Gaia, the earth, came into being and gave birth to Uranus, the sky. Joining with Uranus, she became pregnant with six male and six female Titans. But before these children could be born, Uranus had to be separated from Gaia. Cronus, the youngest Titan, cut off his father’s sexual organs and threw them into the sea. Aphrodite was born from the foam where they landed. The 12 Titans mated with each other and with nymphs. Cronus married his sister Rhea (Roman Cybele). Perhaps remembering what he had done to his own father, Cronus swallowed his children as they were born. When Rhea gave birth to Zeus, however, she tricked Cronus by substituting a stone wrapped in baby clothes for him to swallow. Later, when Zeus had grown up, a female Titan named Metis gave Cronus a drink that made him vomit up Zeus’s brothers and sisters. They helped Zeus defeat the Titans and become the supreme deity. Zeus then married Metis. However, because of a prophecy that her children would be wise and powerful, he swallowed her so that her children could not harm him. Their daughter Athena sprang full-grown from Zeus’s head.

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SUGGESTED FINAL PROJECTS

Calydonian Boar hunt. Corinthian black-figured aryballos, ca. 580 BC http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calydonian_Hunt_Louvre_E612Bis.jpg

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SUGGESTED FINAL PROJECT: CLASSROOM RESTYLE: Create a Classroom Museum Exhibit Students become active archivists: gathering photos, creating images and artifacts, and sharing facts and stories for a museum exhibit that highlights the culture and lasting contributions of Ancient Greece. The exhibit should incorporate aspects of our world today that are connected to this ancient civilization. This suggested final project can be shared and displayed in your classroom, in the school auditorium or in the library. Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece: A Lasting Legacy Essential Question: Why do we study ancient cultures and civilizations? Focus Question: How has the legacy of Ancient Greece influenced the modern world? Time Needed: Approximately 12 Days Teaching Points: • • • • • •

Students will develop their observation and surveying skills. Students will learn that material artifacts that remain from an ancient civilization are one of the primary sources of information and insight into the peoples and cultures of the ancient world. Students will learn ancient texts are an important resource in helping us identify how concerns and values of peoples living in ancient times are similar to and different from our own. Students will conduct research Students will identify applicable artifacts and organize them. Students will create museum displays

Why/Purpose/Connection: Comparing the material culture of the present with that of an ancient civilization is valuable in identifying both the continuing influence of ancient culture on modernity and the divide that has developed due to technological progress. Materials: • Pencils, paper, chart paper, markers and other art supplies, Internet and Library access.

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Resources/Readings: Greek Art from Prehistoric to Classical By Michael Norris, Carlos Picón, Joan Mertens, Elizabeth Milleker, Seán Hemingway, and Christopher Lightfoot, Copyright © 2000 by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. This publication was designed not only to introduce the Museum's collection of Greek art to teachers and their students, but also to provide them with a general grounding in ancient Greek culture, from the prehistoric period to the end of the Classical age. Its range of resources gives educators great flexibility in engaging students of any age with the art of ancient Greece. Included are a brief history of Athens from the 6th to the 4th century B.C.; a look at key aspects of 5th-century Greek life (including myths and religion, philosophy and science, music, poetry, sports, the symposium, and warfare); discussions of Greek art, artists, materials, and the influence of Greek subjects in the art of other eras; suggested activities and lesson plans; a map of the ancient Greek world; a timeline; and a bibliography. To view and download the entire book (3.2 MB) go to: http://www.met.org/explore/publications/pdfs/greek/greek_entire_book.pdf

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Day 1: Setting the Stage • • • • • • • •

Ask students to take a look around the classroom and observe the variety of objects in the room. Ask them to take note of all the things associated with classroom life. Have each student select one object from all the things s/he sees, and write it down on a piece of paper. Tell students the object can be anything from a floor tile or an eraser to a light bulb or a cabinet. Ask students to think about the history of the object s/he selected. Tell students if they do not know anything about its history to make up a story to explain how the object first came to be and how it developed over time. Have each student write the story down. Post the following questions for students to keep in mind while writing: o What is the purpose of the object? What is it used for? o What is the object made of? How long have those materials been available for? o When do you think objects like this were first made? o What types of objects do you think people used 50 years ago for the same function? How about 100 years ago? 500? 1000?



Select a few students to share their “object histories.”

Share/Closure: •

Wrap up with students by asking: o How hard was it to work with the object you selected? o Did you already know something about its history, or did you make it up? o What prior knowledge did you use in the exercise?

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2009-10 HOMEWORK: What is a Museum? Have students answer the following questions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Name some museums you’ve visited and tell what you saw there. What is the purpose of having museums? What makes museums interesting? What makes a museum display interesting to you? What is involved in setting up a museum display?

Students should be ready to share their thoughts when they return to class.

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Day 2: Exhibit Design, Construction and Timeline



Explain that your class will be working in groups to create an “Ancient Greece Museum.” Each group will be responsible for designing and constructing an element of the exhibit. Tell students THE THEME of the EXHIBIT is: “WHAT’S ANCIENT GREECE GOT TO DO WITH IT?”



Divide the class into approx. 5 – 6 groups.



Distribute Museum Exhibit Group Roles. Then have each group select a role and a topic of interest, i.e. Myths, Art, Architecture, Olympics, etc.



Discuss how much time the class will have to complete the exhibit by reviewing the Museum Exhibit Project Timeline. Also discuss what materials they can use and how much space each group will be allocated.



Advise your students they will need to begin collecting information before they can start designing the exhibit. While conducting research and taking notes, they need to consider which information they would like to include on exhibit signs, i.e. which information is most relevant.



Pass out copies of the Museum Exhibit Planner and have groups begin to complete.

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Credit: Left: Marie-Lan Nguyen, Wikimedia Commons; right: Photo of Zydrunas Savikas: Flickr, Creative Commons License

Student Exploration/Practice:

Days 3 - 5: Groups begin to execute their plan. Day 6: Meet with groups to keep on them on task. Discuss any problems or challenges students are facing in individually, in their small group and/or as a class. Days 7 - 9: Groups begin to evaluate and revise their individual part of the whole class exhibit. Distribute Museum Exhibit Evaluation to assist them in this process. Share/Closure: Days 10 & 11: All small group exhibits are completed and whole class plans to announce their museum exhibit and prepare to be museum guides. Day 12: Class opens their exhibit for public viewing. School to Home Connection: •

Invite parents and community members to visit the exhibit. Extend invitation to local museum curators, too.

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Students create a virtual tour of the exhibit and post on school web site.



Students write a piece to post on a blog (on kid-friendly educational site) to describe the work completed and how others could re-create as similar project.

Other Notes/Comments:

Adapted from Lessons from the Salvadori Classrooms •“Classroom Restyle” Used with permission • Copyright © 2006 Salvadori Center • www.salvadori.org

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2009-10 Museum Exhibit Group Roles

After selecting your group members’ roles, record them below:

• Manager—keeps group members on task; communicates with teacher; provides leadership • Reporter—keeper of all records; manages paper; tracks “who’s doing what” • Techie—manages the group’s technology needs (e.g., computers, digital cameras, scanners, and other technology); knows how to use the technology or is willing and able to learn new technology as needed for this project. • Archivists (2)—organizes found stories, photos, and artifacts • Researchers—all group members participate in the research process, actively researching their topic throughout the time spent on the project. NOTE: In addition to the assigned roles, ALL group members are researchers, actively researching their topic during this entire project and should collaborate and help with other roles as needed. Group Roles Manager: ___________________________________________________ Reporter: ___________________________________________________ Techie: _____________________________________________________ Archivist 1: _________________________________________________ Archivist 2: _________________________________________________ Additional Researchers: __________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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2009-10 Museum Exhibit Project Timeline

After completing each part of your project, complete the related part of this checklist and then meet, in your group, with your teacher to review your progress.

Due Date

Completed Date

Student Comments

Teacher Comments

Group Role Selection Group Topic Selection Complete Exhibit Planner Internet Research #1 Artifact Collection #1 Internet Research #2 Artifact Collection #2 Artifact Organization Final Exhibit Presentation NOTES:

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Discuss how your group will complete this project. In other words, what is your plan? Discuss each of the following points and then have your group’s Reporter record your final plan on this sheet. 1. What is the topic of your exhibit?

2. What do you already know about your topic?

3. What specific information do you want to learn about the topic?

4. List five questions you have about your topic: A. ______________________________________________________ B. ______________________________________________________ C. ______________________________________________________ D. ______________________________________________________ E. ______________________________________________________ 5. Describe your plan for collecting information.

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6. List the preliminary research sources you anticipate using. INTERNET:

COMMUNITY:

7. Describe your plan for organizing and displaying artifacts. (You may return to this question.)

8. What work can be done in class?

9. What will need to be done out of class?

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2009-10 Museum Exhibit Evaluation

As your group prepares to complete its part of the exhibit, answer the following questions: 1. After visiting your group’s section of the class exhibit, people should know:

2. How is your group’s display interactive?

3. Does the exhibit have an overall, eye-catching design? Explain.

4. Are items displayed labeled? Are labels easy to read?

5. Is the exhibit safe for visitors?

6. Does your group’s portion of the class exhibit require maintenance? If so, how much? Daily? Weekly?

7. What materials were used to build your contribution to the exhibit?

8. What is your budget?

9. Did you borrow any items from another class? Is an item in your display on loan from another museum? If so, how will those items be secured? Handout adapted from Desert Museum Teacher Information Self-Guided Visit •1999 ASDM

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OPTIONAL RUBRIC: Museum Exhibit

Connecting the Past with the Present Rubric

Group Participation

Group Role

Exhibit Content

Exhibit Creativity

3 Student fully participated in all group activities, including planning, discussion, research, and creation of artifacts.

2 Student participated in most group activities, but there were one or two lapses.

1 Students participated in few or no group activities.

Student showed understanding of his or her group role by actively and effectively performing the required tasks.

Student showed understanding of his or her group role by performing most of the required tasks, but left one or two tasks undone or incomplete.

Student showed little or no understanding of his or her group role. Few or no required tasks were completed.

Artifacts in the exhibit clearly relate to the main topic. The topic is covered completely and in depth.

Artifacts in the exhibit relate to the main topic. The topic is covered in depth, but some information is missing.

Artifacts have little or nothing to do with the main topic. There is very little depth in coverage of the topic.

A lot of thought was put into making the exhibit interesting and fun as shown by creative artifacts and presentation.

Some thought was put into making the exhibit interesting and fun as shown by artifacts and presentation.

Very little thought was put into making the exhibit interesting or fun.

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OPTIONAL STUDENT REFLECTION SHEET

Making Connections and Reflections When you complete this project, reflect on the process by responding to the statements below: Participation in my group: To what extent did I participate in group activities, including planning, discussion, research, and selection of artifacts for our exhibit? How could I have improved my participation?

Group Role: How did I contribute to my group’s success on this project by performing my group role?

Exhibit Content: How does the content of my group’s museum exhibit clearly relate to our main topic? Is the topic covered completely and in depth? If not, how could we improve the exhibit?

Exhibit Creativity: What elements of our exhibit make it interesting and fun? What areas show that we put a lot of thought into making our exhibit?

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ARCHCYCLOPEDIA: An Architecture Encyclopedia LESSON PLAN, HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT, FIELD TRIP & EXTENSION ACTIVITY Unit of Study/Theme: Ancient Greece: Foundation of the Modern World Essential Question: What impact does Ancient Greece have on modern society? Focus Question: How has Ancient Greece shaped the modern world? Time Needed: • • • •

1 class period for lesson plan 2 – 3 days to complete homework and review in class prior to field trip ½ - 1 day for field trip 1 – 2 weeks for Extension Activity

The Teaching Points: • • • •

Students will become familiar with architectural elements Students will gain an appreciation for how individual details contribute to overall design Students will define terms for themselves Students will understand and retain the meaning of new terms

Why/Purpose/Connection: For students to describe, define and illustrate the form and function of ancient Greek architectural elements and/or architectural structures. In addition, students will examine and understand the location, purpose and significance of ancient architectural structures and its architectural influence and impact on architecture throughout history. Materials: • • • •

Paper Pencils Internet Included Hand-outs

Resources/Readings:

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Carley, Lam & Skibinski, The Visual Dictionary of American Domestic Architecture; Henry Holt and Co.: New York, NY, 1994. Harris, Cyril M., American Architecture: An Illustrated Encyclopedia; W.W. Norton & Co.: New York, NY, 1998. Day 1: ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE 101 Mini-lesson: • • • • • • • •

Write the word “COLUMN” on the board. Ask students to write down what they think the word means. Advise them if they do not know what it means to make up a definition that sounds like a dictionary definition. Collect definitions from students and put a few on board and review. Students may elaborate on their definition through directed questions. Take a “vote” to see which definition seems correct. Provide students with photo/illustration (HANDOUT A) and then ask to define Column next to illustration. See if any student came close to defining. Compare their refined definition with the technical definition of the term (HANDOUT B).

Student Exploration/Practice: •

Ask students “What is an architectural element?” o Would you include things like ornaments? o How about windows and doors? o Would you include columns? o Or electrical outlets?

Architectural elements are usually defined as anything that is essentially part of the design of the building. Ornaments, windows, doors and columns are all architectural elements, because the architect decided where they would go and how they would look. Electrical outlets or rugs would not be architectural elements because their placement was probably decided by someone else. • •

Divide students into small groups and have them examine your classroom for architectural elements. If possible, have a few of the groups explore a hallway, or other space in the school building for this exercise. Ask each group record each element and note its shape, the material used to make it as well as any other unique information one would use to describe or identify it.

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Have each group report back to whole class the architectural elements they found.

Share/Closure: • •

Assign HANDOUT C for homework (may take 2 nights to complete) and tell students to be prepared to share their findings with the class. Homework should be completed prior to field trip to Federal Hall, where students will go on field trip to discover and observe Greek architectural influences at a historic site in New York City.

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NAME: ________________________________________________________ Date: _______________________

Class: ______________

ARCHCYCLOPEDIA HANDOUT A: COLUMN Below is a picture of a column. Underneath the picture, please write a detailed definition of a column.

Your Definition:

Image taken from http://orgs.odu.edu/oduifc/gallery_files/columns.gif

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NAME: ________________________________________________________ Date: _______________________

Class: ______________

ARCHCYCLOPEDIA HANDOUT B: COLUMNS in ANCIENT GREECE COLUMNS: What are the three orders of Greek Architecture? Columns in Ancient Greece are of three orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.

Image taken from http://www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/tourFames.cgi?tour_id=14715

A definition of a column. Are all columns the same? In architecture, a column refers to a rigid, relatively slender, upright support, composed of relatively few pieces. A column may also be defined as a decorative pillar, most often composed of stone and typically having a cylindrical or polygonal shaft with a capital and usually a base. Doric style columns are plain, sturdy and heavy with simple capitals and no base. Ionic columns are more slender than Doric columns. The capital of the column contains scroll-like curls or ram’s horns. The capital of a Corinthian column has acanthus leaves and has carved details.

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Name: ______________________________________________

Date: ____________

ARCHCYCLOPEDIA HANDOUT C: HOMEWORK

For homework we will create a complete picture of the Parthenon. You will work in small groups to learn about one aspect of this structure. Then you will be expected to share what you’ve learned with the class. The class will be divided into seven small groups and each group will have a different assignment. Some groups will research the history or purpose of the Parthenon, and others will learn about specific parts or materials. Each group must create a short written & illustrated report that answers the questions assigned. The first five groups should fill in or color and then label at least one photo of the Parthenon. All reports should include one or two images or original drawings. Students may visit the following Web sites: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/architindex?entry=Athens,Parthenon http://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/htmlver/index.html http://www.goddess-athena.org/Encyclopedia/Athena/index.htm Each group will present its findings in the order of the group numbers below and then display their report and pictures. To begin, what is the Parthenon? Sitting high on a hill at the center of Athens is the Acropolis, a collection of monuments and temples dedicated to the gods. The best known of these monuments is the Parthenon, dedicated to Athena Parthenos, the patron goddess of Athens. Built between 447 and 432 B.C., this monument remains the international symbol of ancient Greece and is probably the best example of classical ancient Greek architecture, especially of the Doric order—the earliest and simplest of the classical Greek styles.

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Which group am I in? _____________________ Who is in my group? ______________________________________________________________________________ Group 1: Rooms • • • • • • •

What were the pronaos, naos (orcella), and opisthodomos? What was the purpose of each room? What was unique about the dimensions and proportions of the naos? How was its length and height related to it purpose? What was unique about the columns around the pronaos? What was the main material used to build the Parthenon? Until the Parthenon was built, what material had most temples been made of?

Group 2: Columns and Capital • • • • • • •

How many columns were on each end of the Parthenon? How many along the sides? What was unique about this proportion? What were some of the optical illusions used to make them appear more graceful? What was the peristyle? What were the capitals, abacus, and echinus? What is unique about the Doric capital?

Group 3: Base and Floor • • •

What are the crepidoma and the stylobate? What were they made of? What optical refinements were used? Why?

Group 4: Friezes • • • •

What are the entablature, the frieze, the triply, and me tope? What were found in the metopes along the outer sides of the Parthenon? What was specifically depicted in the metopes on the north end? What was found in the frieze along the four outside walls of the naos?

Group 5: Roof •

What was the pediment?

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What did archaeologists find at each pediment? How were these sculptures decorated? What was the roof made of?

Group 6: Purpose • Why was the Parthenon used? • Who was Athena? • What were her symbols? • How was she honored at the Parthenon? • What was the sculpture of Athena made of? • Who was the head sculptor of the Parthenon? • Which piece do scholars believe Pheidias sculpted? • Describe the Panathenaic Procession. • Sketch an overview of the Acropolis, and label other important monuments. (Sketch should include the Propylaea, temple to Athena Nike, and the Erechtheion.) Group 7: History • • • • • •

How long had the Acropolis been in use? What happened in 480 B.C.? When was the Parthenon built? Who were the architects of the Parthenon? How have other peoples used the Parthenon? When was most of the damage done to the Parthenon?

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At the end of the homework assignment, to assess your students’ understanding as well as prepare for the upcoming field trip, present the following questions for whole class discussion. 1. Describe the location of the Acropolis and the Parthenon. Explain the significance of this location for Athenians at the time of the construction of the temple. 2. Explain why the Parthenon is one of the best examples of classical Greek architecture. 3. What were the optical refinements used in the Parthenon? How did each one create an illusion that enhanced the gracefulness of the structure?

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Homework Assignment adapted from http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/programs/parthenon/

Day 2: FIELD TRIP to Federal Hall National Memorial The Birthplace of American Government

Arrange for the following Ranger Guided tour: Greek Revival in the New World--The construction of this building was intended to not only summon images of ancient Greece and Rome but to impress visitors with the power of the Federal government. Join a Park Ranger for a tour of the architectural highlights of the 1842 Customs House. (TOUR takes 30 to 45 minutes) Free guided tours are available to the public Monday through Friday at 10:00 AM, 11:00 AM, 1:00 PM, 2:00 PM, and 3:00 PM. The schedule is subject to staff availability. Schools can make reservations for special programs by completing the reservation form found at: http://www.nps.gov/feha/forteachers/upload/Info+Reservation-2.doc. Fax completed form to (212) 668-2899. Reservations are available any time between 9:00 AM and 5:00 PM. Groups must be scheduled at least 2 weeks in advance. Children (under the age of 18) must be accompanied by a chaperone. Federal Hall National Memorial requires one chaperone for every ten children. Students are required to remain with their chaperones at all times. For more information visit http://www.nps.gov/feha/ Recommended Field Trip tips: • • • • •

Visit site prior to scheduled trip Create a Trip Sheet for students to complete while at site Use the homework questions as a guide to create trip sheet Complete and submit necessary paperwork to your supervisor with ample time to revise and re-submit proposal if necessary Secure Chaperones

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EXTENSION ACTIVITY

Create Your Own ARCHCYCLOPEDIA An Architecture Encyclopedia Mini-lesson: • • •

• •

• •

Begin by telling students that they will be creating an illustrated encyclopedia of architectural elements Provide an example (see Resources) to demonstrate how they will want to combine images and text to create an architecture book of definitions Students will chose a landmark building in New York City, with Neoclassical or Greek Revival architectural elements, to explore, i.e. Low Library at Columbia University, Main USPS Post Office across from PENN Station (See resource section in this unit for photos of NYC buildings with Neoclassical or Greek Revival elements). Explain that the class will be divided into small groups with at least 4 students to a group Within each group, 1-2 students will be responsible for one of the following aspects of the project: o Documentation o Research o Graphic Design o Book-making Although information will be passed on from one student to another in the above sequence, the entire group should be working concurrently throughout the project. Explain the role of each of the above: the Documentarian, the Researcher, the Graphic Designer and the Book Maker. o As a documentarian your job is to find and document as many of your building’s architectural elements as you can. o As the researcher your job is to identify sources of information on Neoclassical and/or Greek revival architectural elements as well as the purpose and history of your chosen landmark. o As the graphic designer you will look at many examples of books to get ideas on how to design your Archcyclopedia. You will propose how to effectively combine text and images in an encyclopedia format. o As the book maker you will figure out how books are made and investigate the craft of book making.

Note: You may want to assign students based on your knowledge of their existing skills. The documentation team would benefit from students who are good a drawing

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or photography, students who most enjoy reading and writing might do best on the research team, students who are comfortable using computers or who may have experience with computer design or photography software would find their skills put to use on the graphic design team, and students who enjoy crafts and building would do best on the book-making team. Student Exploration/Practice: • • • •

Distribute STUDENT GUIDES 1 – 4 to each group Students select the role they wish to have in group Students fulfill their specific tasks Students collaborate with their fellow group members

Share/Closure: • •

Have each group present their final product to the class. Have each student reflect on the following: o

o

o

o

o

Do you have an opinion on the design of the building you researched after having explored its architectural elements? Do you think the architect had a good eye for detail? Did you find any distinctive architectural elements in your landmark that makes it stand out from other buildings you are familiar with? If so, what are they? Do you think the illustrations added to the clarity of the Archcyclopedia? Would it have been difficult to understand the descriptions without them? How does your book differ from other encyclopedias you have seen before? How does the fact that it is handmade influence the way you look at it? How well did you meet this challenge? What would you do differently next time?

If possible, you may want to have students investigate how they might be able to display their books so the entire school community has a chance to learn about NYC architecture and ancient Greece influences. School to Home Connection: •

Ask students to consider a way for their books to reach a wider audience than is possible with just one copy. Options may include: getting multiple copies printed and distributing them throughout the school community, or at the

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site they researched, or perhaps creating an online version of the Archcyclopedia. Have students document and include architectural elements from buildings in their neighborhood as well as the school building for inclusion in their Archcyclopedia or another one based on the architecture in their community.

Other Notes/Comments: Adapted from Lessons from the Salvadori Classrooms •“Archcyclopedia” Used by Permission • Copyright © 2006 Salvadori Center • www.salvadori.org

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STUDENT GUIDE 1 THE RESEARCHER

How are you going to research the architectural elements of the NYC landmark your group has selected? Your job is to find out as much as you can about the elements that the documentarian is documenting. Your first step is to find out what each element is called, and your second step is to define each word and find out as much information as possible about it. For example, if the documentarian gives you a photograph of the tiles in the bathroom, you may know that they are called bathroom tiles. But do you know what they are made of? How would you find out? Your best sources of information will be books and the Internet. Make an alphabetical list of all of the architectural elements you research. As you work on your list, give completed entries, along with the illustrations from the documentarian, to the graphic designer. Here is an example of an entry:

A keystone is the central masonry wedgeshaped block of an arch. Until this block is in place, the arch cannot support any weight.

STUDENT GUIDE 2

THE DOCUMENTARIAN How should you go about documenting the architectural elements of your landmark? What types of things do you want to include in your Archcyclopedia? Along with the graphic designer, decide how you will document the architectural elements of your building. Your best options are drawings or photographs.

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Once you have decided on your medium, go exploring. You may want to work from the inside out. As you find your elements, make a list, document, and note as much as you can about the details and the location of each drawing or picture you make. As you document the architectural elements, give your findings to your researcher. On the interior and exterior of the building, look at these elements: Surfaces (walls, floors, ceilings and roof): what are they made of? Do they have any ornament? Any other unusual features? Structural elements (What is holding the building up?): Do you see any structural elements on the inside or the outside? The walls may be structural, but you may also be able to see columns, beams, trusses, arches, etc. Details: Look closely at things like windows and doors. They are actually made up of many different pieces! For example, a door has a frame, hinges, a handle, a lock, and might have a closer and a wall stop (don’t know what these are? Ask your researcher!) Other things to examine closely are staircases, entrances, chimneys, etc. Example of an architectural element: keystone

Example of an architectural element: keystone

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STUDENT GUIDE 3

THE BOOK MAKER

How will you go about making the actual book? Your job is to research the craft of book-making and use what you have learned to produce the Archcyclopedia. Take a look at some of the books that are in your classroom. Examine them carefully. What are some of the things you will have to consider? Your book probably won’t look just like the books you are most familiar with since it will be made by hand instead of by a machine. This allows for more creativity to choose your materials and binding methods. Using books or the Internet, research the craft of book-making. Some of the things you will want to consider: • What type of paper would you like to use? • How does one print the pages? • How do you bind the pages? • How can I make a durable cover? As the graphic design team gives you their designs, print out the pages of the Archcyclopedia. When you have printed all the pages and made the front and back covers, bind the book using the method you chose.

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STUDENT GUIDE 4 THE GRAPHIC DESIGNER What should the encyclopedia of architectural elements look like? As the graphic designer, your job is to design the look of the Archcyclopedia, from the cover to the layout of each page. How will the text and the illustrations be arranged on the pages? The first decision is to decide, along with the documentarian, what form the illustrations should take. • • •

Should they be drawings or photographs? What are some advantages and disadvantages of each? Should they be in black and white or color?

Start working on the cover of the Archcyclopedia. First, come up with a title. Then decide on a font and a font size to use, as well as an illustration for the cover (optional) and any other text you want to include. Look at other books to get ideas. As soon as you get some definitions with illustrations from the research team, start working on a page layout that you can use consistently on all the pages. Things to consider are: • • • • •

Relationship between the illustration and text Text font and size Text wrapping (how it flows form one line to the next) Color scheme Borders and margins

A helpful technique is to cut out all of the elements you want to fit on one page and move them around to find a pleasing composition. Any knowledge of word processing, photo, and layout software will be useful in your project. As you complete the layout for each page, pass on your designs to your book-maker.

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Example of a page layout

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SUGGESTED FINAL PROJECT CREATE A MYTHICAL/WAR BOARD GAME By the end of this unit of study, students may design and create a variety of board games based on their learning experiences of Greek mythology and/or the rise of the Greek Empire by Alexander the Great. In groups, students can design/create one of the following: • Students will research various mythological creatures and heroes. They

may use information gathered from their readings of Greek myths to design a mythical board game.

• Students will work together in cooperative groups to design an

Alexander the Great board game. The game should teach or review important biographical information about Alexander, dates and battles, military strategies, related historical figures, and geography. Once each group of students figures out a goal for a game and the physical format that the game will take, the students will need to compose and print out a clear set of instructions. Then groups should exchange their games and instructions and try out each other's creations. Provide the basics—thin-tip markers or colored pencils, butcher paper or poster board, and plenty of space to spread out. Invite students to bring in small items that can function as playing pieces. Use standard dice, or have students create spinners or instruction cards that players use to move their playing pieces. Encourage both original student artwork on the game boards and reproductions of graphics from other sources.

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Mythology - The Board Game

You will design a board game that uses a specific myth and the life of your god/goddess as its theme. It will be modeled on Monopoly with game pieces, dice, fate cards, and a game board with squares for moves. All of the game pieces, game cards, and board should be colorful and decorated with symbols from myths about your god/goddess (g/g). When a classmate is finished playing your game, he or she should be able to tell about the myth your game is based on. BE SPECIFIC in your fate cards and the penalty squares! Materials: • Two Manila folders, one of which will be the game board and the other will be cut up for

game cards. • One clear transparency to copy the game to demonstrate on the overhead. • Scissors, crayons, colored pencils, clip art to decorate the board and board pieces. • One die to roll for the moves 1. Decide what the object of your game is. (This will vary by myth, but an example would be to rescue Eurydice from Hades, or free Prometheus from the mountaintop, etc.) 2. On the back of the folder, write the object of the game and the rules (What happens if two players land on the same space? How do you win?). 3. Design 2 game pieces to represent the players. These should be in a Greek style. 4. Cut out 12 game cards that resemble "Chance" or "Event" cards. These will be the things that happen to your characters' game pieces to advance or send them backwards on the game board. Write down an event on each card (like "You look at Medusa and turn to stone - lose two turns"). Decorate the other side of the card. 5. Write the title of your game across the top of the opened manila folder. Design the game board on the inside of the folder. The squares can be in any design. Mark some of the spaces "Draw a Card" spaces. 6. Practice playing the game to make sure it works. Evaluation: Your grades will be based on the following: is the game playable, and are the directions clear? Is it well decorated with illustrations from the myths? Is it colorful and creative? Can the players deduce the details of the myth from the game? Source: http://www.childdrama.com/greek.html

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PEER EVALUATION Evaluator’s Name(s): ________________________________________________ Is the board game attractive and challenging to you? Circle one of the following:

NO

YES

MAYBE

Why or why not? Be specific and list particular features (design, layout, illustrations, game pieces, activity cards, wording). Include any suggestions to enhance the game.

PEER EVALUATION Evaluator’s Name(s): ________________________________________________ Is the board game attractive and challenging to you? Circle one of the following:

NO

YES

MAYBE

Why or why not? Be specific and list particular features (design, layout, illustrations, game pieces, activity cards, wording). Include any suggestions to enhance the game. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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SUGGESTED FINAL PROJECT CREATE AN ORIGINAL GREEK MYTH By the end of this unit of study, students may write and perform an original Greek myth. • Students will research various Greek myths and be able to identify the

elements and characteristics of a myth.

• Students will compare myths of Ancient Greece with other fables,

folktales, or tall tales studied. What are some common themes? How are Greek myths different? • Students will be able to describe the way that narrative structures such

as myths help in remembering and telling of events, explanation of the cosmos and gods/goddesses.

• Students will write a short one act play • Students will create props and costumes for their play that reflect the

time period. • Students will perform the play for an audience.

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GRAPHIC ORGANIZER FOR MYTHS Name:____________________ Period:____________________

Date:____________________

Title of Myth:____________________ Number of Gods or Goddesses:______ Name of God or Goddess:_________________ Character Trait:______________ Name of God or Goddess:_________________ Character Trait:______________ Name of God or Goddess:_________________ Character Trait:______________

Problem to be solved in your myth: _______________________________________________ Brainstorm: Exposition: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ “Little Incident:” _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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Rising Action: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Climax: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Falling Action: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Resolution: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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HEROES, GODS, AND MONSTERS OF THE GREEK MYTHS INFORMATION COLLECTION ORGANIZER Name: ____________________________________________________________ Father: ___________________________________________________________ Mother: ___________________________________________________________ Married to: ________________________________________________________ Physical Characteristics:

Human Characteristics:

Characteristics ______________________ Example _____________________ Characteristics ______________________ Example _____________________ Characteristics ______________________ Example _____________________ Important Talents:

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SUGGESTED FINAL PROJECT CONTEMPORARY GREEK MODEL BUILDINGS By the end of this unit of study, students may design a contemporary model building using elements of Ancient Greek architecture. • Students will study the design on Ancient Greek buildings such as the

Parthenon, the Kronos Palace, the Akropolis, and the City of Athens, etc. and brainstorm problems that could have been encountered during the actual building of these facilities. • Students will research materials available and used during Ancient

Greece and begin sketching their contemporary model building.

• Students will design and build original model buildings using elements

and features of Greek architecture.

• Students will understand cultural heritage and help locate numerous

“Greek” buildings in their environment through walking tours and field trips. • Students will create an advertisement to promote and sell their new real

estate.

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SUGGESTED FINAL PROJECT: CONDUCT A DEBATE By the end of this unit of study, students may write and conduct a debate using key elements of Ancient Greek philosophy. • Students will focus on the Crito, in which Socrates argues against the idea that he should escape the penalty of death imposed on him by Athens, laying the groundwork for future debates over the rights of the individual and the rule of law. • Students will learn about Socrates and his significance within western civilization • Students will analyze argument on rule of law that Socrates presents in Crito. • Students will consider the relationship between individual right and rule of law in contemporary society. • Students will obtain essential critical thinking and presentation skills, examination and questioning skills, distinguish between fact and opinion, point of view, personal values vs. political values, and identifying bias. Students read a version of Crito and analyze its arguments in a class discussion. Students will extend dialogue to include themselves as characters who visit Socrates holding different point of views or as characters in the Athenian jail. Students can consider how Socrates might have been imposed by a tyrant rather than in a trial, or if it had been influenced by prejudice. Students can analyze arguments between Socrates and Crito and discuss any weak points. To conclude, students can consider whether this Socratic argument still holds true today finding examples in contemporary American society to demonstrate their point of view such as recycling laws, traffic laws, or does it apply to major questions of right and wrong. Students then write and conduct their own debate.

Source:http://edsitement.neh.gov

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SUGGESTED FINAL PROJECT: Create Your Own Greek Tragedy •



• •

• • • • • •



Your group will write and perform a play according to the structure below. You must choose a familiar story from history or from fiction to dramatize. Remember that Greek Tragedy uses a "late point of attack." Everyone in the group will be an actor. You may have as many characters as you want, as long as you never have more of them onstage at one time than you have members in your group. The "audience" will serve as chorus. You will make all necessary masks for your characters. We won't worry about masks for the chorus, but be sure the text tells us who the chorus are supposed to represent. You must be sure that the lines for the chorus are presented clearly so that the "audience" will be able to "perform" them without rehearsal. We will go over proper format for scripts. You will not be required to memorize your lines. You are not required to use props or scenery, but if you want to do so, you will need to make or find what is necessary. At the completion of the project you will hand in your script, and your grade will be based both on the script and the performance. Note: Although of course real Tragedy always ends unhappily, it is not so easy to find familiar stories in this day and age that don't have happy endings, so you are not required to give your play a "tragic" ending. You must provide copies of all of the chorus's words to hand out to the "audience." You may make these copies yourself, or you may have me make them. However, if you want me to do it, you MUST get them to me by the end of school on the day before the performance.

Your play will need the following structure: Prologue Characters speak, perhaps directly to the audience. Tell us what the play is going to be about, and what you think we will learn from it. Parados Chorus, in unison, tells us what has happened before the beginning of the action of the play. They should also tell us who they are. If you want, you can have the chorus speak in verse. (In a real Greek play, the chorus would "enter" here, but since the "audience" is serving as chorus, we'll just assume that part. But if you want, you can have them say something about "entering.") It is often unnatural at first for the students to write in verse but once pushed, they usually become wonderfully creative. Episode 1 Characters, in masks, of course, act out the beginning of the action of the play.

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If you want, you can have the chorus interrupt the action to ask questions or make comments. (If you are going to do this, make sure you have copies of the whole play, rather than just the chorus parts, to hand out to the "audience.") Remember that characters in Greek Tragedy tend to talk a lot about decision making and moral choices‹what should I do? Am I doing the right thing? Etc. Remember that anything violent should take place offstage, with a character or "messenger" entering to tell us what happened. Choral Ode 1 Chorus speaks about something connected with the theme of the story, but not necessarily about the story itself. Or, if you prefer, you may use a popular song or poem here, that you think expresses the mood or theme at this point in the play. If you use a poem, the "audience" will read it in unison. If you use a popular song, you may simply play it on the stereo at this point. (In a real Greek Tragedy the chorus would probably also "dance" at this point. You can't expect the audience to do this, since they won't have rehearsed, but if you want, you can have the members of your group perform the movements of the chorus while the "audience" reads or the song plays. This is NOT, however, required.). Episode 2 Characters act out the next part of the story, again with choral comment if you want. Choral Ode 2 (See Choral Ode 1) (If necessary, you may add more Episodes and Odes here.) Final Episode Characters act out the end of the story. Exodus As or after the characters leave, the chorus tells us what we have learned from the story.

Source: http://www.childdrama.com/greek.htm

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2009-10 Checklist for Student Project Success

Projects offer you the chance to learn on your own and become expert in a subject that interests you. Projects also require careful organization and steady work in order to complete them successfully, without last-minute scrambling. Consider the tips below to help you stay on track and produce high-quality products, presentations, and performances.

Check when Completed

Tips for Successful Completion of Projects ORGANIZATION AND STUDY SKILLS Do you understand the project and what you have to do to be successful? Make sure you understand the assignment and all the pieces that are due as a part of the assignment. Have you completed a long-term plan for completion of all the parts to your assignment? If you have a long term assignment, make a plan for completing each part. Ask your teacher to help you think of all the parts to complete. For example, Do the research by ____ date. Take notes by ____ date. Write your first draft by ____ date, etc. Keep track of the parts you complete to track your progress. Plan to complete the entire assignment early. Do you have a clear picture of your due dates? Write down due dates for all short-term or long-term assignments. Review these dates often to make sure you stay on track. Does your plan include work every night? Work a little bit on your project every single night; if you skip a night it will just mean more for next time. Do you have partners or friends to help you stay on track throughout the project? Choose your study buddies and partners for projects carefully – remember the goal is to be responsible for your learning and to succeed. Have you gathered the supplies that you need? Make sure you have the materials you need for any projects that are due (special papers, presentation boards, covers, etc.).

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2009-10 INVESTIGATION SKILLS

Have you found a topic that you really want to learn about? Find a topic or research question that interests you. Look for the connections to your own life. Do you know the steps to follow to investigate your topic? Follow a research process and complete each step carefully before moving on to the next step (for example, be sure you have a good topic or research question before you spend a lot of time looking for information). Do you have an organized way to keep track of your work as you complete each part of the investigation? Carefully document your work throughout the process so that you don’t waste time trying to find or remember what you already did. For example, write down as you go along: ¾ Your topic and questions ¾ The key words and search strategy that seem to be the most successful ¾ Full bibliographic information on every source you use ¾ Notes organized by source or by question/subtopic ¾ Outline or graphic organizer of the way you plan to present your information ¾ Rough draft ¾ Revised final draft. Do you know what a good final product / presentation / performance looks like? Have you looked at the rubric? Take care with the presentation of your final work. Even the best information and thinking are less successful if they are presented in a sloppy or disorganized manner. Have you given yourself time to practice your final presentation or performance? If you are making an oral presentation of your project, practice out loud several times before you have to present. Write reminders of your main points on index cards so that you can easily refer to them during your presentation. Relax – remember, you’re the expert on this project.

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2009-10 Rubric for Visual Presentation (Alternate)

Key Components

Visual

Student Presentation

Question Session

4

3

2

1

All key components present and wellrepresented Editing and organization of visual material was coherent: ideas flowed smoothly from shot to shot (video), photo to photo, or slide to slide (PowerPoint)

Most key components present and wellrepresented Editing and organization of visual material was inconsistent: some connections from shot to shot (video), photo to photo, or slide to slide (PowerPoint) made sense, but unevenly

Most key components present and wellrepresented

Few key components present and not wellrepresented Minimal attempt at systematic organization of visual material; display was not attractive or appealing

Student presented investigation in a clear and concise manner

Most of the student presentation was in a clear and concise manner

All questions were answered fully; evidence of understanding content

Most questions were answered fully; evidence of understanding content

Editing and arrangement of visual material was disorganized: it was hard to follow the connections from shot to shot (video), photo to photo, or slide to slide (PowerPoint), even if some elements were appealing Some of the presentation was clear but also somewhat confusing and hard to understand at times

Some of the questions were answered fully; some evidence of understanding content

Investigation was not presented in a clear and concise way, information was lacking or missing, very confusing and hard to understand Few or no questions were answered; there is no evidence of understanding content Total Score:

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Sample Rubric for the Oral Component 4 3 Exceeds Meets Standard Standard Follows assigned Follows most of format. assigned format. Effective use of graphic component. Displays mastery of English language (or native language) through clear communication of ideas. Very few grammatical errors. Presentation logically developed, with definitions and examples, accurate details. Fully engages the audience, excellent eye contact, explains presentation, does not read to audience. Fully addresses major issues. Well developed sense of closure.

Uses graphic component. Good understanding of English language (or native language) demonstrated through clear communication of ideas, some grammatical errors. Good presentation connecting ideas, several examples used; some inaccuracies. Engages the audience most of the time, generally maintains eye contact; mostly explains. Somewhat addresses major issues. Develops sense of closure.

2 Approaches Standard Has some components of assigned format. Has graphic, but makes little or no reference to it. Ideas somewhat unclear, many grammatical errors.

1 Below Standard Does not follow assigned format. No graphic. Ideas are vague and unclear, impossible to comprehend because of poor grammar and communication.

Some ideas not well connected or developed, many inaccuracies.

Most ideas not connected or developed; details and facts completely inaccurate. Does not engage Does not engage the audience most the audience at of the time, has all, makes no eye poor eye contact, contact with reads audience, reads presentation. presentation or fails to complete presentation. Does not address Fails to address some major issues. any major issues. Little sense of closure.

No sense of closure.

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Sample Rubric for the Graphic/Visual Component 4 Exceeds Standard Follows assigned format.

Graphic representations are included that strongly support ideas/ opinions. Shows much evidence of research and conclusions drawn. Reflects s deep understanding of the topic; questions/ ideas are clearly addressed. Graphics are organized and shown in a logical, sequential manner. Graphics are effectively used in oral presentation.

3 Meets Standard

2 Approaches Standard

1 Below Standard

Follows most of assigned format, especially most important elements. Graphic representations are included that generally support ideas/ opinions. Shows evidence of research and conclusions drawn.

Has some components of assigned format.

Does not follow assigned format.

Some inaccuracies and irrelevant graphics used.

Extraneous and inaccurate graphics with little relevance; no graphics.

Shows little or some evidence of research.

Shows little or no evidence of research.

Reflects an understanding of the topic; questions/ ideas are slightly vague.

Reflects a beginning understanding of the topic; questions are unclear.

Shows no understanding of the topic; no attempt to answer questions.

Display is mostly organized in a logical way.

Display is somewhat organized.

Graphics poorly organized and difficult to understand.

Graphics are used with some success in the oral presentation.

Little use of graphics in oral presentation.

Graphics are not used in oral presentation.

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TEMPLATES & RESOURCES

Odysseus and his men blinding Polyphemus, Laconian black-figure cup, 565–560 BCE. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Odysseus_Polyphemos_Cdm_Paris_190.j pg

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2009-10 BRAINSTORM WEB TEMPLATE

Social Studies

Math

Language Arts

Physical Education/Health

Science/Technology

Dance/Music/Drama & Visual Arts

Field trips/Culminating Activities

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ESSENTIAL QUESTION TEMPLATE

Essential Question

Focus Questions • • • •

Student Outcomes Think about what you want the student to know and be able to do by the end of this unit.

Content

Process

Skills

























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INTERDISCIPLINARY UNIT OF STUDY PLANNING MATRIX TEMPLATE Focus Questions 1.

Disciplines

2. 3.

I. Initial activities that introduce, build and engage students with content knowledge, concept, skill

II. Extension activities that challenge students to deepen their understanding through inquiry and application, analysis, synthesis, etc. of knowledge, concept, skill

III. Culminating activities for independent or small group investigations that allow students to create, share or extend knowledge while capitalizing on student interests

Resources to Support Unit of Study

Literacy

4. 5. colonies different from that of other of

Math/ Science

Content: The student will: Describe le Social Studies Process: The student will:

The Arts

Learn use multiple/varied resource Attitudes and Attributes: The student will:

How will student understanding be assessed? Technology

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WEEKLY FOCUS QUESTION PLANNING TEMPLATE 1

Day

Social Studies Focus Question

Learning Experiences

Literacy Connection

1

2

3

4

5

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WEEKLY FOCUS QUESTION PLANNING TEMPLATE 2 Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Focus Social Studies

Reading connected to the Social Studies curriculum

Writing Connected to the Social Studies Curriculum Readers’ Workshop

Writers’ Workshop

Art Connection

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VENN DIAGRAM Name:___________________________________________________________________Date:___________ ____ Features Unique to A: _________________ B:_________________

Features Unique to

Features Common to A and B 214

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TEACHER TEXT SELECTION PLANNER TO FACILITATE INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS Text Title: _______________________________________________________________ Author: _________________________________ Text Genre: ______________ Choose a text. Read text carefully and decide how the text can best be used with your students. [Please circle your choice(s).] Read Aloud

Shared Reading Paired Reading

Independent Reading Small Group Reading

Student Outcomes: Decide what you want the students to know or be able to do as a result of interacting with this text. • • • Social Studies Outcomes: What are the specific Social Studies outcomes to be connected with this text? • • • ELA Outcomes: What are the specific ELA outcomes? (e.g. main idea, cause/effect, visualizing) • • • What will students do to interpret this text? • •

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NOTE-TAKING TEMPLATE Chapter Title; ______________________________________________________ Big Idea: Using only 2 to 3 sentences, tell what the chapter/section is about.

What I Learned (Details): • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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SAMPLE CLASS CHART Ancient Greece Chapter Title

Notes

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K-W-L-H What we Know

What we Want to learn

What we Learn as we read

How we can Learn more

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TEXT SELECTION PLANNER

Text Title: ____________________________ Author: _____________________________ Text Genre: ____________________________ Choose a text. Read text carefully and decide how the text can best be used with your students. [please circle your choice(s)]: Read Aloud

Shared Reading Paired Reading

Independent Reading

Small Group Reading

Student Outcomes: Decide what you want the students to know or be able to do as a result of interacting with this text. ● ● ● Social Studies Outcomes: What are the specific Social Studies outcomes to be connected with this text? ● ● ● ELA Outcomes: What are the specific ELA outcomes (e.g.,. main idea, cause/effect, visualizing)? ● ● ● What will students do to interpret this text (read and discuss, high-light, take notes, complete graphic organizer, etc.)? ●

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NOTE-TAKING TEMPLATE

Chapter Title: ______________________________________________________________ Big Idea: Using only 2 to 3 sentences, tell what the chapter/section is about.

What I Learned (Details): • • • • • • •

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PARAPHRASE ACTIVITY SHEET

Name ___________________________________

Date _______________________

Text ________________________________________________________________________ The Actual Text Reads…

In My Own Words…

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OPINION/PROOF THINK SHEET

Name ____________________________________

Date _______________________

Text ________________________________________________________________________ What I think

Evidence

I think the author is stating that…

I know this because…

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Classroom Activity Sheet: Reflections of Ancient Greece Source: DiscoverySchool.Com

Government in Ancient Greece Name: Directions: Research your topic and answer the questions below. Be sure to add at least one question of your own. When you are finished, describe how Ancient Greek government is reflected in modern-day society. 1. How did the government function in Ancient Greece?

2. Who were the leaders, and what was expected of citizens?

3. How frequently did leaders change, and how were changes made?

4. What role did slavery play in Ancient Greece?

5. What were the major battles and wars that led to the rise and fall of the Greek empire?

6. Add your own question here.

7. Write at least three ways that ancient Greek culture is reflected in today’s society.

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Classroom Activity Sheet: Reflections of Ancient Greece Source: DiscoverySchool.Com

Philosophy in Ancient Greece Name: Directions: Research your topic and answer the questions below. Be sure to add at least one question of your own. When you are finished, use the information you have gathered to help you write your debate. 1. Who were some philosophers in ancient Greece?

2. What were some ideas or beliefs of each one?

3. What did they write?

4. What important questions about life did the Greek philosophers try to answer?

5. How were the philosophers regarded and treated?

6. Add your own question here. 7. Write at least three ways that ancient Greek culture is reflected in today’s society.

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LIST OF GREEK GODS AND GODDESSES, THEIR ROMAN EQUIVALENTS AND GENERAL DOMAINS

GREEK

ROMAN

DOMAIN

Aphrodite

Venus

Desire, attraction, love

Apollo

Apollo

Knowledge, medicine, music

Ares

Mars

War

Artemis

Diana

The wild, newborns, young women

Athena

Minerva

Wisdom, strategy in war, weaving,

(also Pallas Athena)

handicrafts

Demeter

Ceres

Grain and vegetation

Dionysus

Bacchus

Vitality, wine, mystic experience, ecstasy

Hades

Dis

King of the underworld

Hera

Juno

Queen of the gods, Zeus’ wife, women

Hephaistos

Vulcan

Fire, blacksmiths, potters

Heracles

Hercules

Hero famous for strength and perseverance

Hermes

Mercury

Boundaries, messengers, thieves, business

Hestia

Vesta

Home and earth

Poseidon

Neptune

God of the sea, water, horses and earthquake

Zeus

Jupiter, Jove

King of the gods, justice, the air

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List of Greek letters with English equivalents From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Greek alphabet Transliteration schemes

Greek Αα Ββ Γγ Δδ Εε Ζζ Ηη Θθ Ιι Κκ Λλ Μμ Νν Ξξ Οο Ππ Ρρ Σσς Ττ Υυ Φφ Χχ Ψψ Ωω Αι Αυ Ει Ευ Γγ

Traditional A B G D E Z E Th I C L M N X O P R S T Y Ph Ch Ps O ae, e Au I Eu

Classical a b g d e z, zd ē th i k l m n x o p r s t u ph kh ps ō ai au ei eu

Modern a v gh, y dh e z i th i k l m n x o p r s t i ph, f kh ps o e, ai af, av i ef, ev

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BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy and hierarchy levels in the cognitive domain. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to classify cognitive skills. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulty. That is, the first one must be mastered before the next one can take place. Skill/Competence Knowledge Recall of information, learned material

Comprehension To grasp the meaning of information

Application The use of previously learned information in new situations

Skills Demonstrated • Observe and recall information • Learn dates, events, places. • Know major ideas. • Master subject matter. (words that ask students to find out: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, match, read, record, view, state) • Understand information. • Grasp meaning. • Translate knowledge into new context. • Interpret facts, compare, contrast. • Order, group, infer causes. • Predict consequences. (words that ask students to understand: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend, cite, classify, identify, label, paraphrase, restate, trace, understand, make sense of) • Use information. • Use methods, concepts, theories in new situations. • Solve problems using required skills or knowledge. (words that ask students to use application skills: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover, act, administer, control, chart, collect, discover, develop, implement, prepare, transfer)

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Skill/Competence Skills Demonstrated Analysis • Recognize patterns. Breaking down information • Organize parts. and examining to • Recognize hidden meanings understand more fully • Identify components. (words that ask students to analyze: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer, correlate, illustrate, outline, recognize, diagram) Synthesis • Use old ideas to create new ones. Creating or applying prior • Generalize from given facts. knowledge to produce • Relate knowledge from several areas. something new or original • Predict, draw conclusions. (words that ask students to synthesize: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, generalize, rewrite, initiate, construct, rearrange, compile, compare, incorporate) Evaluation • Compare and contrast ideas. Judging the value of • Assess value of theories, presentations. something based on • Make choices based on reasoned personal values/opinions argument. • Verify value of evidence. • Recognize subjectivity. (words that ask students to evaluate: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize, critique, appraise, justify, defend, support, reframe)

Source: Benjamin S. Bloom. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

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ACTIVITIES & PRODUCTS USING BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Use the following to develop additional Learning Center Activity Cards or learning experiences. Knowledge Possible activities and products

Sample Question Starters What happened after…? How many…? Who was it that …? Can you name the …? Describe what happened at…? Who spoke to…? Can you tell why…? Find the meaning of …? What is…? Which is true or false…?

Sample Question Starters

Make a list of the main events. Make a timeline of events. Make a facts chart. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. List all the …in the story. Make a chart showing… Make an acrostic. Recite a poem.

Comprehension Possible activities and products

Can you write in your own words….? Can you write a brief outline….? What do you think could have happened next…? Who do you think…? What was the main idea…? Who was the key character…? Can you distinguish between…? What differences exist between…? Can you provide an example of what you mean…? Can you provide a definition for…?

Sample Question Starters Do you know another instance where…? Could this have happened in…? Can you group by characteristics such as..? What factors would you change if…? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own…? What questions would you ask of…? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…? Would this information be useful if you had a …?

Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write and perform a play based on the story. Retell the story in your words. Paint a picture of some aspect you like. Write a summary report of an event. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a coloring book.

Application Possible activities and products Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work. Make a diorama to illustrate an important event. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Make a papier mâcher map to include relevant information about an event. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make up a puzzle game using the ideas from the study area. Make a clay model of an item in the material. Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model. Dress a doll in national costume. Paint a mural using the same materials. Write a textbook about… for others.

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Analysis Sample Question Starters

Possible activities and products

Which events could have happened..? If…happened, what might the ending have been? How was this similar to…? What was the underlying theme of..? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did…changes occur? Can you compare your…with that presented in..? Can you explain what must have happened when..?’ How is…similar to….? What are some of the problems of…? Can you distinguish between…? What were some of the motives behind…? What was the turning point in the game? What was the problem with…?

Design a questionnaire to gather information. Write a commercial to sell a new product. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a jigsaw puzzle. Make a family tree showing relationships. Put on a lay about the study area. Write a biography of the study person. Prepare a report about the area of study. Arrange a party. Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed. Review a work of art in terms of form, color, and texture.

Synthesis Sample Question Starters Can you design a … to …? Why not compose a song about…? Can you see a possible solution to…? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with …? Why don’t you devise your own way to deal with..? What would happen if …? How many ways can you…? Can you create new and unusual uses for..? Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish? Can you develop a proposal that would…?

Possible activities and products Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a building to house your study. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Write about your feelings in relation too… Write a TV show, play, puppet show, role play, song, or pantomime about..? Design a record, book, or magazine cover for…? Make up a new language code and write material using it. Sell an idea. Devise a way to… Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody.

Evaluation Sample Question Starters Is there a better solution to… Judge the value of… Can you defend your position about..? Do you think… is a good or a bad thing? How would yuo have handled…? What changes to … would you recommend? Do you believe? Are you a … person? How would you feel if…? How effective are…? What do you think about…?

Possible activities and products. Prepare a list of criteria to judge a …show. Indicate priority and ratings. Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest. Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others. Form a panel to discuss views, e.g. “Learning at School.” Write a letter to…advising on changes needed at… Write a half yearly report about… Prepare a case to present your view about…

Source: www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/dalton.htm

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Unit of Study: Ancient Greece Glossary Agoge

(path, education) The 13 year training program that Spartan boys (except for royal sons) received in order to become homoioi (“full Spartan citizens”).

agon

[ag-own] A struggle in contest for an athlon (prize). Those who completed it became known as athletes. Agon is the root for the word agony.

Agora

[ag-er-uh] Open market or public space in ancient Greece.

Agrarian

A word describing agriculture, farming, and ownership of land.

Akropolis

[uh-krop-uh-liss] “High City”. A hill to which the citizens of a Greek town could retreat for defense in war.

Allegory

[al-egg-or-ee] A myth that contains symbolic and metaphorical elements, revealing a second, deeper meaning in addition to the surface meaning. In these stories, abstract ideas or principles are often represented by characters, figures, or events.

Amnesty

(from Greek a “not” +mnes “remember”). An amnestia is a decision, usually made by a government, to forgive wrongs of the past in order to try to bring about peace in the present. An amnesty can be granted to one person, or to a group of people as a whole.

Amphora

[am-fer-uh] Two-handled jar with a narrow neck and sometimes a tapered base, designed for wine, olive oil, or other liquid

Anachronism

[uh-nak-ruh-niz-uh m] (from the Greek ana “back” + chron “time”). The error of placing a person, object, practice, or way of thinking in the wrong time period. An error in chronology. Something that no longer fits in or applies to the present time. For example, a sword is an anachronism in modern wars.

Archaic Period

Time between the Dark Age and the Classical Period;

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roughly the 700s to the 480s BCE Assembly

A gathering of people and officials that controlled public life in ancient Athens. There had to be at least 6,000 present to make an Assembly, which decided on important matters of law and state.

BCE

Before the Common Era; used by social scientists in place of B.C. (Before Christ)

Boule

[boo-lee] (“council”) Along with the assembly (ekklesia), one of the two most important governing bodies of the Greeks. In Classical Athens, the boule was composed of 500 men, chosen by lot, and it prepared business for the assembly.

Canon

A body of rules, principles, or books that are considered to be the most reliable and essential to a study or field.

Capital

The top section of an architectural column

Centaur

[sen-tore] A creature of myth, with the head and torso of a man, but with the four legs and body of a horse.

Citizenship

To own land and take part in decision-making in a Greek state, it was necessary to be a citizen of that state. Citizenship was inherited, and it was almost impossible for outsiders – Greek or foreign – to become citizens, though they might live there and be respected. Only free males could be citizens.

City-State

A city and the land around it that make up an independent political state

Classical Period

The time between 480 BCE and the age of Alexander

Colonnade

Line of columns supporting a row of arches, a roof, an upper story or the top part of a wall

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Column

A slender, upright structure used in architecture to support an arch, a roof, an upper story, or the top part of a wall. Most columns consist of a base, shaft (main part), and capital (top part).

Corinthian

One of three main styles of columns in classical architecture. They have medium-sized fluting and elaborate, bell-shaped capitals decorated with acanthus leaves.

Cosmopolis

[koz-mop-uh-lis] world polis (city-state).

Council

An advisory body made up of 500 men that arranged the business of the Athenian Assembly

Cult

A group that practiced an organized system of traditions and ritual used in religious worship of any god or deity.

Decarchy

An executive board of ten men in control of the state.

Deify

[dee-uh-fhy] To make something or someone into a god or divine being.

Democracy

A system of government in which the people being Governed have a voice, usually through elected Representatives.

Demos

[dee-moss] A territory and the people (most of the time only the free males) who live in it. Although the term came to be used by aristocrats as a term for commoners or the masses it also meant “the whole people” in legal writings. The citizen body, and especially the mass of poor citizens, in a Greek state.

Didactic

[die-dac-tik] Tending or intending to teach. A didactic painting, piece of writing, or other artistic work is meant to give advice or teach a lesson to the viewer or reader.

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Doric

One of three principal styles of columns in classical architecture. Doric columns are solid with wide fluting and a plain, round capital. These are the earliest types of columns in Greek architecture.

Earth and water

Symbolic offerings that showed willing and unconditional obedience to the Persian monarch.

Ekklesia

[ih-klee-zhee-uh] (“assembly”) One of the primary elements, along with the council, of Greek government. In Athens, the full assembly of citizens of the demos.

Elenchus

[ih-leng-kuhs] (“cross examination”) Socrates called his method (using questions and answers to uncover logical contradictions) elenchus.

Epic Poem

Long poems based on dactylic hexameter, a type of meter or rhythm for poetry, focusing on heroic characters whose voyages, deeds and choices show cultural values and lessons. Examples of epic poems are the Iliad and the Odyssey

Ephor

[ef-ore] (“overseers”) In Sparta, a member of an annually elected board of five adult citizens, each over the age of 30. Ephors had executive political and judicial power over the gerousia and kings in order to maintain loyalty to Spartan laws and customs.

Ethnos

A group of people who share a common identity and territory, such as a tribe. This is the root for the word ethnic.

Fresco

Wall painting applied to plaster when it is wet. Frescoes were popular in many Mediterranean countries until the Middle Ages.

Frieze

[freez] A deep band of decoration running along the upper part of a wall.

Gerousia

(“body of elders”) In Sparta, the gerousia was a council of 28 men, each over 60 years old, and the two kings. Election

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to the gerousia was for life, and it was the highest honor for a Spartan. Gordian knot

The knot attached to the wagon of legendary King Midas of Phrygia in the capital Gordium. Legend claimed that the person who could untie the intricate knot would rule Asia. Alexander the Great, faced with that puzzle, cut through the knot with a sword.

Hellenistic

A term used to describe the Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond after the conquests of Alexander the Great

Hellene

[hel-een] The word for a Greek person. Ancient and modern Greeks call themselves Hellenes after a mythological ancestor, Helen, son of Deucalion. Words with this base (e.g., Hellenic, Hellenism) indicate “Greek” in a broad sense.

Herm

A representation of the good god Hermes, showing his face and phallic symbol on a pillar. These pillars were used to mark property and to provide protection and good luck.

Homoioi

(“equals”) Full rank Spartan male of citizen age.

Homonoia

A state of harmony, “concord” or “being of one heart and mind.” A state of being that brought together unrelated peoples.

Hoplites

[hop-lite] Specialized heavily-armed soldiers who fought in a disciplined formation, the phalanx.

Ionic

One of three principal styles in classical architecture. Ionic columns are slender with narrow fluting and a scrolled capital

Koine

[koi-nay] This is a common Greek dialect of the late Hellenistic and Roman imperial world. Both the Jewish Septuagint and the New Testament were written in this dialect.

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Kouros

[koor-oss] A monumental (larger than life-size) statue of men (kouroi) and women (korai).

Krypteia

[krihp-tee-uh] (secret society) A secret police force in Sparta, which identified and assassinated rebellious or potentially rebellious helots. All Spartan youths are enrolled in this society for a time. This word is related to the root for the word cryptic, which means secret, hidden, or mysterious.

Matrilineal

Describing a bloodline that is traced through the mother, not the father.

Metropolis

The “mother city” of the colony. The leader of the colonists and “founder” of the colony was called oikistes.

Minoan

[mih-noh-uhn] A term describing the great civilization of Crete in the first half of the second millennium BCE. The word comes from the name of King Minos, a character of Greek legend who was remembered as having ruled in Crete before the Trojan War

Misogyny

[mih-soj-uh-nee] (from Greek miso “hatred for” + gyn “woman, wife”) Feelings of irrational dislike or animosity towards all women.

Mural

Wall painting on dry plaster.

Myth

Traditional cultural tale that addressed matters of collective concern.

Mythology

The study of the functions, origins, and meanings of myths, and traditional stories are often separated into three categories: folktales, sagas, and myths.

Ode

A general term for a poetic song. This word is related to such words as episode and monody.

Oikos

The Greek word for household, which included the family, property, real estate, animals and slaves.

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Oligarchy

[all-ih-gahr-kee] Government of a Greek state by a few wealthy men.

Omnipotent

[om-ni´-puh-tuhnt] All-powerful. (Omni means all, and potent means strong)

Omnipresent

Everywhere at once.

Omniscient

[om-nish-uhnt] All-knowing.

Oracle

Sacred place where ancient Greeks could ask their gods, through a priestess, to give them advice or to foretell the future

Peloponnese

[pell-uh-puh-nees]A word describing the large land-mass which forms the southern part of mainland Greece

Polis

[poe-liss] Greek word for a self-governing Greek city, town, or village. City-state.

Polytheistic

[pol-ee-thee-iss-tik] Believing in more than one god.

Red Figure

Red figure was a pottery technique where the figures were left red against a black background with details painted with a fine brush. Black figure was the opposite. The figures were painted in black silhouette and the details cut through them into the red clay.

Relief

Sculpture that projects from, but is not free from, the background from which it has been cut.

Rhetoric

[ret-er-ik] A systematic approach to communication and persuasion. The Greeks distinguished between three kinds of rhetoric: deliberative, for making decisions; forensic for establishing guilt or innocence, (in court); and epideictic, for bestowing praise or blame (in a more general way).

Slave

Man, woman, or child who is owned by another person as an item of property, in order to do work of some kind

Spartiate

[spahr-tee-ate] Full Spartan citizen. Spartans were banned from all professions except soldiering.

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Theoric Fund

Created by Eubulus, this fund contained the Athenian surpluses that were used for public works and distributed to the poor. Besides helping ease civic tensions in Athens, the fund tended to make expensive military adventure less appealing to the lower classes.

Trireme

[try-reem] A warship, about 120 feet long and 15 feet wide, powered by 170 rowers in three ranks, and armed with an underwater ram at the bow (for ramming and sinking enemy ships). The trireme originated in Corinth in the seventh century B.C.E. and became a standard Athenian warship in the fifth century B.C.E.

Tyrant

Absolute ruler of a Greek city-state who had usually seized power by force

Volute

[vuh-loot] Spiral-like scroll used on Ionic capitals and sometimes on pottery vessels

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BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Photo: Denise Jordan

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RESOURCES USED TO DEVELOP THE UNIT (Including Works Cited) Aliki (Illustrator). Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. Harper Collins Publishers, 1997. Amos, H.D. and Lang, A.G.P. These Were The Greeks. Dufour Editions, Inc., 1997. Ancient Greece. Rainbow Horizon Publishing, 2004. Antoniou, Jim. Greece: the Land and Its People. Macdonald Educational, 1976. Barnes, Jonathan. Early Greek Philosphy. Penguin Classics, 2002. Byam, Michele. Arms & Armor: Discover the Story of Weapons and Armor – from Stone Age Axes to the Battledress of Samurai Warriors. DK Eyewitness Books. Dorling Kindersley, 1988. Coolidge, Olivia. Greek Myths. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1977. Ferris, Julie and Mason, C. Life and Times in Ancient Greece: Farming, Festivals, and Food in the Golden Age of Greece. Kingfisher, 2007. Fry, Erin. 25 Mini-plays, World History. Girard, Sherry. 15 Greek Myth Minibooks. Scholastic. Glubok, Shirley and Tamarin, Alfred. Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Harper & Row Publishers, 1976. The GREEKS: The Triumphant Journey from the Ancient Greeks and the Greek Revolution of 1821, to Greek Americans. The National Herald.,2003. Hanson, Victor Davis. Wars of the Ancient Greeks. Smithsonian Books, 2004. Hart, Avery and Montell, Paul, and Kline, Michael P. Ancient Greece!: 40 Hands on Activities to Experience This Wondrous Age. Ideal Publishers, 1999. Heinrichs, Ann. Greece: Enchantment of the World. Children’s Press, 2002.

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Keenan, Sheila. Gods, Goddesses, and Monsters: A Book of World Mythology. Scholastic, 2003. Lassieur, Allison. People of the Ancient World: The Ancient Greeks. Scholastic Inc, 2004. MacDonald, Fiona. I Wonder Why Greeks Built Temples and Other Questions about Ancient Greece. Kingfisher, 2006. Mann, Elizabeth. The Parthenon. Mikaya Press, 2006. Martin, Thomas R. Ancient Greece From Prehistoric to Hellanistic Times. Yale University Press, 2000. McGee, Marni. National Geographic Investigates: Ancient Greece Archaeology Unlocks the Secrets of Greece’s Past. National Geographic, 2007. Merrill, Yvonne Y. and Simpson, Mary. Hands-On Ancient People, Vol.2. ArtActivities about Minoans, Mycenaeons, Trojans, Ancient Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans. Kits Publishing, 2004. Morkot, Robert. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece. Penguin Books, 1996. Mythology: Greek Gods, Heroes, and Monsters. Candlewick Press, 2003. Nelson, Eric D. and Allard-Nelson, Susan K. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Ancient Greece. Alpha Books, 2004. Pearson, Anne. Eyewitness Ancient Greece. DK Publishing, Inc., 2007. Plato. The Last Days of Socrates. Penguin Classics, 2003. Powell, Anton. Cultural Atlas for Young People: Ancient Greece. Facts On File, Inc.,2004. Price, Sean Stewart. Ancient Greece: A Complete Resource. Scholastic, 2000. Purkis, John. Greek Civilization. NTC Publishing Group,1999.

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Sherwood, Rhonda (Editor). Children of the World: Greece. Gareth Stevens Publishing, 1988. The GREEKS: The Triumphant Journey from the Ancient Greeks and the Greek Revolution of 1821, to Greek Americans. The National Herald, 2003.

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Books for Students Chrisp, Peter. Alexander the Great: Legend of a Warrior King. Dorling Kindersley, 2003. Green, Robert. Alexander the Great (Ancient Biographies, Number 1) Children’s Press, 1996. Greenbalt, Mariam. Alexander the Great and Ancient Greece. Benchmark, 2000. Gunther, John. Alexander the Great. Sterling, 2007. McGowen, Tom. Alexander the Great: Conqueror of the Ancient World (Rulers of the Ancient World). Enslow, 2006. Morley, Jacqueline, et al. You Wouldn’t Want to Be in Alexander the Great’s Army! Children’s Press, 2005.

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INTERNET RESOURCES Useful Web Sites on Greece A Brief Outline of Athenian Democracy www.ahistoryofgreece.com/athens-democracy.htm Aesop’s Fables http://www.umass.edu/aesop/

Aesop’s Fables Online Collection www.aesopfables.com/ This is an archive including Aesop’s fables as well as other folk tales. Ancient Greece

http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Main_Page/ Ancient Greece www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ancientgreece/main_menu.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/ This is an interactive website for students that has facts, activities, timelines, and teacher resources.

City-States Government http://www.crystalinks.com/greeksocial.html A great background resource for teachers, this website has thorough historical information on city-states, history, culture, and many aspects of Greek society.

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Discovery Education – www.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/ This website has an extensive list of lesson plans for ancient Greece. Some Lesson Plan titles include: Reflections of Ancient Greece, Comparing Athens and Sparta, and Alexander the Great. From Greece to Main Street http://www.artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/3684 A set of lesson plans that study the influences of Greek architecture on American landmarks. Going Greek: A RESOURCE ON GREEK MYTHOLOGY http://www.kn.att.com/wired/fil/pages/listgreekmybe.html Greece Maps www.reisenett.no/map_collection/greece.html A collection of maps of Greece, both modern-day and ancient.

Greek Mythology.com http://www.greekmythology.com/ The Greeks – Crucible of Civilization This comprehensive website is a wonderful resource for you and your class. It contains a vast assortment of useful information that should prove to enhance your student’s learning experience. Some highlights include: The Greeks Interactive – An interactive Ancient Greek experience that highlights life in Athens Biographies of famous Ancient Greeks Educational Resources Comprehensive Background Pages including: Greek Culture, Greek Politics, Greek Warfare, and Greek Architecture. Greek World University of Pennsylvania

http://www.museum.upenn.edu/Greek_World/Index .html This website offers an extensive look into Ancient Greece. Its highlights include: Collections from the Penn Museum and modern day archaeological findings.

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Hayden Planetarium at the Museum of Natural History http://www.amnh.org http://haydenplanetarium.org/ It Came From Greek Mythology http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=2 34 A set of lesson plans to help students put Greek myths in modern-day context and to study their relevance.

Kidipede www.historyforkids.org Map of Ancient Greek World

http://plato-dialogues.org/tools/gk_wrld.htm The Marathon Story by Paul Ostapuk

www.lakepowell.net/marathon.html The story of the Greco-Persian Wars and the battle of Marathon, including the first time a marathon was run.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/ Online resources, including photos of their world-class classical Greek sculptures and amphora collections, and information about current exhibits and school visits.

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Minnesota State University www.mnsu.edu http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/aegean/index.sht ml This site includes full text of the Odyssey and the Iliad, as well as historical information on the early Aegean civilizations, Athens and Sparta, maps, and other resources.

Mr. Donn’s Ancient History Page http://ancienthistory.mrdonn.org Information, lesson plans, activities and Clipart on Greek history, myths, people, and places.

Nuffield Primary History

http://www.primaryhistory.org ODYSSEY ONLINE-ANCIENT GREECE http://www.carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/GREECE/home.html This entertaining, engaging website offers extensive resources on architecture, death and burial, victory and conquest, geography, and gods, goddesses and heroes, as well as other topics. PBS www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/htmlver/ The PBS website has an interactive timeline, “The Acropolis experience” with 3D animation of the Parthenon, and educational resources including a series of lesson plans for a multidisciplinary unit on Ancient Greece.

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The Perseus Digital Library

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ A resource on Ancient Greek culture, including sports, art, architecture, and full texts of ancient writings.

Perseus Project: The Ancient Olympics http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/olympics/ This website has information about Olympia and the Olympics, the history of the games, the sports played, and the athletes who participated.

Reflections of Ancient Greece http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/programs/anci entGreece This site has lesson plans teaching the basics of Greek society and its influence on our world today.

Tales of the Immortal Night: The Greek Myths of the Constellations http://www.businessesolutions.com/starmyths/index.htm This resource includes star charts and information about constellations, as well as the Greek myths behind the constellations.

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Theoi Greek Mythology http://www.theoi.com/ A thorough resource about Greek gods, goddesses, Titans, mythical creatures, nymphs, etc. It also includes information about myths in art.

Wikipedia – www.wikipedia.org Kid-Friendly Websites

Social Studies for Kids – www.socialstudiesforkids.com This site contains glossaries, timelines, newsletters, stories about military and political figures, and links to further resources. Odyssey Online – Greece – http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/GREECE/welcome.html This is an expansive website that gives students an interactive tour of life in Ancient Greece. The website features colorful interactive features that include: Victory and Conquest, American Cities/Greek Names, and Epics and Actors.

www.woodlandsjunior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/greece/interactive.htm This interactive website contains various activities and games to enrich student’s learning about Ancient Greece.

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The Birmingham Museum has an interactive website where students can design a Greek pot. It also has printable handouts and timelines. http://www.schoolsliaison.org.uk/kids/preload.htm This website is an interactive look at life in Ancient Greece.

http://www.mysteryproductions.info/hyper/Hypermedia_2003/Miller/AM_hypermedia/Artifact/# An interactive map of Ancient Greece:

http://www.toddmiller.com/maps/Greece/index.html An interactive site focusing on the differences between Athens and Sparta, including aspects of history and daily life:

http://home.freeuk.net/elloughton13/gcontent.htm An extensive site from The British Museum including historical information and virtual and interactive tours

http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/

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OTHER HELPFUL RESOURCES

Hayden Planetarium at the Museum of Natural History Central Park West and 79th Street New York, New York 10024-5192 (212) 313-7278 / (212) 769-5100 The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1000 Fifth Avenue at 82nd Street New York, New York 10028-0198 (212) 535-7710 Organizations Greek American Folklore Society 25-14 Broadway Astoria, NY 11106 http://www.hri.org/GAFS/ Onassis Cultural Center 645 Fifth Avenue at 51 Street (Olympic Tower) New York, NY 10022 http://www.onassisusa.org/occ.htm Pen-Pal International Pen Friends P.O. Box 290065 Brooklyn, New York Films and Videos “Greece: The Isles of Greece & Crete” (2005) “I Still Worship Zeus” “MacGillivary Freeman’s Greece – Secrets of the Past” (2006) Conquerors: Alexander the Great (DVD, VHS) Discovery Education Ancient Greece (DVD) Discovery Education. PBS Ancient Greece Series

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PHOTOS OF NEW YORK CITY BUILDINGS WITH GREEK ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS

Borders Bookstore, lower Broadway near Wall Street. Photo by Denise Jordan

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Bronx Borough Court House Third Avenue and 161 Street (abandoned). Image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bronx_Boro_Court_SW_jeh.JPG

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Hall of Fame for Great Americans, part of NYU’s Bronx Campus (now the home of the Bronx Community College of CUNY). Designed by Stanford White. Image: Wally G., Creative Commons, www.flickr.com.

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Former Dime Savings Bank (now Washington Mutual). 86th Street and 19th Avenue, Brooklyn http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dime_Savings_86st_19av_jeh.JPG

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Union Square Savings Bank, Manhattan. Now a performance space. Designed by Henry Bacon, who designed the Lincoln Memorial Photo by Wally G, Creative Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Union_Square_Savings_Bank_full_jeh.JPG

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Detail, Supreme Court of Staten Island. Image:www.NYC.gov

Supreme Court of Staten Island, Richmond Terrace. www.nyc.gov

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Detail, Third County Courthouse, (former Richmond County Courthouse) Historic Richmondtown. Image: www.wikimedia.com.

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Dime Savings Bank of Brooklyn (now Washington Mutual). Dekalb Avenue. Image: Alan Cordova, Creative Commons. www.flickr.com

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Queens Supreme Court House. Image DCAS, www.nyc.gov

Jamaica High School. Image: www.schools.nyc.gov

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Bowery Savings Bank, Chinatown. Image: Wally G., Creative Commons. www.flickr.com

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Dime Savings Bank of Williamsburgh (headquarters). Wally G., Creative Commons. www.flickr.com.

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IMAGE CREDITS Cover image of Parthenon Temple at the Acropolis, Athens, Greece. Microsoft Online Clip Art Section Break- Sample Lesson Plans: Youths, a warrior and a winged figure. Blackfigure Attic amphora, ca. 550–530 B.C. Image: Amasis Painter, Creative Commons, Wikimedia.org Page 64 : Map of Greece. Image: CIA World Factbook, Wikimedia Commons Page 65: Map of Greece: CIA. Perry Canstaneda Library Map Collection, www.lib.utexas.edu Page 66: Map of Greece: Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:Homeric_greece.png Page 67: Map of Greece. Image: United Nations. Available: www.un.org/depts/cartographic/map/profile/greece.pdf Page 68: Historic Map of Greece. Perry-Castaneda Map Collection, University of Texas. Available: www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/beginnings_hist_greece.jpg Page 69: Blank Map of Greece: Wikimedia Commons, www.wikimedia.org Page 88: Silver Coin, Art Institute of Chicago. Denise Jordan Side view of marble statue of Alexander. Image: www.Mymacedonia.net Alexander in India. Image: www.Mymacedonia.net Alexander the Great. Image: wwwWikimediaCommons.com Bronze statue of Alexander on Bucephalus. Image www.mymacedonia.net. Detail, Alexander the Great Mosaic. House of the Faun, Pompeii. Image: wwwmymacedonia.net Page 89: Alexander the Great. Mosaic fragment. Pompeii, House of the Faun. Image: Wikimediacommons.org. Page 94: Images of the Ancient Olympics. Mount Olympia: http://karenswhimsy.com/ancient-olympics.shtm Disthenes at the Olympic Games http://karenswhimsy.com/ancientolympics.shtm. Page 95: Etruscan black-figured amphora. British Museum. Image: www.about.com/ancienthistory. Page 96: Mosaic showing Olympic athletes at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia, Greece. Image: Tkoletsis, CreativeCommons.com

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Page 97: Discobolus. Roman copy of bronze Greek original from 500 BCE. Villa Adriana, near Tivoli, Italy. Image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Discobolo_4.jpg Page 98: Panathenaic amphora (c.530 BCE) Greek, terracotta. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York "Attributed to the Euphiletos Painter: Panathenaic prize amphora (14.130.12)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_14.130.12.htm (October 2006). Used with permission. Page 107: Spartan warriors. Public domain. Available at www.karenswhimsy.com Spartans at Plataea. Public domain. Available at www.karenswhimsy.com Page 119: Instruments used by Ancient Greek surgeons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ancientgreek_surgical_lang_neutral.jpg. Hermes holding caduceus. Pratt, Mara, Myths of Old Greece. Public Domain. Available at http://etc/isf/ediclipart. Medical Corps logo: www.freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com NYC Department of Sanitation logo www.nyc.gov/html/dsny/html Page 120: Temple of Aesculapius. http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2460659312/ Roman statue of Aesculapius. www.hhom.org WHO logo. www.who.int Universal Medic-Alert symbol. www.medicalert.org Page 121 Stamps for eye ointment. Image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stamp_ointments_BM_GR1879.916.1.jpg Page 122: Decree from Stasicypros. Image:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Decree_Stasicypros_CdM.jpg Page 123: Plinthios Brokhos medical sling

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heraklas_Plinthios_Brokhos_Ja w_Sling.jpg Page 126: Black-figure neck-amphora showing olive harvest, circa 520 BCE. British Museum. Public domain. Barley coin, circa 530-510 BCE. Wildwinds, Creative Commons license, www.wikimedia.org Woman kneading bread, 500-475 BCE, National Archaeological Museum of Athens. Marsyas, Creative Commons license. www.Wikimedia.org Wine jar, circa 450 BCE, Greek, Attica. Art Institute of Chicago.

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Page 145: The Burning of Troy. Jan Brueghel the Elder. Image: www.philipresheph.com/demodokos/troy/pic47.htm Page 152: Map of Greece and Asia Minor

http://www.britannica.com/ebc/art-54571/This-map-shows-the-chief-citiesanddivisions-of-ancient?&articleTypeId=31 Section Break Page 160: Calydonian Boar hunt. Corinthian black-figured aryballos http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calydonian_Hunt_Louvre_E612Bis.jpg

Page 166: Credit: Left: Marie-Lan Nguyen, Wikimedia Commons; right: Photo of Zydrunas Savikas: Flickr, Creative Commons License Page 178: Column. http://orgs.odu.edu/oduifc/gallery_files/columns.gif Page 179: Columns: http://www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/tourFames.cgi?tour_id=14715 Page 209: Odysseus and his men blinding Polyphemus, Laconian black-figure cup. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Odysseus_Polyphemos_Cdm_Paris_190.jpg

Page 242: Architectural Element. Image: Denise Jordan. Page 255: Borders Bookstore. Image: Denise Jordan Page 256: Bronx Borough Courthouse. Image:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bronx_Boro_Court_SW_jeh.JPG Page 257: Hall of Fame for Great Americans. Image: Wally G., Creative Commons. www.flickr.com. Page 258: Former Dime Savings Bank. Image:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dime_Savings_86st_19av_jeh.JPG Page 259: Union Square Savings Bank. Wally G, Creative Commons:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Union_Square_Savings_Bank_full_jeh.JPG Page 260: Staten Island Supreme Court. Both photos www.nyc.gov. Page 261: Third County Courthouse, Staten Island. www.wikipedia.org. Page 262: Dime Savings Bank, Dekalb Avenue. Image: Alan Cordova, Creative Commons. www.flickr.com Page 263: Queens Supreme Court House. www.nyc.gov Jamaica High School. www.schools.nyc.gov. Page 264: Bowery Savings Bank. Image: Wally G., Creative Commons, www.flickr.com. Page 265: Dime Bank of Williamsburgh. Image: Wally G., Creative Commons, www.flickr.com.

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