Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc. - The Messiah violin: a reliable

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc. - The Messiah violin: a reliable

The Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc. Photographic Archive and Business Records Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Ins...

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The Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc. Photographic Archive and Business Records Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA Box 55, Folders 2 and 4

The sales ledgers, 1845-1938 Charles Gand, Gustave Bernardel, Albert Caressa & Henri Français, Emile Français, Jacques Français

*****

Transcription, translation, and commentary

Nicholas Sackman © 2017 Second edition, issued 20th June 2017, with minor corrections

Nicholas Sackman: Associate Professor, Department of Music, University of Nottingham (retired). Author of ‘The Messiah violin: a reliable history?’ (2015); see the www.themessiahviolin.uk website for details. Author of an historical study of the Stradivari Habeneck violin, published in the Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, 2016, and re-published on the same website. Author of an historical study of the ‘original’ neck of the Stradivari Soil violin (website). Author of an extensive and detailed historical study of the two Guarneri del Gesù violins which belonged to John Tiplady Carrodus (website). An extensive and detailed investigation into the reality of the 1724 Stradivari violin which Count Cozio di Salabue sold in 1817 to Niccolò Paganini (presented as the Appendix in this volume) is separately published on the same website. Author of an historical study of the Stradivari Chant du Cygne violin (Journal of the Galpin Society, March 2017).

Contents Page 1–5 6

Images of five pages from the ledgers. Introduction

10

Index 1

38

Index 2

43

Notes

45

The instruments; the descriptive texts

303

Appendix: ‘Fortissimo di voce, e quasi tenore’ An evidence-based investigation into the historical reality of the Stradivari violin which Il Conte Cozio di Salabue sold to Niccolò Paganini in 1817.

310

Bibliography

311

Acknowledgements

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

The Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc. Photographic Archive and Business Records Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA Box 55, Folders 2 and 4

The sales ledgers, 1845-1938 Charles Gand, Gustave Bernardel, Albert Caressa & Henri Français, Emile Français, Jacques Français

*****

Transcription, translation, and commentary Nicholas Sackman © 2017 Second edition, issued 20th June 2017, with minor corrections

JF55.2, p. 195 [U]

1

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 182

2

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 215

3

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 194

4

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 146

5

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Introduction The information presented in this volume is sourced from an unbroken sequence of written descriptions of string instruments, the instruments principally being the work of Antonio Stradivari (c.1649-1737) and Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù (1698-1744). The descriptions were written between 1845 and 1938 and were the work of the Parisian violin dealers Charles-Nicolas-Eugène Gand, Gustave Bernardel, Albert Caressa, Henri Français, Emile Français, and Jacques Français. The historical period covered by the descriptions was characterised by an increasingly competitive desire (especially amongst Europe’s moneyed elite) to own genuine Stradivari and/or Guarneri instruments, and prices therefore rose quickly, culminating (temporarily) in the 50,000 francs (£2,000) paid for the Le Messie violin in 1891. The ‘ordinary’ violinist, violist, or cellist could never afford to buy a genuine Cremonese instrument – for them a new-but-antiqued instrument would have to suffice – but the finest soloists and the richest collectors dealt only in authenticity, and certificated authenticity, in Paris, was controlled by the dealers listed above (and a few others, such as Emile Germain and Claude-Augustin Miremont) while in London the firms of W. E. Hill & Sons and Hart & Son were equally important. Some owners held onto their prized instrumental possessions for years, perhaps decades, only relinquishing them at their death. Others, however, did not hesitate to take maximum financial advantage from the opportunity to use a Stradivari violin, for example, as a trading chip against another Stradivari violin which, in turn, was then quickly traded against yet another violin, and so on. One result of this continual movement of rare instruments around Europe (and, subsequently, the export of so many of these instruments to America) was that it became critically important to try to track the historical chronology of violins, violas, and cellos, and it is in this respect that the nearly 400 written descriptions presented here assume such importance. It is also the case that some of these descriptions, when combined with the annotations which were subsequently added, demonstrate that the present-day identities of certain instruments are doubtful, and, in a few cases, incorrect. Charles François Gand (‘Gand Père’) was born in 1787, the son of the violin maker Charles Michel Gand. Charles François worked with Nicolas Lupot (1758-1824) in Paris and married Lupot’s adopted daughter. The marriage produced two sons, Charles-Adolphe (1812-1866) and Charles-NicolasEugène (1825-1892). In 1855 the two sons joined forces, trading as ‘Gand Frères’, and, after the death of Charles-Adolphe, Charles-Nicolas-Eugène partnered Ernest Auguste Bernardel (1826-1899) and his brother Gustave Adolphe Bernardel (1832-1904) as ‘Gand & Bernardel Frères’. Ernest Auguste Bernardel retired in 1886 and the firm became ‘[Charles] Gand & [Gustave] Bernardel’. From 1870 onwards, until one year before he died, Charles Gand compiled his Catalogue descriptif des instruments de Stradivarius et J Guarnerius. The total number of instruments described by Gand in his Catalogue is 252: 171 Antonio Stradivari violins 6 Antonio Stradivari violas 25 Antonio Stradivari cellos 1 Omobono Stradivari violin 1 Francesco Stradivari cello 48 Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violins. Charles Gand’s descriptions of instruments – two on each page of his Catalogue (except for page 2 which is entirely taken up with a description of the Le Messie violin) – are written in black ink, followed by details, in red ink, of previous owners and, in some cases, subsequent owners, together with dates when the instruments were sold and the prices paid; each description also identifies the 6

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

name of the owner of the instrument on the date when Gand noted down his observations. The 252 descriptions are assumed to be either of instruments which Gand bought or sold, or instruments which were repaired and maintained by his workshop personnel. Some of the descriptions may be of instruments which Gand saw in the possession of Parisian colleagues. The measurements supplied by Gand – usually only for the body length of the instrument – use the French system known as the ‘Foot of the King’ (Pied du Roi) as had also been used, sixty years earlier, by Count Ignazio Alessandro Cozio di Salabue, in which one pouce is 27.07mm and one ligne is 2.26mm. Even during the early years of the twentieth century measurements were sometimes still being taken using the Pied du Roi system (see the descriptive entry for the Prince Khevenhüller/Menuhin violin at JF55.2, p. 151; see Chapter 5 of The ‘Messiah’ violin: a reliable history? (N. Sackman, 2015) for a full explanation of the Pied du Roi measuring system). Gand seems to have tried, at least initially, to keep his Catalogue descriptions in alphabetical order by name of the owner (i.e. the name of the owner at the time he inspected the instrument). It was fortuitous that the most celebrated Parisian violinist in the middle of the nineteenth century – Delphin Alard – had a family name beginning with ‘A’ (Alard was also the son-in-law of Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume). However, the names of many owners are clearly out of alphabetical sequence, and, having reached Monsieur Van Hal, Gand then continues with Monsieur Bonjour. Towards the end of the Catalogue the entries become quite random in their name-order and the Catalogue’s index of names is also not always correctly sequential within each letter of the alphabet. The earliest date attached to a descriptive entry is 1845, this being the year when Gand apparently inspected the 1717 Stradivari violin belonging to Monsieur Sasserno. It is unclear why there should be a 25-year gap between this description and the very many descriptions – two-thirds of the total number – which are dated between 1870 and 1879. This two-thirds proportion may reflect the Europewide reputation of the firm of Gand & Bernardel frères; their address – 21, rue Croix des Petits Champs – was clearly the first port of call for buyers and sellers from near and far once Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, in 1858, had closed his own shop (also in the rue Croix des Petits Champs) and moved his violin business to his mansion which, in the rue Demours, lay outside the Paris city walls. Charles Gand added very few descriptive entries to his Catalogue in his final years: there are just two entries dated 1887, one for 1889, and one for 1891; there are no entries dated 1888, 1890, or 1892. ***** After the death of Charles Gand in 1892 the business continued to trade as ‘Bernardel’, with Gustave Bernardel as the sole proprietor. During the last years of the nineteenth century someone working at the firm – perhaps Gustave Bernardel himself – copied the entire text of Gand’s Catalogue descriptif into a sales ledger. New descriptions of instruments were written up on the following pages of the ledger, together with further details of owners and prices; there are entries dated 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, and 1897, together with others which are undated. After Gustave Bernardel retired in 1901 the firm was bought by Albert Caressa and Henri Français but the Gand/Bernardel ledger continued to be used to record descriptions of instruments and details of sales. Henri Français retired in 1920 and the firm was administered by Albert Caressa; Albert retired in 1938 after which the firm was in the hands of Henri’s son, Emile Français (1894-1984). The chronological sequence of trading names was: 1855-1866 Gand frères 1866-1886 Gand & Bernardel frères 7

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1886-1892 1892-1901 1901-1920 1920-1938 1938-1981

Gand & Bernardel Bernardel Caressa & Français Albert Caressa Emile Français

The post-Gand (i.e. post-1892) entries in the sales ledger include more than 140 further descriptions of Stradivari and Guarneri instruments (a handful of the descriptions are duplicates or elaborations of earlier entries). The final five entries in this ledger are dated 1934, 1936, 1937, 1938, and November 1968 (it is unclear why there should be a 30-year gap in the sequence). The entries finish on p. 217 of the ledger, followed by an index of owners’ names. Various different hands contributed to the writing of the ledger, the different hands being especially noticeable within the annotations added at the end of the descriptions. This Gand/Bernardel/Caressa & Français ledger is archived as part of the Jacques Francais Rare Violins, Inc. Photographic Archive and Business Records, held at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA; the ledger is within Box 55, Folder 2 (hereafter cited as JF55.2). It is possible that when Jacques Francais (1924-2004) – the son of Emile Français and the grandson of Henri – emigrated to the USA in 1948 in order to establish his own violin dealership he took the ledger with him, for reference purposes. Also contained within the same Smithsonian Institution archive is a second handwritten ledger (Jacques Francais Rare Violins, Inc. Photographic Archive and Business Records, Box 55, Folder 4) which replicates the entirety of the JF55.2 ledger. This second ledger is identified by the following inscription on the first page: Emile Français, 5 Rue de Copenhague, Paris 8ème The identification of Emile suggests that this second ledger was retained in Paris rather than being taken to New York. Perhaps, when Emile Français ceased trading in 1981, the firm’s documents and materials were sent to Jacques in New York (which might explain how it is that Emile’s ledger is now archived at the Smithsonian Institution). Emile’s ledger is here cited as EF/JF55.4. The EF/JF55.4 ledger contains additional texts and annotations which supplement those found in JF55.2. The last two entries within the EF/JF55.4 ledger – dated 1934 and 1936 – are the same as in the JF55.2 ledger; however, the EF/JF55.4 ledger does not include the 1937, 1938, and 1968 descriptive entries which appear at the end of JF55.2. ***** Another New York dealer in rare violins was Emil Herrmann, whose premises were initially located at 148 West 57th Street, then at 161 West 57th Street, and finally at 130 West 57th Street. Herrmann retired from business in 1951 (he died in 1968) and Jacques Francais acquired Herrmann’s documents, copies of certificates, and photographic records. After Jacques Francais died (2004) all of his own documents, as well as those of Emil Herrmann, were donated to the Smithsonian Institution. ***** In the two indices which follow, all locations are indicated by use of the page-numbers penned in the JF55.2 ledger, not the footer page numbers – e.g. 8 – used in this volume. The EF/JF55.4 ledger

8

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

contains a few pages where the numbers differ from those in the JF55.2 ledger (one result being that some odd-numbered pages appear on the verso rather than on the recto). Since most of the JF55.2 pages contain two descriptive entries the upper entry is identified as [U], the lower as [L]. Instruments are violins unless otherwise indicated. Index 1 includes (in italics) the names of previous and subsequent owners where these are identified in the annotations to the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 descriptive texts. Multiple instruments owned by one individual are arranged in labeldate order, with Stradivari instruments preceding Guarneri instruments. Occasional instruments by other makers – Montagnana, Bergonzi, Goffriller – follow thereafter. ******************

9

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Index 1 Column 1: a hyphen indicates a continuous period of time between two dates, e.g. 1830-1835 a semi-colon indicates separate dates, e.g. 1840; 1845. Date of descriptive entry nd = no date OWNER at date of description Identity of a previous or subsequent owner as noted in an annotation

Stradivari Label date(s) or Guarneri ‘del Gesù’

Location in JF55.2

187 nd nd nd 187 nd nd 1870 1875 nd 1870 nd nd 1907 nd 1903 1880 1844 nd 1929 1930 1921 nd nd 1910 nd nd nd nd nd 1870 1870 nd nd nd nd nd 1905

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri

18 [L] 102 [L] 106 [L] 108 [U] 1 [U] 112 [L] 143 [U] 1 [U] 2 72bis [U] 1 [L] 127 [L] 123 [L] 166 205 [U] 20 [L] 95 [U] 95 [U] 181 [U] 165; see 20 [U] 20 [U] 32 [U] 118 [U] 180 [U] 16 [U] 42 [L] 149 [L] 53 [L] 128 [U] 183 3 [U] 3 [L] 3 [L] 80 [L] 94 [L] 17 [U] 133 [L] 154

Accursi Adam Adam, J. Adam Adam Adam Ader ALARD ALARD Alard ALARD Albrecht, Mme. ALCANTARA, d’ ALCANTARA, le Comte d’ Alday, Francisque Allgemeine Musikgesellschaft ALTÈS Altès [father of the above?] Andigné, Marquise de Andreef, Alexis [Andrejeus] Andreieef Andrews, Geo. H. Arbos Arbos Arbos Archinto ARGIEWICZ Armaillé, Comte d’ Armaillé, Comte d’ Armaillé, d’ ARMINGAUD ARPIN Artot Artot Artot Artot Auer Auger

10

1722 1696/1695 viola 1709 Greffulhe 1713 cello 1716 1740 1714 1716 1716 Le Messie 1725/1728 1742 1692 1713/1719 1737 1730 1681/1691 1731/1721 1731/1721 1666 1726 1726 1710 1723 1740 filius Andreæ? 1744 1689 cello 1718 1717 1725/1735 1735 1732 1705 1705 1709 1716 1721 1743 1734

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1893 AURIOL nd 1870 nd 1872 1915 nd 1954 1934 nd nd nd 1875 1870 nd nd nd 1915 nd 1886 nd nd 1907 1885 nd 1924 1870 1872 1909 1905 1910 1921 1897 1897 nd 1876 1870 1872 nd nd nd 1910 nd nd 1872

Stradivari

BACHELEZ Stradivari BAILLOT, René Stradivari Baillot Guarneri BAKER Stradivari Baker Stradivari Baldeschi, Comte de Guarneri Balokovic, Zlatko Stradivari Balokovic, Zlatko Stradivari Barjansky, Serge Stradivari Barrau, de Stradivari Barrau, de Stradivari BARRY, de Guarneri BATTA Stradivari Baudiot Stradivari Baudiot Stradivari Bauer; see Bower Bavaria, King Louis [Ludwig] II Stradivari Beare Guarneri Beaulieu Stradivari BECKER, Hans Guarneri Becker, Hugo Stradivari BECKER, Hugo Stradivari Becker, Hugo Stradivari Becker, Jean [father of Hugo] Stradivari Becker, Jean [father of Hans] Guarneri Beerinstayn, de Guarneri BÉNAZET Stradivari BÉNAZET Guarneri BERBER, Felix Stradivari BERBER, Felix Guarneri BERBER, Felix Guarneri Berber, Mme. Guarneri Bernardel Stradivari Bernardel, Gustave Stradivari Bernardel, Léon Stradivari Bérou Stradivari BÉROU Stradivari BERTIER, le Comte de Stradivari Bertier, Comte de Stradivari Berthier, Maréchal Stradivari Berystann/Berystayn; see Beerinstayn Betts Stradivari BIDERMANN, Mme. Stradivari Bisiach Stradivari Bisiach Stradivari BLAIN des CORMIERS Stradivari 11

1704

127 [U]

nd 1717 Omobono? Francesco? 1735 1715 Titian 1715 Titian 1740 1708 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1709/1684 cello 1710 cello 1715 1732 1714 cello 1708 cello 1725 cello

147 [U] 88 [L] 131 [L] 52 [U] 52 [U] 112 [L] 160 29 [U] 62 [U] 27 [L] 40 [L] 66 [U] 4 [U] 4 [L] 31 [L]

1720 1745/1725 1721 1732 1693 cello 1705 1726 cello 1708 cello 1732 1734 1708 cello 1742 1717? [1711] 1739 1740 filius Andreæ? 1740 filius Andreæ? 1672 1707 1692/1699 1705 1727 1683 1683 1706/1716

193 23 [L] 6 [L] 112 [U] 86 [L] 139 147 [L] 4 [L] 112 [U] 206 4 [L] 54 [U] 179 180 [L] 180 [U] 180 [U] 101 [L] 132 [L] 17 [L] 3 [L] 7 [L] 53 [U] 176 [U]; see 53 [U] 12 [L]

1704 1666 1685 1702 1717

40 [U] 181 [U] 195 [L] 196 53 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1899 Blanco, F. nd BLANGY, de 1880 BLOCH, Sylvain nd Blow, Reverend John 1870 BLUNT, Mme. 1870 BLUNT, Mme. Anne Isabella 1916 BOECK, Madame de nd Böhm 1878 BOISS nd Boissier nd Boissier 1872 BOISSIÈRRE 1911 Bondy, Oscar 1908 Bonjour 1903 Bonjour 1903 Bonjour nd Bonjour 1873 Bonjour, Abel 1872 BONJOUR, Abel 1873 Bonjour, Abel 1872 BONJOUR, Abel 18 Bonjour ‘neveu’ nd BONJOUR, Samuel nd Bonnet nd Boucher 1870 BOUCHET 1870 BOUCHET 1870 BOURQUELOT 1911 BOUTARD 1937 Boutard, Mme. [widow] 1878 BOUTILLIER, la Comtesse nd Boutillier, de 1895 Bovet nd Bower [Robert A] 1913 Bower 1870 BRAGA nd Brandt nd Brandt 1936 Brès-Chouanard, Mme. [1900?] BRET, [Marcel?] 1902 Bret, [Marcel?] nd BRIGHT nd Brillat-Savarin nd Brochant de Villiers 1880 BRODSKY nd Brouzet 1938 Brown 1908 BRUN

Guarneri 1732 Stradivari 1697 Stradivari 1696 Stradivari 1709 Greffulhe Stradivari 1718 Stradivari 1721 Stradivari 1720/1727 Stradivari 1733 Stradivari 1725/1728 Stradivari 1713 Guarneri 1740 filius Andreæ? Stradivari 1711 Stradivari 1714 Stradivari 1696 cello Stradivari 1734 Guarneri 1733 Guarneri 1749 Stradivari 1689 cello Stradivari 1691 cello Stradivari 1696 viola Guarneri 1744 Guarneri 1744 Montagnana 1742 cello Stradivari 1693 cello Stradivari 1718 Stradivari 1720 Stradivari 1721 Stradivari 1711 Stradivari 1713 Stradivari 1713 Stradivari 1680 Stradivari 1712 Stradivari 1677 Sunrise Stradivari 1721 Stradivari 1736 Stradivari 1731 cello Stradivari 1708 cello Stradivari 1727 viola Stradivari 1705 Stradivari 1698 Goffriller? Stradivari 1711 Stradivari 1720/1732/1733 Stradivari 1721 Guarneri 1744 Guarneri 1735 Guarneri 1730 filius Andreæ? Bergonzi? Stradivari 1689 cello Stradivari 1700/1709 12

3 [U] 131 [U] 92 [L] 106 [L] 5 [L] 5 [U] 204 151 72bis [U] 146 [L] 180 [U] 52 [L] 182 117 [U] 12 [U] 146 [U] 216 [U] 42 [L] 51 [L] 42 [U] 51 [U] 51 [U] 177 86 [L] 25 [U] 6 [U] 6 [L] 7 [U] 187 187 72bis [L] 198 44 [L] 6 [L] 64 [L] 88 [U] 4 [L] 27 [U] 139 135 [L] 7 [U] 163 [L] 33 [L] 51 [U] 96 [U] 25 [L] 42 [L] 171 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1896 nd nd 1909

Brun Buegner Bull, Ole Burmester

Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari

1725/1735 1745 1724 1734

128 [U] 94 [U] 76 [U] 12 [U]

1890 1882 1886 nd 1885 1884 1886 188 1882 1886 1881 1886 1884 1886 1934 nd

Cail CAMPOSELICE, le Duc de Camposelice, le Duc de Camposelice [le Duc de] Camposelice, le Duc de Camposelice, le Duc de CAMPOSELICE, le Duc de Camposelice, le Duc de CAMPOSELICE, le Duc de CAMPOSELICE, le Duc de CAMPOSELICE, le Duc de Camposelice, le Duc de Camposelice, le Duc de CAMPOSELICE, le Duc de Candèla, Miguel Caraman-Chimay, Prince de

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari

1719 1696/1695 viola 1704 1705/1701 viola 1709 1710 1710 1713 1713 cello 1719 cello 1731 1735 1741 1742 1749 1701 cello

199 [L] 102 [L] 40 [U] 75 [U] 80 [L] 39 [U] 115 [U] 43 [L] 108 [U] 114 [L] 102 [U] 69 [L] 39 [L] 114 [U] 216 [U] 37 [L]

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1664/1694 1664/1694/[16]97 1672 1677 Sunrise c.1680/1711 1683 1687 1687 1693 cello 1696 1697 Francesco Rugger? 1697 1697 1699 1699 1701 cello 1704 1705 1705 1706/1716 1707 1707 1707 1708 1708

126 [U] 173; see 126 [U] 101 [L] 44 [L] 214 [U] 53 [U] 209 55 [L] 86 [L] 56 [L] 131 [U] 118 [L] 175 [L]; see 118 [L] 155 [L] 167 [U]; see 132 [L] 37 [L] 127 [U] 139 139 12 [L] 132 [L] 132 [L] 132 [L] 160 191

Caressa & Français; Albert Caressa nd Caressa [& Français?] 1923 Caressa [& Français?] 1912 Caressa & Français 1922 Caressa 1933 Caressa 1909[?] Caressa & Français 1925 Caressa 1934 Caressa 1912 Caressa & Français 1906 Caressa & Français 1924 Caressa 1911 Caressa & Français 1911 Caressa & Français 1905 Caressa & Français 1907 Caressa & Français 1919 Caressa & Français 1929 Caressa 1937 Caressa 1904 Caressa & Français 1908; 1909 Caressa & Français 1909 Caressa & Français 1923 Caressa 1918 Caressa & Français 1909 Caressa & Français 1912; 1913 Caressa & Français

13

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1903; 1912 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1912 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1917[?]; 1921 Caressa Stradivari 1903 Caressa & Français, Silvestre, Hill, Stradivari 1915 Caressa & Français Stradivari nd Caressa & Français Stradivari 1905 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1906 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1914 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1938 Caressa Stradivari 1927 Caressa Stradivari nd Caressa & Français Stradivari 1907 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1911 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1911 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1915-1918 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1921-1922 Caressa Stradivari 1902; 1907; 1911 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1922; 1923 Caressa Stradivari 1920; 1925 Caressa Stradivari 1917; 1919 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1919 Caressa & Français Stradivari nd Caressa & Français Stradivari nd Caressa [& Français?] Stradivari 1934; 1935; 1936 Caressa Stradivari 1903 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1922 Caressa Stradivari 1923; 1924 Caressa Stradivari nd Caressa & Français Stradivari 1909; 1912 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1903 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1907 Caressa [& Français?] Stradivari 1906 Caressa & Français Stradivari 1906 Caressa & Français Stradivari nd Caressa Stradivari 1905 Caressa & Français, Hill, Silvestre Stradivari nd Caressa & Français Stradivari 1925[?] Caressa Stradivari 1908 Caressa & Français Guarneri 1904 Caressa & Français Guarneri 1911 Caressa & Français Guarneri 1903; 1908 Caressa & Français Guarneri 1904 Caressa & Français Guarneri 1923 Caressa Guarneri 1922[?] Caressa Guarneri 1906;1913 Caressa & Français Guarneri 1926 Caressa Guarneri 1905 Caressa & Français Guarneri 14

1708 1708 1708/1701/1703 1709 La Pucelle 1709 cello 1709 Greffulhe 1710 1710 Omobono? 1711 1712 1712/1705/1707 1712/1702 1713/1719 1714 1715 1715 Titian 1715 Titian 1715/1727 1717 1717 1717 1717 1718 1718 1718 1719/1733 1720 1720/1727 1721 1724 cello 1725/1735 1726 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1727 Omobono? 1728 1734 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne nd 1732 1733 1733 1734 1734 1734 1735 1737 1739

86 [U] 157; cf. 86 [U] 205 [L] 14 [U] 203 106 [L] 65 [U] 164 [U] 52 [L] 120 [L] 9 [L] 60 [U] 123 [L] 182 21 [L] 52 [U] 52 [U] 8 [U] 26 [L] 28 [U] 98 [U] 98 [U] 148 [L] 145 [U] 74 [L] 13 [L] 193 204 6 [L] 70 [U] 128 [U] 20 [U] 161 174 [U]; see 161 144 [U] 61 [U] 12 [U] 29 [U] 129 [L] 155 [U] 181 [L] 146 [U] 154 32 [L] 206 183 189 180 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1909 Caressa & Français nd Caressa & Français 1909 Caressa & Français

Guarneri 1740 filius Andreæ? Guarneri 1745/1725 Montagnana 1742 cello

1880 CARTIER nd Casadesus, Marius 1937 Casadesus, Marius nd Casadesus, Marius 1875 Cassavetti nd Castelbarco nd CAUNE, Albert nd Cessole nd Cessole, Comte de 1903 Cézard 1907 Chapman nd Chaponay, Comte de nd Chaponay, Marquis de 1893 Chardon nd Chardon 1911 CHATELANAT 1805 Chatelanat [grandfather] nd Chauvin 1925 CHESNAIE, de la [de Lachenais] nd Chevillard 1910 Chevillard 1878 CHRISTMANN 1936 Citella 1870 CLOSET, Mlle. 1904 Cobbett 1901 COBBETT 1908 Conservatoire, Madrid nd Conservatoire, Paris [1887] Conservatoire, Paris [1935] Conservatoire, Paris [1909] Conservatoire, Paris 1908 Conservatoire, Paris 1890 [1889] Conservatoire, Paris 1876 CONSOLO 1832 Cornet nd Costé 1953 Cottle, Doctor M. H. 1937 Coulon, Mme. 1913 Court, René 1887 COUSSETTE 1919 Courvoisier 1910 Courvoisier, J. L. 1933 Courvoisier 1917 Courvoisier

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari 15

180 [U] 23 [L] 177

1734 96 [L] 1698 10 [L] 1709/1700-1702 93 [U] 1714 143 [U] 1727 viola 27 [U] 1699 87 [U] 1699 128 [L] 1716 94 [L] 1741 89 [L] 1733 146 [U] 1726 cello 147 [L] 1718 25 [U] 1713 187 1712 198 1714 208 17 2 190 17 2 190 1699 ‘choisi par Lafont’ 63 [U] 1687 209 1725 cello 175 [U] 1735 18 [U] 1716 73bis [U] 1687 55 [L] 1724 63 [L] 1721 149 [U] 1722 144 [L] 1713 146 [L] 1699 107 [U] 1708 92 [U] 1709/1708 90 [L] 1716 Provigny editorially numbered as 180 recto 1724 37 [U] 1742 1 [L] 1733 73 [L] 1736 64 [L] 1717 Guarneri del Gesù? 156 1744 169 1716 121 [U] 1705 105 [L] 1737/1740 Omobono 141 [L] 1701 cello 37 [L] 1707 132 [L] 1709 cello 203 1717 28 [U]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1922 nd 1919 1918 nd nd 1890 nd 1880 1880 1888 nd nd nd 1912 1870

Courvoisier, J. L. Courvoisier Courvoisier, J. L. Courvoisier, J. L. Cousin Couteau Crawford Cristiani CROALL, William CROALL, William Croall Crouzé Cubain Cuisinier CULBERTSON [Cubertson] CUVILLON de

[1886] Damien nd DANCLA, Ch. nd Dancla 1884 Dancla nd Dancla nd Darche nd DARCHE nd David 1880 DAVIDOFF, le Comte 1872 DAVIDOFF, [Karl] 1900 Dechaussoy 1870 DEFRANCE nd Defrance 1888 DEHN 1820 Delcambre de Champvert, Baron 1887 Delsart 1870 DEMANET nd Demanet 1890 Depret, Léon 1919 Dérivaux 1878 DERVAUX-IBLED 1872 DESAINT 1874 DESJARDINS nd Desöer nd Dessöer [Desöer] 1917 Destreicher 1897 DesVERGERS, Comte 1870 DEURBROUCQ, le Baron 1872 DIEN nd DIETZ MONNIN 1872 DIMPRE

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari

1720 1728 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1730 1714 1701 cello 1716 Le Messie 1708 cello 1700 viola 1716 1721/1710 1720/1732/1733 1731/1721 1714 1732 1715/1727

193 214 [L] 29 [U] 205 [U] 73 [U] 37 [L] 2 4 [L] 95 [L] 94 [L] 45 [L] 163 [L] 95 [U] 26 [U] 192 [U]; see 66 [U] 8 [U]

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari

1696 cello 1708 1708 1710 1721 1709/1700-1702 1733 1731/1721 1708 1712 cello 1728 1708 1708 1709 1728 1689 cello 1712/1705/1707 1712 1733 1717 1703 1696 1710 1710 17 1725 1688 cello 1727 1743 1705 1705

117 [U] 148 [U]; see 86 [U] 86 [U] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 45 [L] 93 [U] 146 [U] 95 [U] 92 [U] 58 [U] 217 [U] 86 [U] 148 [U]; see 86 [U] 141 [U] 217 [U] 42 [L] 9 [L] 178 [L]; see 9 [L] 181 [L] 98 [U] 89 [U] 56 [L] 65 [U] 47 [U] 43 [U] 24 [L] 134 [L] 8 [L] 55 [U] 136 [U] 56 [U]

16

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1875 1872 1909 1913 1870 nd 1896 1898 nd 1872 1890 1872 1881 1872 1899 1903 nd 1901 1908 1903 1900 1912 nd

DOBREE DOGNIN DONCKIER de DONCEEL, P. Donckier de Donceel, Paul DORIA, le Marquis Doyen Doyen Doyen Dragonetti DREUX Dubosq DUBOSQ-LETTRÉ DUBOSQ-LETTRÉ DUBRAY Dufresne Dufresne, E. Dufresne DUFRESNE Dufresne Dufresne, E. Dufresne Dupuis Durand

1905 EDLER 1900 Edler 1904 Edler 1908 Edler 1875 EGVILLE, d’ 1875 EGVILLE, d’ 1878 EGVILLE, d’ 1878 EGVILLE, d’ 1906; 1922 Elliseieff 1925 Elman, [Mischa] 1923 Elman 1912 Emerich, Dr. 1900 Enesco 187 Engelhard nd Engelhardt 1961 Engelman, Dr. E. P. 1881 ENTHOVEN nd Erduran, Mlle. 1875 ERLANGER, le Baron d’ nd ERLANGER, le Baron d’ 1875 ERLANGER, le Baron d’ 1870 ERNST, Madame nd Ernst nd Ernst

Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari

1717 cello 1737 1712 1712/1705/1707 1685 1710 Omobono? 1720 1745/1725 1728 1687 1733 1685 1710 1689 1687 1708 1708 1718 1718 1725/1728 1735 1720/1727 1727 viola

66 [L] 57 [L] 178 [L]; see 9 [L] 9 [L] 9 [U] 164 [U] 24 [U] 23 [L] 61 [U] 55 [L] 181 [L] 54 [L] 97 [U] 57 [U] 55 [L] 148 [U]; see 86 [U] 86 [U] 145 [U] 148 [L] 72bis [U] 69 [U] 204 27 [U]

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1699 1701 1701 1737 1719 1735 1735 1735 1696 1717 1735 1709 1730 filius Andreæ? Bergonzi? 1701 1701 1736 1741 1710 1687 nd 1731 1709 1709 1725

155 [L] 38 [L]; cf. 153 153; cf. 38 [L] 178 [U] 68 [U] 68 [L] 69 [U] 69 [L] 56 [L] 28 [U] 209 10 [U] 25 [L] 38 [L]; cf. 153 153; cf. 38 [L] 64 [L] 97 [L] 32 [U] 67 [U] 129 [L] 67 [L] 10 [U] 10 [U] 22 [U]

17

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1870 ESTIENNE 1897 Eyskierricsz, Comte

Stradivari Guarneri

1698 1742

Fainick; see Fawick nd Falcon 1907 Falk, Julius 1870 FARGE, de nd FAU nd FAU 1937 FAU, Pierre 1937 FAU, Pierre 1954 Fawick, Thomas L. nd Felder 1886 FERNANDEZ, Dionizio 1909 FERNANDEZ [widow] nd Ferni, Carolina nd Ferni 1870 FERRAND 1922 Feydel 1911 Fiorini 1880 FLACH 1938 Flesch, Carl nd Florent 1877 Florent 1933 FOA, Mme. Ed. 1905; 1925-1930 Foltzer, Robert 1913 FONTANA, Comtesse 1913 FONTANA, Comtesse nd Fontarce, Marquise de 1870 FORNERET, de nd Fountain nd Fourchy 1911 FRAENKEL, Sigmund 1964 Français, Jacques 1950 Français, Jacques 1901 FRANCHETTI, Baron nd Franchi-Verney, Comtesse 1886 FRANCHOMME 1924 Freeman 1908 FRESSON 1826 Frey, A. 1923 Friedmann 1926 Friedmann nd Friedmann 1923 Friedmann 1923 Friedmann

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Goffriller Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1721 1706 1716 1716 1734 c.1705 cello nd viola 1725 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1697 1697 1672 1732 1701 1717 1715/1727 1709/1700-1702 1717 1710 1710 c.1680/1711 1702 1702 1705 filius Andreæ 1737 1734 1738 1714 1695 1736 1736 1718 1709/1708 1711 cello 1704 1712 1726 1664/1694 1681/1691 1697 1717 1720/1727

1870 GABRIAC, le Vicomte de

Stradivari

nd

18

10 [L] 54 [U]

17 [U] 142 [L] 11 [U] 121 [U] 121 [L] 216 [L] 216 [L] 49 [L] 174 [U]; see 161 118 [L] 175 [L]; see 118 [L] 101 [L] 66 [U] 11 [L] 26 [L] 8 [U] 93 [U] 103 [U] 77 [U]; see 45 [L] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 214 [U] 196 196 196 189 12 [U] 200 [L] 208 167 [L] 73bis [L] 64 [L] 145 [L] 90 [L] 116 [U] 40 [U] 170 165; see 20 [U] 126 [U] 20 [L] 131 [U] 26 [L] 204 14 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1907 nd 1872 nd nd nd

Gaillard Gaillard GALLAY Gallay GAMBARO Gambaro

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1689 cello 1709/1684 cello 1725 cello 1709/1684 cello 1707 1707

Gand; Gand & Bernardel frères; Gand & Bernardel 1876[?] Gand & Bernardel frères Stradivari 1702 1881 Gand & Bernardel [frères] Stradivari 1707 nd Gand & Bernardel [frères] Stradivari 1709 Greffulhe 1877; 1884 Gand & Bernardel frères Stradivari 1710 1890 Gand & Bernardel Stradivari 1713/1719 nd Gand & Bernardel [frères] Stradivari 1715 nd Gand & Bernardel [frères] Stradivari 1718 1880 Gand & Bernardel frères Stradivari 1718 nd Gand Stradivari 1720 1875 Gand & Bernardel frères Stradivari 1727 viola nd Gand & Bernardel [frères] Guarneri 1740 1845 Gand Guarneri 1743 nd nd 1878 1870 1881 nd 1900 1899 1879 nd

Garcia Garcia Garcin GARCIN GARIEL Gaston, Madame B. Gaupillat Geissmar, Dr. GENTIL George-Hainl

Germain (Emile) 1897 Germain nd GERMAIN 1897 GERMAIN nd Germain 1911 Germain 1890 Germain 1897 Germain 1898 Germain 1896 Germain 1897 Germain 1896 GERMAIN 1896 Germain 1890 Germain, Emile nd GERMAIN 1898 Germain

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1693 1720 1715 1719/1733 1717 1743 1712 cello 1710 1699 nd

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri

1672 1697 1707 1708 1715 1719 1721 1721/1710 1725/1735 1726 1735 1737/1740 Omobono 1733 1743 1745/1725

19

42 [L] 62 [U] 58 [L] 62 [U] 132 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L] 87 [L] 82 [L] 106 [L] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 123 [L] 29 [L] 25 [U] 136 [L]; see 74 [L] 6 [U] 27 [U] 112 [L] 55 [U] 41 [L] 30 [U] 13 [U] 13 [L] 98 [U] 55 [U] 58 [U] 39 [U] 87 [U] 14 [L] 101 [L] 143 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L] 86 [U] 21 [L] 199 [L] 17 [U] 23 [U] 128 [U] 135 [U] 138 [U] 141 [L] 181 [L] 133 [L] 23 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

nd Gibson nd Gibson 1870 GLANDAZ 1878 Glandaz [son] nd Glatz Neumann nd Gleichauff 1873 Gleichauff 1879 Gleichauff 1920 GLÜCKSTADT, Mme. nd Goding 1929 Goldman, Henry nd Gouchman, L. nd Goudovitch, Comte 1870 GRAS nd Grasset 1882 GREFFULHE, le Vicomte 1972 Gremper, Guy nd Griberski 1916 Grimes 1893 Grohmann nd Grosjean 1922 Guersin 1921 Guetta, Léo nd Guichard 1870 GUIDOU 1890-1896 GUILLOUIARD nd Guinaumont, de 1891 GUYOT

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1713 1713 1709 La Pucelle 1709 La Pucelle 1708 1700 1713 1744 1734 1722 Jupiter[?] 1733 1736 1709 cello 1715 1725 1709 Greffulhe 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1708/1701/1703 1732/1727 1734 1677 Sunrise 1709/1684 cello 1708/1701/1703 1708 1706/1716 1703 1704 1714

195 [U] 212-213; see 195 [U] 14 [U] 14 [U] 157; cf. 86 [U] 197 43 [L] 85 [U] 206 74 [U] 151 73bis [L] 203 13 [U] 24 [L] 106 [L] 29 [U] 205 [L] 60 [L] 32 [L] 44 [L] 62 [U] 205 [L] 44 [U] 12 [L] 130 127 [U] 143 [U]

1879 1870 nd 1870 1870 nd 1886

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

1720 1726 1709 1696 cello 1708 1721 1728 Testore

30 [U] 50 [L] 10 [U] 199 [U] 199 [U] 45 [L] 140 [U]

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1672 1683 1683 1687 1697 1705 1706/1716 1708 1708 1709 Greffulhe

101 [L] 53 [U] 176 [U]; see 53 [U] 55 [L] 131 [U] 136 [U] 12 [L] 157; cf. 86 [U] 191 106 [L]

Hal, van HAL, van Hallé, Lady HALLER HALLER Halma HALPHEN

Hamma (Stuttgart) 1912 Hamma 1909 Hamma 1909 Hamma nd Hamma nd Hamma 1901 Hamma 1908 Hamma 1912 Hamma 1911-1912[?] Hamma 1910 Hamma

20

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1899 nd 1907 1923 nd nd 1898 1902 1906 1906 nd nd 1912 1931 1893 nd nd 1910

Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma HAMMA, Fridolin Hamma Hamma Hamma Hamma

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri

1710 1710 1710 1717 1720 1721 1721/1710 1722 1727 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1734 1735 1732 1733 1734 1735 1735 1743

39 [U] 65 [U] 164 [L] 26 [L] 193 6 [L] 23 [U] 144 [L] 161 174 [U]; see 161 12 [U] 18 [U] 192 [U]; see 66 [U] 210-211 32 [L] 69 [U] 131 [L] 55 [U]

1872 1911 nd nd 1905 nd 1899

HAMMER Hammer, Mme. Hämmerlee [Hämmerle?] Hammig Hammig Hammig HANFBLUM

Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1707 1707 1733 1687 1717 1721 1715

59 [U] 59 [U] 210-211 55 [L] 179 6 [L] 171 [U]

Hart & Son (London) 1896 HART 187 Hart 1913; 1933 Hart 1909 Hart 1875 Hart 1875 Hart 1907 Hart 1896 Hart 1879 Hart

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

1692 1704 1708 1709/1684 cello 1714 1717 1717 1721 1737

127 [L] 40 [U] 191 62 [U] 26 [U] 26 [L] 98 [L] 33 [L] 57 [L]

1908 nd 1913 1886 1915 nd 1870 1915 nd nd 1905

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

nd cello 1719 1672 1724 cello 1737 King Joseph 1737 King Joseph 1723 1700 1731/1721 1732 Hercules 1695/c.1680

75 [L] 68 [U] 101[L] 116 [L] 202 202 15 [L] 197 95 [U] 103 [L] 158 [U]

Hasselmans, Louis Hauer Häumerlee [Hämmerle?] HAUSSMANN HAVEMAYER Hawley, Royal de Forest HÉBERT Heermann, Emil Heermann, Hugo Heermann, Hugo HEGAR

21

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1899 1934 1910 nd nd 1870 nd 1882 1929 1954 1959 nd 1906 1880 nd 1900 1881 nd

Hegar HEINECKE, Kurt Hekking, Gérard HEL Hel HERMAN Herman HERMANN Hermann Herrmann Herrmann, E. Herrmann, Emil Hertel Hertel Herter [Gustavo Herten?] Herwegh HERWYN Hesse, Landgrave of

Stradivari 1707 cello Guarneri nd Montagnana 1742 cello Stradivari 1733 Guarneri 1732 Stradivari 1730 Stradivari 1709 La Pucelle Stradivari 1699 Stradivari 1733 Stradivari 1708 Stradivari 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne Guarneri 1740 Stradivari 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” Stradivari 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” Guarneri 1734 Stradivari 1706 Stradivari 1717 Stradivari 1700

W. E. Hill & Sons; H.S.C. [Hill, Silvestre, Caressa & Français] 1892 Hill Stradivari 1683 1898 Hill Stradivari 1685 1899 Hill Stradivari 1689 1907 H. S. C. Stradivari 1689 cello 1891 Hill Stradivari 1690 1921 Hill Stradivari 1690/1699 1897 Hill Stradivari 1701 nd Hill Stradivari 1708 cello 1938 Hill Stradivari 1709 1903 Hill, Silvestre, ‘& nous’ [C&F] Stradivari 1709 La Pucelle 1904 Hill Stradivari 1709 La Pucelle nd Hill Stradivari 1711 cello 1911 Hill Stradivari 1713 1909 Hill Stradivari 1713 1893 Hill Stradivari 1714 cello 1899 Hill Stradivari 1715 1905 Hill Stradivari 1716 Le Messie 1904 Hill Stradivari 1717 1903 Hill Stradivari 1717 1888 Hill Stradivari 1717 nd H. S. C. Stradivari 1718 1920 Hill Stradivari 1720 1897 Hill Stradivari 1720 1911 Hill Stradivari 1720 nd Hill Stradivari 1720/1727 1897 Hill Stradivari 1721 nd H. S. C. Stradivari 1721 1956 Hill Stradivari 1721 22

91 [L] 215 [U] 177 133 [U] 66 [U] 15 [U] 14 [U] 101 [U] 151 160 29 [U] 112 [L] 161 174 [U]; see 161 206 142 [L] 98 [L] 197 99 [L] 38 [U]; cf. 132 [U] 57 [U] 42 [L] 72 [U] 61 [L] 11 [L] 4 [L] 120 [U] 14 [U] 14 [U] 116 [U] 195 [U] 43 [L] 4 [U] 171 [U] 2 26 [L] 150 103 [U] 148 [L] 24 [U] 6 [U] 193 204 6 [L] 149 [U] 149 [U]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

nd 1902 1937 1905 1895 1887 1897 nd 1910 1910 nd

Hill HILL Hill Hill, Silvestre, ‘et nous’ [C&F] Hill HILL Hill Hill Hill Hill Hill

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri

1725 1727 Omobono 1728 1728 1729 1732 1736 1732 1734 1744 1744

24 [L] 144 [U] 217 [U] 61 [U] 33 [U] 140 [L] 73bis [L] 192 [U]; see 66 [U] 121 [L] 16 [U] 169

nd 1889 nd 1887 1875 1883 1900 1909 1931 1913 1923 1937 1931 1928

HIRTH, Fritz Holden Hollier-Larousse Hollmann HORTELOUP Houette Hubay, Jenö Huberman HUBERMAN, Bronislaw HUBERMANN Hug Huguenin, Gustave Huguenin Hulsteyn, Sir Willem van

Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari

1737 1717 cello 1685 1691 cello 1724 cello 1705 1726 1733 1713 1713 1709 Greffulhe 1705 1732 1725 cello

178 [U] 66 [L] 9 [U] 51 [L] 70 [U] 105 [L] 50 [L] 73 [L] 212-213; see 195 [U] 195 [U] 106 [L] 139 31 [U] 58 [L]

1878 1881 1878 1878 1878 nd 1911 1911 1891 1880 1881 nd 1886 1886 1884 nd 1900

JANZÉ, [le Vicomte] de JANZÉ, de JANZÉ, [le Vicomte] de JANZÉ, le Vicomte de JANZÉ, le Vicomte de Jaures JELLINEK, Ernest JELLINEK, Ernest JENKINSON JOACHIM Joachim Joachim Joachim JOACHIM JOHNSON Jouy, de Jullien

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

nd cello 1687 1705/1701 viola 1718 Guarneri filius Andreæ? 1722 1725 cello 1707 1722/1731/1732 1692 1707 1715 1721 1722 1723 1721 1736 1742 cello; Francesco

75 [L] 99 [U] 75 [U] 74 [L] 74 [U] 31 [L] 185 186 122 [L] 93 [L] 40 [L] 125 [L]; see 18 [L] 18 [L] 118 [U] 113 [L] 110 [L] 107 [L]

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1683 1695 1709

99 [L] 167 [L] 120 [U]

1881 KAUFMANN 1913 Kaufmann nd Kaufmann

23

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

nd 1870 1900 18 nd 1932 nd 1912 1912 nd 1950 nd 1904 1904 1935 nd nd nd nd 1928 1904 1909 1909 1909 1905 nd 1948 nd

Kaulbach, la Baronne de KERMOYSAN, de Kessler Kierdorff, Achille Kiggen Kingman, Russell B. King-Saltar Kinnel, Mlle. Kinnel Kittel Klein, Richard Knoop, Baron Koenigswarther KOENIGSWERTHER Kolisch Kreisler Kreutzer Kreutzer Kreutzer Kruger, Mme. Kruse KUBELIK Kubelik Kubelik Küchler Küstener/Künstener Kurtz, Edmond KUX, Dr Wilhelm

1921; 1922 Laberte nd Laberte, Marc 1870 LABITTE 18 Labitte nd Labitte 188 Labitte nd LABOURET 1925 LACHENAIS, de nd Lachmann, Erich nd Lachmann, E. nd Lafont 1882 LAIDLAY nd Lalemant, Mme. 1870 LAMARTRE, de nd Lambertye, Marquis de nd Lamorlière, Général 1872 LAMOUREUX 1870 LAMOUREUX 1872 LAMOUREUX

Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1693 cello 1744 1718 1705 1718 1689 cello 1742 1697 1697 1696 cello 1736 1714 cello 1701 1701 1718 1722 1720 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1704 1721 1683 1683 1713 1742 1708 1724 cello 1719/1729

86 [L] 16 [U] 149 [L] 3 [L] 74 [L] 42 [L] 47 [L] 118 [L] 175 [L]; see 118 [L] 117 [U] 64 [L] 4 [U] 38 [L]; cf. 153 153; cf. 38 [L] 145 [U] 144 [L] 24 [U] 161 174 [U]; see 161 127 [U] 6 [L] 176 [U]; see 53 [U] 53 [U] 43 [L] 47 [L] 157; see also 86 [U] 116 [L] 184

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1677 Sunrise 1742 cello; Francesco 1681/1691 1715 1716 1721 1663/1685 1687 1714 1735 1735 1712 1728 1715 1716 1732/1727 1717 1722 1722 Rode

44 [L] 107 [L] 20 [L] 13 [U] 73bis [U] 45 [L] 132 [U]; cf. 38 [U] 209 208 18 [U] 96 [U] 100 [L] 214 [L] 21 [L] 73 bis [U] 60 [L] 19 [U] 18 [L] 19 [L]

24

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1870 LAMOUREUX 1903 Lasseré

Stradivari Stradivari

1735 1725/1735

18 [U] 128 [U]

Laurie (David) 1881 LAURIE 1882 Laurie 1876 LAURIE 1876 LAURIE nd Laurie 187 Laurie 1877 Laurie 1876 LAURIE 1876 Laurie nd Laurie 1882 LAURIE 1883 LAURIE 1873 LAURIE 1873 Laurie 1882 LAURIE 18 Laurie 1875 Laurie 1877 Laurie 1884 Laurie 1879 LAURIE 1874 Laurie 1878 LAURIE 1882 LAURIE 1882 LAURIE 1886 LAURIE 1879 LAURIE 1886 LAURIE 1882 LAURIE 1879 LAURIE

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri

1684 1687 1688 1697 1700 1701 1702 1707 1708 1709 Greffulhe 1709 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1717 1719 1722 1726 1736 1732/1738 1737 1739 1739/1730 1740 1744

109 [L] 99 [U] 83 [U] 83 [L] 197 38 [L]; cf. 153 87 [L] 82 [L] 86 [U] 106 [L] 110 [U] 111 [L] 82 [U] 43 [L] 111 [U] 13 [U] 1 [U] 19 [U] 103 [U] 85 [L] 18 [L] 84 [U] 110 [L] 113 [U] 117 [L] 84 [L] 115 [L] 112 [L] 85 [U]

1878 1894 1914 1878 1872 1895 1906 1861 1880 1912 1914 1884 nd 1878 1878

Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

1687 1742/1737 1712 1693 cello 1725 1698 ‘choisi par Lafont’ 1711 1712 1745 1724 cello 1710 1710 1691 cello 1708 1724

55 [L] 100 [U] 198 86 [L] 59 [L] 129 [U] 52 [L] 120 [L] 94 [U] 70 [U] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 51 [L] 76 [L] 76 [U]

Lebrun Lebrun LEBRUN, Charles LECOMTE LECOMTE LECOQ Ledoux, Mme. Edmond Leduc LE DUC Leefson LEGRAND Legrand Legros LEHMANN, Frédéric LEHMANN, Frédéric

25

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

nd 1937 1903 nd

Lehner [Léner] Stradivari 1709 Greffulhe 106 [L] Lehr, Professor Lorenz Stradivari 1719 cello between 147 [L]/148 [U]; cf. 114 [L] LELONG Stradivari 1721 149 [U] Lelong Stradivari 1725/1728 72bis [U] Leloup de Sancy; see Rolland nd Le Meignan [Lemeignan], Madame Stradivari 1712 120 [L] 1870 LENEPVEU Stradivari 1721 17 [U] 1912 Lennart Stradivari 1693 cello 86 [L] nd Lerifait Guarneri 1742/1737 100 [U] 1870 LEROY Stradivari 1721 16 [L] nd Leroy (de Chabrol) Stradivari 1709 La Pucelle 14 [U] 1882 LESLIE, William Stradivari 1715 106 [U] 1870 LEUDET Stradivari 1692/1699 17 [L] 1871 LÉVÊQUE Stradivari 1712/1702 60 [U] 187 LÉVÊQUE Stradivari 1732/1727 60 [L] 1903 Levers Stradivari 1696 56 [L] 1903 Levers Stradivari 1725/1735 128 [U] nd Levesque, Colonel Stradivari 1727 7 [L] nd Lipiński Stradivari 1717 150 1939 Loche, Colonel Stradivari 1698 10 [L] nd LOËB, J Stradivari 1726 cello 147 [L] 1932 Loeser, Madame Charles Stradivari 1709 Greffulhe 106 [L] 1937 Lombard, Mme. [widow] Stradivari 1709/1700-1702 93 [U] nd LONGCHAMP, le Docteur Stradivari 1712 120 [L] 1878 LORÈS, Mademoiselle Stradivari 1736 73bis [L] nd Louvencourt, Marquis de Stradivari 1735 18 [U] nd Loys Stradivari 1725 cello 58 [L] nd Luce Stradivari 1703 130 1882 LUCE Stradivari 1703 109 [U] 1870 LUCE Stradivari 1727 21 [U] 1805 Lupot Stradivari 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 161 1806 Lupot Stradivari 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 174 [U]; see 161 1962 Lutz, Prof. Dr. O. Guarneri 1735 69 [U] 1898 Lyner Stradivari 1672 101 [L] nd Lyon & Healy Stradivari 1716 Colossus 215 [L] nd Lyon & Healy Stradivari 1724 124 [U] 1929-1930 Lyon & Healy Guarneri nd 172 1902 Lyon & Healy Guarneri 1737 King Joseph 202 1909 1949 1875 nd nd 1880 1912 nd 1913

Maas, G. Maaskoff, Anton Macalister MacDonald MADRID, Chapelle Royale de MAGNIN Maître, Colonel MAÎTRE, Colonel Maître, Colonel

Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari 26

1724 cello 1735 1725 1705/1701 viola 1700 cello 1729 1708 1708 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne

70 [U] 96 [U] 22 [U] 75 [U] 123 [U] 91 [U] 86 [U] 157; see also 86 [U] 29 [U]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1904 MAÎTRE, Colonel 1906 MAÎTRE, Colonel nd Mancini, Dr. Luigi 1863 MARKEVITCH, Senator 1920-1925 Marques 1879 Marshall 1904 Marsick 1902 Marsick 1879 Marsick 1907 Marteau nd Massard de Beaumont 1870 MASSART nd Massart 1892 Mathias

Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1734 1735 1731 cello 1709 cello 1728 1719 1705 1715/1727 1715 1709 1725/1728 1720 1714 1707

154 183 88 [U] 203 217 [U] 85 [L] 139 8 [U] 21 [L] 141 [U] 72bis [U] 24 [U] 73 [U] 82 [L]

Maucotel; Maucotel & Deschamp 1937 Maucotel & Deschamp 192 Maucotel & Deschamp 1923 Maucotel & Deschamp nd Maucotel & Deschamp nd Maucotel & Deschamp nd Maucotel 1923 Maucotel & Deschamp 1920 Maucotel 1923; 1924 Maucotel [& Deschamp] nd Maucotel & Deschamp 1922 Maucotel & Deschamp nd Maucotel & Deschamp

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

nd cello 1692/1699 1697 1697 1698 1707 1707 1720 1720/1727 1725 1735 1734

75 [L] 17 [L] 125 [U] 131 [U] 10 [L] 132 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L] 24 [U] 204 24 [L] 18 [U] 32 [L]

1870 1870 1872 1870 1917 1933 1870 1904 1937 192 1919 nd 1918 nd

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1714 1717 1727 viola 1690 1708/1701/1703 1720/1727 1718 1732 1732 1692/1699 1697 1699 1707 1707

26 [U] 26 [L] 27 [U] 22 [L] 205 [L] 204 25 [U] 155 [U] 155 [U] 17 [L] 125 [U] 167 [U]; see 132 [L] 132 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L]

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1685 1693 1694 17

104 [U] 41 [L] 41 [U] 43 [U]

MAULAZ MAULAZ MAULAZ MAUPAS, de MAUREL, Prosper Maurel, Prosper MAURIN MAURY Maury, Mlle. Mazeran Mazeran Mazeran Mazeran Mazeran

Meïer 1881 MEÏER, C. G. 1885 Meïer, G. 1881 Meïer, G. 1877 Meïer, C. G.

27

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1881 1873 1877 1877 1881 1873 1888 1879 1883 1878 1881

Meïer Meïer, C. G. MEÏER, C. G. Meïer Meïer Meïer, D. A. Meïer Meïer, C. G. MEÏER, C. G. MEÏER, C. G. Meïer, C. G.

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

1703 1704 1710 1710 1715 1715 1717 1730 1732 Hercules 1735 cello 1710

89 [U] 40 [U] 77 [U]; see 45 [L] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 29 [L] 40 [L] 103 [U] 15 [U] 103 [L] 77 [L] 47 [U]

1938 1867 nd nd 1929 1911 1916 nd 1889 1896 1870 nd 1880 1895 nd nd 1851 1870 1870 nd nd nd 1902 nd 1909 1804 1870 1870 nd 1911 nd 1870 nd 1912 nd 1882

Meinel Ménard de Marsinvilliers MENDELSSOHN Menuhin, Yehudi Menuhin, Yehudi Mercier de Molin, Jean-Jacques Mercier de Molin Merz Mess, Mlle. Mess, Mme. [Mme. Theo Ysaÿe] MEUGY MEYER DUCOMMUN Meyer, Ducommun Mez Midleton MIKLASHERSKY, Colonel Milanollo, Mlle. T. MILLAUT MILLONT Milstein? [Nathan] Milstein, Nathan Miremont [widow?] Mlynarski, E. de Mlynarski Möckel Molitor MOLITOR, le Comte MOLITOR, le Vicomte Momus MONASTERIO Monestier MONTGENET, de Montigny, Comte de MOOR, Emmanuel Morèna MORNY de

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari

1722 1736 1696/1686 cello 1714 1733 17 2 1731/1721 1743 1740 1740 1725 1718 1718 1716 1700 1726 1709/1700-1702 1742 1730 filius Andreæ? Bergonzi? 1710 1721/1710? 1726 cello 1681/1691 1718 1733 1717 1697 1717 1716 Colossus 1708 1705 1725 1722 1734 1742 1742 cello; Francesco

144 [L] 64 [L] 122 [U] 182 151 190 95 [U] 133 [L] 112 [L] 112 [L] 24 [L] 136 [L]; see 74 [L] 74 [L] 73bis [U] 45 [U] 135 [U] 93 [U] 28 [L] 25 [L] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 45 [L] 147 [L] 20 [L] 145 [U] 73 [L] 28 [U] 125 [U] 28 [U] 215 [L] 191 56 [U] 22 [U] 65 [L] 192 [L] 54 [U] 107 [L]

28

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1968 MORRISON, Jack 1967 Moskovsky, Alexander nd Mozcinski 1920 MUDOCCI, Madame 1882 MUIR 1937 Munch, Charles 1870 MUNCK, de nd Münsch 1923[?] Münsch nd Munsch 1873 Muntz 1874 MUNTZ 1873 MUNTZ 1870 MYÈVRE 1870 MYÈVRE 1914 MYLIUS

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari

nd 1742 cello; Francesco 1729 1703 1704 1740 1710 cello 1699 1707 1707 1696 viola 1736 1736 1721/1710 1745/1725 1700

nd 1903 1904 1894 1912 nd 1870 nd nd 1894 nd nd nd

Nachez, Tivador Nadaud Nadaud Nadaud Nadaud Naegely NAGORNOFF Nanteuil, de Neruda Norman (Lady Hallé) NICOLINI Norès Nothomb Nothomb

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1701 1708 1708 1734 1742 1713 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1699 ‘choisi par Lafont’ 1709 1727 1722 Rode 1690 1732 Hercules

nd 1870 1890 nd 1890

OBRY OECHSNER Oldham, Ch. OORDT, van Orchar, J. G.

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1721 1715 1722 Rode 1721 1717

nd nd nd nd 1911 1847 1870 1882 1871 18 1966

Paccard Paganini Paganini Paganini PANETTE, Marquise de Panette. Alphonse, Vicomte de la PANOUZE, de la Panouze [son] PARMENTIER, Mme. PARTELLO, de Pasquier, Regis

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1696 1712 1727 1740 filius Andreæ? 1737 1737 1720 1720 1728 1724 1717

29

217 [L] 107 [L] 33 [U] 207 108 [L] 112 [L] 27 [L] 167 [U]; see 132 [L] 132 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L] 42 [U] 64 [L] 64 [U] 23 [U] 23 [L] 197 153; cf. 38 [L] 86 [U] 148 [U]; see 86 [U] 12 [U] 28 [L] 146 [L] 29 [U] 63 [U] 10 [U] 126 [L] and Appendix 19 [L] 22 [L] 103 [L] 158 [L] 29 [L] 19 [L] 125 [L]; see 18 [L] 19 [U] 71 [L] 198 126 [L] and Appendix 180 [U] 189 189 30 [L] 30 [L] 61 [U] 124 [U] 209

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1880 1936 1871 1907 1957 nd 1908 1878 1875 nd 1870

Pastré Stradivari 1709 120 [U] PENING Guarneri 1749 216 [U] PÉRIER, le Comte de St. Stradivari 1709/1684 cello 62 [U] PESCATORE, Mlle. Ilse Stradivari 1699 167 [U]; see 132 [L] Peterlongo, Dott. ING Paolo Stradivari 1706/1716 12 [L] Petrovna, Tsarina Elisabetta Stradivari 1708/1701/1703 205 [L] Philipp, Mme. Guarneri 1732 112 [U] PICQUOT Guarneri 1732 78 [U] PILLOT Stradivari 1717 70 [L] PILLET-WILL, le Comte Guarneri 1735 131 [L] PINTEVILLE, de Stradivari 1720 30 [U] Plawden; see Plowden nd Plotemyi, Comte Eugen Stradivari 1725 22 [U] nd Plowden Guarneri 1735 50 [U] nd Pluvié, Comte de Stradivari 1709/1684 cello 62 [U] 1870 PLUVIÉ, le Comte de Stradivari 1725 cello 31 [L] 1870 PLUVIÉ, le Comte de Guarneri 1732 31 [U] 1881 Podenas, Princesse de Stradivari 1707 82 [L] nd Poirier, Du Stradivari 1725 59 [L] 1871 POLIGNAC, Mme. la Princesse de Stradivari 1690/1699 61 [L] 1919 Pollain, F. Stradivari 1701 cello 37 [L] 1851 Pommery, Amédée de Stradivari 1709/1700-1702 93 [U] nd Poniatowski Stradivari 1708/1701/1703 205 [L] nd Pontet Guarneri 1737 57 [L] nd POPOFF Stradivari 1708 152 1900-1904 POPOFF Stradivari 1733 151 1909 PORTUGAL, la famille royale Stradivari 1725 cello 175 [U] 1889 POYFERRÉ, le Baron de Stradivari 1723 124 [L] 1936 Pressegol, Mlle. Stradivari 1709/1700-1702 93 [U] 1908 PROVIGNY, Madame de Stradivari 1716 editorially numbered as 180 recto 1908 Prussia, Crown Prince Friedrich Stradivari 1721 6 [L] nd Prussia, Crown Prince Guarneri 1745 94 [U] nd Pugnani Guarneri 1734 32 [L] 1872 QUANTINET Stradivari 1705 1878 QUEUX St. HILAIRE, le Marquis de Stradivari 1699

105 [L] 107 [U]

1870 RAILLARD, Madame nd Raoul 1916 Rateau 1914 RAYSSAC, Dr. de 1908 Rebner 1804 Récamier 1890 REHFOUS [1900?] REIFENBERG, Hugo 1909 RELVAS, José 1959 Rémény, Z Michael nd Rèmusat, de

32 [L] 37 [L] 203 199 [L] 146 [U] 28 [U] 142 [L] 156 174 [L] 73 [U] 176 [L]

Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari 30

1734 1701 cello 1709 cello 1719 1733 1717 1706 1717 Guarneri del Gesù? 1725 1714 1685

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1870 RÉVENAZ Stradivari 1721 1889 REY Stradivari 1712 1869 Reynier, Léon Stradivari 1687 1870 REYNIER, Léon Stradivari 1729 1933 REZÉ, Comtesse Monti de Stradivari 1728 1870 RICARDO Stradivari 1690 nd Riché Guarneri 1736 [1893] Richers [Riechers] Stradivari 1721 1907 RIES, Louis Stradivari 1710 1897 Rinuccini Stradivari 1721 1880 RIVALS-MAZÈRE, de Stradivari 1709/1708 nd Rivière, Marquis de Stradivari 1711 nd Robert Stradivari 1717 nd Rode Stradivari 1721 nd Rode Stradivari 1722 Rode 1870 ROEDERER Stradivari 1710 nd Rolland, Leloup de Sancy Stradivari 1713 1870 [de ROLLAND], Leloup de Sancy Stradivari 1726 1907 ROLLAND, Baron Leloup de Sancy de Stradivari 1726 1826 [de Rolland], Comtesse Leloup de Sancy Stradivari 1726 1870 RONDONNEAU Stradivari nd 1904 RÖNTGEN Stradivari 1717 1918 Rosen, Max Stradivari 1707 nd Rothschild, Nathaniel Stradivari 1719/1729 1897 Roussy Stradivari 1736 nd Russia, Empress of Stradivari 1708/1701/1703 nd Russia, Grand Duke of Stradivari 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1882 RUTSON Stradivari 1694 1883 Rutson Stradivari 1718

33 [L] 142 [U]; cf. 134 [U] 209 33 [U] 214 [L] 72 [U] 64 [U] 125 [L]; see 18 [L] 164 [L] 17 [U] 90 [L] 7 [U] 53 [L] 6 [L] 19 [L] 32 [U] 43 [L] 20 [U] 165; see 20 [U] 165; see 20 [U] 62 [L] 194 and 150 82 [L] 184 73bis [L] 205 [L] 174 [U]; see 161 137 [U] 25 [U]

nd Sainton 1870 SAINTON nd Salabue, Il Conte Cozio di nd Salabue, Il Conte Cozio di 1896 SALATHÉ, Docteur 1905[?] Salathé 1878 SAMAL 1890 Samary 1923 SAMAZEUILH, Mme. Sancy, Leloup de; see Rolland nd San-Lorenzo, Duc nd SAN LORENZO, Duc de 1903 Sanz 1888 SARASATE 1870 SARASATE 1845 SASSERNO 1887[?]-1907 SAURET, Emile 1907 SAURET, Emile

Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1732/1738 1734 c.1680/1711 1716 Le Messie nd 1712 1722 1719 1735

113 [U] 36 [U] 214 [U] 2 134 [U] 142 [U]; cf. 134 [U] 79 [U] 199 [L] 209

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

1708 1718 1718 1713 1724 1717 1708 1744

191 148 [L] 148 [L] 146 [L] 37 [U] 103 [U] 168 169

31

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1870 SAUZAY 1870 SAUZAY nd Sauzay, Comte de nd Sauzay, Julien 1870 SAUZAY, Julien nd Savalette, de 1878 SAVEUSE, de 1871 SAYVÉ nd Sayvé, Marquis de nd Sayve [Sayvé], Marquis de 1940 Schaepman, Yves 1903 Schaub, Carl nd Schikler, Baron de 1906 SCHIMKÈVITCH, Jean de nd Schimkèvitch 1940 Schmidt, Gerhard nd Schmidt 1907 Schörg 1897 Schorg nd Schorg nd Schwabach 1870 SEGHERS nd Seghers nd Seibert, Professor nd Seidel, [Toscha] 1881 SEILLIÈRE, le Baron Frank 1902 Seligmann, Milton nd Séméladis 1922 Senn, Otto 1904-1922 Senn, Otto nd Senn 1921 Senn, Otto 1886 SENOCH, de St. 18 Senoch, de St. 1870 SERVAIS nd Servais, A F 1896 SEUIL, du 188 Seuil, du 1882 SEUIL, du 1878 SIEMENS 1880 Siemens, Werner 1893 Sighicelli

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari

1709 1721 1715 Titian 1717 Omobono? Francesco? 1737/1740 Omobono 1725 cello 1726 cello 1699 ‘choisi par Lafont’ 1712 1718 1693 cello 1719/1733 1707 1710 Omobono? 1715 1693 cello 1718 1699 1707 1707 1685 1717 1732 1721 1714 1672 1718 1732 Hercules 1712 1717 1730 1740 filius Andreæ? 1696 cello 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1701 cello 1701 cello 1725/1735 1734 1742/1737 1712 1715 1712

34 [U] 34 [L] 52 [U] 88 [L] 35 [U] 31 [L] 79 [L] 63 [U] 82 [U] 72 [L] 86 [L] 13 [L] 185 164 [U] 171 [U] 86 [L] 145 [L] 167 [U]; see 132 [L] 132 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L] 176 [L] 35 [L] 3 [U] 6 [L] 208 101 [L] 145 [U] 103 [L] 198 26 [L] 205 [U] 180 [U] 117 [U] 29 [U] 37 [L] 37 [L] 128 [U] 12 [U] 100 [U] 78 [L] 21 [L] 198

Silvestre; Silvestre & Maucotel nd Silvestre & Maucotel 1897 Silvestre 1903 Silvestre, Hill, ‘& nous’ [C&F] 1900 Silvestre

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1699 1707 1709 La Pucelle 1717 Guarneri del Gesù?

167 [U]; see 132 [L] 132 [L] 14 [U] 156

32

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1912 1903 1905 1903 1879

Silvestre & Maucotel Silvestre Silvestre, Hill, ‘et nous’ [C&F] Silvestre Silvestre

1720/1727 1725 cello 1728 1734 1737

204 58 [L] 61 [U] 12 [U] 57 [L]

1911 SIMONETTI Bergonzi nd Singer Stradivari 1911 Sinsheimer, Bernard Stradivari 1934 Smith Stradivari 1913 Smith, F. Stradivari 1870 SOIL Stradivari 1903 Soil Stradivari 1874-1911 SOIL, A. Stradivari 1890-1911 SOIL, A. Guarneri 1887 SOLA CABIATI, le Comte Andrea Stradivari 1887 SOLA CABIATI, le Comte Andrea Stradivari 1957 Sorrell, Robert Stradivari 1907 Soudant Stradivari nd Soyer Stradivari [1913?] Spalding Guarneri 1913 SPINOLA, Marquis Stradivari nd Spohr Stradivari 1953 Stad, Mme. Flora Stradivari 1931 Steinbach Guarneri 1924 Steiner-Schweizer Stradivari nd Stern, Leo Stradivari nd Stern, Isaac Guarneri 1880 STIEHLE Guarneri nd STOREY, Mme. Stradivari nd Stradivari, Paolo Stradivari 1878 STRATEN, van der [Straeten] Stradivari nd Straus Stradivari nd Strauss, Ludwig Stradivari 1875 STREET Guarneri 1911 Stubiger Stradivari 1918 Sturchio, Dr Stradivari 1903 SULZBACH Stradivari [1903?] SULZBACH Stradivari nd Szeryng, Henryk Guarneri

nd 1713 cello 1707 1687 1721 1690 1708 1714 1733 1707 1724 1717 Guarneri del Gesù? 1715/1727 1717 1735 1685 1718 1725 cello 1732 1735 1708 cello 1740 1732 1701 1716 Le Messie 1688 1708 1703 1729 1715 1699 ‘choisi par Lafont’ 1712 1732 1745

188 108 [U] 59 [U] 55 [L] 6 [L] 36 [L] 160 182 181 [L] 119 [U] 119 [L] 156 8 [U] 19 [U] 183 195 [L] 145 [L] 58 [L] 31 [U] 18 [U] 4 [L] 112 [L] 90 [U] 137 [L] 2 81 [L] 160 207 71 [U] 21 [L] 63 [U] 162 [U] 162 [L] 94 [U]

1915 1909 nd 1913 nd 1824 nd

1700 1708 1718 1736 c.1680/1711 1716 Le Messie 1720

197 160 148 [L] 64 [L] 214 [U] 2 6 [U]

Taft Talbot Talbot, G. Talbot Tarisio Tarisio Tarisio

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari 33

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

nd 1870 187 nd 1884 1878 1880 1912 1905 nd 1905 1902 nd nd nd nd nd nd 1885 1923 1922 1885 1909 1894 1908 1908 1870

Tattegrain TATTEGRAIN TAUDOU Tauzia, de TAYLOR, Tom TEDESCA, Mlle. TEDESCA, Mlle. Ten Have TEN HAVE Thibaud Thibaud Thibaud, J. Thibaud, J. Thillon Thunis, Willy Tlinsch Tonnens, de Trémont, Baron de Tua, Mlle. TUNSCH Tunsch & Lachmann Turban TUROT, Madame TURRETTINI TURRETTINI TURRETTINI TUVACHE

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari

1874 VAILLANT, Mlle. Stradivari 1874 VALLOT Stradivari Vanamacker; see Wanamaker Van der Weghe; see Weghe, van de Van der Straten; see Straten, van der Van Hal; see Hal, van 1880 VASLIN Stradivari nd Vaslin Stradivari nd Vassal Stradivari 1937 Vatelot [Marcel?] Stradivari 1909 Vecsey Stradivari nd Viault Stradivari nd Vidoudez Stradivari 1907 Vidoudez Stradivari nd Vidoudez Stradivari 1870 VIEUXTEMPS Stradivari nd Vieuxtemps Guarneri nd Vieuxtemps Guarneri 1870 VIEUXTEMPS Guarneri nd Vieuxtemps Guarneri 34

1663/1685 1685 1714 1710 1712 1734 1741 1697 1737 1707 1708 1709 1716 Colossus 1690 1728 1708 1710 1730 1709/1708 1714 1715 Titian 1729 1685 1664/1694 1694/1697 nd 1701 1718 1722

1707 cello 1725 cello 1731/1721 1722 1706/1716 1731/1721 1709/1684 cello 1709 1720 1710 1716/1736 1739 1741 1742

132 [U]; cf. 38 [U] 38 [U]; cf. 132 [U] 73 [U] 115 [U] 104 [L] 80 [U] 89 [L] 175 [L]; see 118 [L] 159 59 [U] 157; see also 86 [U] 34 [U] 215 [L] 22 [L] 214 [L] 157; see also 86 [U] 115 [U] 15 [U] 90 [L] 208 52 [U] 71 [U] 176 [L] 126 [U] 173; see 126 [U] 172 38 [L]; cf. 153 72 [L] 65 [L]

91 [L] 58 [L] 95 [U] 65 [L] 12 [L] 95 [U] 62 [U] 141 [U] 193 39 [U] 49 [U] 48 [L] 39 [L] 47 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1878 nd nd nd nd nd nd 1917 nd 1892 1897 nd nd 1855 1847

VILAINNE, de Villeneuve, de Villers, Marquis de Villiers, Brochant de Viotti, Battista Viotti Vireille, Comte de VITA, Baron Vitta, Baron Voigt Voisin Vormbaum Vormbaum Vuillaume Vuillaume

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri

1709 1707 1681/1691 1744 nd 1735 1727 1730 c.1680/1711 1714 1721 1705 1721 1716 Le Messie 1737

nd Wahl, Harry 1929-1934 WALKER, Ernest 1912 WALTER 1910 Walter 1925 Wanamaker, J. 1925 Wanamaker, John 1925 Wanamaker J. nd Wanamaker John 1925 Wanamaker J. 1925 Wanamaker, John nd Wanamaker, Rodman nd Warburg nd Warburg 1931 Warburg 1870 WATERS 1891 Weghe, van de 1878 Weghe, van de 1878 WENIGMANN 1949 Werro 1938 WERRO, Henry 1887 White nd Wielhorsky, Comte nd Wielhorsky, Comte nd Wieniawski 1906 WIETROWETZ, Gabrielle 1870 WILHELMY 1897 Willan, A nd Willaume, G 1878 WILMOTTE 188 Wilmotte 1870 WILMOTTE 1870 WILMOTTE

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1725 1716 Colossus 1720 1709 Greffulhe 1687 1710 1710 1715 1723 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1737 1705/1701 viola 1715 Titian 1725 cello 1735 1694/1696 1717 1741 1710 1728 1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1692 1712 cello 1719 1717 1725 1681/1691 1685 1677 Sunrise 1684 1689 cello 1693

35

80 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L] 20 [L] 51 [U] 217 [L] 131 [L] 126 [L] and Appendix 205 [U] 214 [U] 73 [U] 17 [U] 139 6 [L] 2 189 22 [U] 215 [L] 193 106 [L] 209 77 [U]; see 45 [L] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 52 [U] 118 [U] 29 [U] 189 75 [U] 52 [U] 58 [L] 50 [U] 41 [U] 19 [U] 81 [U] 164 [L] 217 [U] 29 [U] 127 [L] 58 [U] 68 [U] 163 [U] 49 [L] 20 [L] 176 [L] 44 [L] 109 [L] 42 [L] 41 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1870 WILMOTTE 1878 WILMOTTE 1870 WILMOTTE nd Wilmotte 1870 [1871?] WILMOTTE 1878 WILMOTTE 1870 WILMOTTE nd Wilmotte nd Wilmotte 1874 WILMOTTE 1885 WILMOTTE 1874 WILMOTTE 1870 WILMOTTE 188 WILMOTTE 1870 WILMOTTE 1883 Wilmotte 1878 WILMOTTE 1886 Wilmotte 1862 Wilmotte 1878 WILMOTTE 1885 Wilmotte 1878 WILMOTTE 1915 WILSON 1915 WILSON 1915 WILSON 1874 WIMPHEN 1884 Wimphen nd Wimphen 1880 Wimphen 1892 Winkler nd Withers 1891 Withers 1870 WITTERING 1910 Wittgenstein nd Wittgenstein 1909 WITTMANN, Xavier 1914 Wolfmann 1870 WOLKOFF 1873 WOLKOFF 1870 WOLKOFF 1906 Wottmann 1918 Wurlitzer nd Wurlitzer 1915 Wurlitzer 1918 Wurlitzer 1955 Wurlitzer, Rembert 1929 Wurlitzer 1948 Wurlitzer

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari 36

1694 1694 1696 viola 1696 cello 17 1700 1704 1705 1708 1708 1709 1710 1713 1714 1715 1717 1721 1734 1736 1710 1740 1742 1698 1719 1738 1696 1717 1719 1734 1714 1712 1734 1702 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1726 1715 viola 1716/1736 1739 1728 1685 1687 1699 ‘choisi par Lafont’ 1707 1710 1712 cello 1724 cello

41 [U] 46 [U] 42 [U] 117 [U] 43 [U] 45 [U] 40 [U] 139 168 44 [U] 120 [U] 46 [L] 43 [L] 105 [U] 40 [L] 53 [L] 45 [L] 96 [L] 64 [L] 47 [U] 112 [L] 47 [L] 201 201 200 [L] 71 [L] 103 [U] 199 [L] 80 [U] 73 [U] 78 [L] 32 [L] 87 [L] 161 174 [U]; see 161 174 [U]; see 161 165; see 20 [U] 48 [U] 49 [U] 48 [L] 61 [U] 9 [U] 209 63 [U] 82 [L] 32 [U] 58 [U] 116 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1933 Wurlitzer 1922 Wurlitzer nd Wurlitzer

Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri

1737/1707 Chant du Cygne 1737 1740

29 [U] 189 112 [L]

1918 Ygartua, Julio de 1920 Ygartua, de 1917 Ygartua, Julio de nd Ysaÿe 1896-1931 Ysaÿe, Eugène 1896 Ysaÿe, Mme. Theo nd Ysaÿe, Theo

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Guarneri Guarneri Stradivari

1715 Titian 1717 1717 1732 Hercules 1740 1740 1735

52 [U] 28 [U] 98 [U] 103 [L] 112 [L] 112 [L] 209

nd 1906 1906 nd

Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari Stradivari

1715 Titian 1708 1727 “choisi par Kreutzer” 1704

52 [U] 160 161 40 [U]

Zimbalist ZIMMER, Albert ZIMMER, Albert Zweifeld [Zweifel]

******************

37

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Index 2 Instruments by chronological label-date (with JF55.2 location).

Antonio Stradivari No date No date No date cello No date No date No date

14 [L] 62 [L] 75 [L] 134 [U] 147 [U] 217 [L]

1663/1685 1664/1694 1666

132 [U]; cf. 38 [U] 126 [U] 181 [U]

1672 1677

101 [L] 44 [L]

c.1680/1695 c.1680/1711 1680 1681/1691 1683 1683 1683 1684/1709 cello 1684 1685/1663 1685 1685 1685 1685 1685 1685 1687 1687 1687 1687 1688 1688 1688 cello 1689 cello 1689

158 [U] 214 [U] 72bis [L] 20 [L] 53 [U] 99 [L] 176 [U]; see 53 [U] 62 [U] 109 [L] 132 [U]; cf. 38 [U] 9 [U] 38 [U]; cf. 132 [U] 54 [L] 104 [U] 176 [L] 195 [L] 55 [L] 67 [U] 99 [U] 209 81 [L] 83 [U] 134 [L] 42 [L] 57 [U]

1690/1699 1690 1690

1690 1691/1681 1691 cello 1692/1699 1692 1692 1693 1693 cello 1694/1664 1694?/1697 1694 1694 1694 1695/c.1680 1695 1696/1686 cello 1696/1695 viola 1696 viola 1696 1696 1696 1696 cello 1696 cello 1697/1694? 1697 1697 1697 1697 1697 1698 1698 1698 Goffriller? 1698 1699/1690 1699/1692 1699 1699 1699 1699 1699 1699 1699

61 [L] 22 [L] 36 [L] 38

72 [U] 20 [L] 51 [L] 17 [L] 122 [L] 127 [L] 41 [L] 86 [L] 126 [U] 173; see 126 [U] 41 [U] 46 [U] 137 [U] 158 [U] 167 [L] 122 [U] 102 [L] 42 [U] 56 [L] 71 [L] 92 [L] 117 [U] 199 [U] 173; see 126 [U] 83 [L] 118 [L] and 175 [L] 125 [U] 131 [U] 143 [L] 10 [L] 129 [U] 135 [L] 201 61 [L] 17 [L] 63 [U] 87 [U] 101 [U] 107 [U] 128 [L] 155 [L] 167 [U]; see 132 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

17 1700-1702/1709 1700/1709 1700 1700 viola 1700 cello 1700 1701/1705 viola 1701/1703/1708 1701 1701 cello 1701 1701 1702/1712 1702 1702 1703/1701/1708 1703 1703 1703 1703 1704 1704 1704 c.1705 cello 1705/1701 viola 1705/1707/1712 1705 1705 1705 1705 1705 1706/1716 1706 1707/1705/1712 1707/1737 1707 1707 1707 cello 1707 1707 1707 1707 1707 1708/1701/1703 1708/1709 1708 cello 1708

43 [U] 93 [U] 171 [L] 45 [U] 95 [L] 123 [U] 197 75 [U] 205 [L] 11 [L] 37 [L] 38 [L]; cf. 153 137 [L] 60 [U] 87 [L] 196 205 [L] 89 [U] 109 [U] 130 207 40 [U] 108 [L] 127 [U] 216 [L] 75 [U] 9 [L] 3 [L] 56 [U] 105 [L] 136 [U] 139 12 [L] 142 [L] 9 [L] 29 [U] 59 [U] 82 [L] 91 [L] 93 [L] 119 [U] 132 [L] 138 [L]; see 132 [L] 185 205 [L] 90 [L] 4 [L] 44 [U]

1708 1708 1708 1708 1708 1708 1708 1708 1708 1708 1709/1684 cello 1709/1700 1709/1700-1702 1709/1708 1709 1709 1709 1709 1709 1709 1709 1709 1709 cello 1710/1721 1710 cello 1710 1710 1710 1710 1710 1710 1710 1710 Omobono? 1710 1710 1711/c.1680 [1711] 1717? 1711 1711 1711 1711 cello 1712/1702 1712/1705/1707 1712 cello 1712 1712 1712 1712 39

76 [L] 86 [U] 92 [U] 148 [U]; see 86 [U] 152 157; see also 86 [U] 160 168 191 199 [U] 62 [U] 171 [L] 93 [U] 90 [L] 10 [U] 14 [U] 34 [U] 80 [L] 106 [L] 110 [U] 120 [U] 141 [U] 203 23 [U] 27 [L] 32 [U] 39 [U] 46 [L] 65 [U] 77 [U]; see 45 [L] 97 [U] 115 [U] 164 [U] 164 [L] 200 [U]; see 45 [L] 214 [U] 179 7 [U] 52 [L] 111 [L] 116 [U] 60 [U] 9 [L] 58 [U] 82 [U] 100 [L] 104 [L] 120 [L]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1712 142 [U]; cf. 134 [U] 1712 162 [U] 1712 170 1712 178 [L]; see 9 [L] 1712 198 1713/1719 123 [L] 1713 43 [L] 1713 cello 108 [U] 1713 146 [L] 1713 187 1713 212-213; see 195 [U] 1714 cello 4 [U] 1714 26 [U] 1714 73 [U] 1714 105 [U] 1714 111 [U] 1714 143 [U] 1714 182 1714 208 1715/1727 8 [U] 1715 13 [U] 1715 21 [L] 1715 29 [L] 1715 40 [L] 1715 viola 48 [U] 1715 52 [U] 1715 106 [U] 1715 171 [U] 1716/1706 12 [L] 1716 1[U] 1716 2 1716 11 [U] 1716 73bis [U] 1716 94 [L] 1716 121 [U] 1716 180 recto 1716 215 [L] 1717? [1711] 179 1717 19 [U] 1717 26 [L] 1717 28 [U] 1717 35 [L] 1717 53 [L] 1717 cello 66 [L] 1717 70 [L] 1717 Omobono? Francesco? 88 [L] 1717 98 [U] 1717 98 [L] 40

1717 1717 Guarneri? 1717 1717 1718 1718 1718 1718 1718 1718 1718 1718 1718 1719/1713 1719/1729 1719/1733 1719 1719 1719 cello 1719 1719

103 [U] 156 163 [U] 194 and 150 5 [L] 25 [U] 72 [L] 74 [L] 136 [L]; see 74 [L] 145 [U] 145 [L] 148 [L] 149 [L] 123 [L] 184 13 [L] 68 [U] 85 [L] 114 [L] 199 [L] 201

1720/1727 1720/1732/1733 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1721/1710 1721/1731 1721 1721 1721 1721 1721 1721 1721 1721 1721 1721 1721 1722/1731/1732 1722 1722 1722 1722 1722

204 163 [L] 6 [U] 24 [U] 30 [U] 30 [L] 193 23 [U] 95 [U] 5 [U] 6 [L] 16 [L] 17 [U] 33 [L] 34 [L] 45 [L] 113 [L] 125 [L]; see 18 [L] 149 [U] 158 [L] 186 18 [L] 19 [L] 65 [L] 74 [U] 79 [U]

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1722 1723 1723 1723 1724 1724 1724 cello 1724 cello 1724 1724 1725/1728 1725/1735 1725 1725 1725 cello 1725 1725 cello 1725 1725 1725 cello 1726 1726 cello 1726 1726 1726 cello 1726 1727/1715 1727/1720 1727/1732 1727 1727 1727 1727 viola 1727 1727 Omobono 1727 1727

144 [L] 15 [L] 118 [U] 124 [L] 37 [U] 63 [L] 70 [U] 116 [L] 119 [L] 124 [U] 72bis [U] 128 [U] 22 [U] 24 [L] 31 [L] 49 [L] 58 [L] 59 [L] 174 [L] 175 [U] 50 [L] 79 [L] 84 [U] 135 [U] 147 [L] 165; see 20 [U] 8 [U] 204 60 [L] 7 [L] 8 [L] 21 [U] 27 [U] 126 [L] 144 [U] 161 174 [U]; see 161

1728/1725 1728 1728 1728 1729/1719 1729 1729

72bis [U] 61 [U] 214 [L] 217 [U] 184 33 [U] 91 [U]

1730 15 [U] 1731 88 [U] 1731/1721 95 [U] 1731/1722/1732 186 1732/1720/1733 163 [L] 1732/1722/1731 186 1732/1727 60 [L] 1732 103 [L] 1732 140 [L] 1732 162 [L] 1733/1720/1732 163 [L] 1733/1719 13 [L] 1733 133 [U] 1733 151 1734 12 [U] 1734 96 [L] 1735/1725 128 [U] 1735 18 [U] 1735 cello 77 [L] 1735 138 [U] 1735 209 1736 64 [L] 1736 73bis [L] 1736 110 [L] 1737/1707 29 [U] 1737/1740 Omobono 35 [U] 1737/1740 Omobono 141 [L] 1742 cello Francesco

107 [L]

________________________________________________________________ Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù No date No date No date

129 [L] 172 215 [U]

17 2

190

1705 filius Andreæ 196 41

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1710 1712 1716/1736 1724 1725/1745 1728 Testore 1729

47 [U] 78 [L] 49 [U] 76 [U] 23 [L] 140 [U] 71 [U]

1735 1736/1716 1736 1737/1742 1737 1737 1737 1737 1737 1737 1737 1738/1732 1738 1739/1730 1739 1739 1739

183 49 [U] 64 [U] 100 [U] 57 [L] 117 [L] 159 166 178 [U] 189 202 113 [U] 200 [L] 115 [L] 48 [L] 84 [L] 180 [L]

1730 filius Andreæ C Bergonzi 25 [L] 1730/1739 115 [L] 1730 205 [U] 1731 67 [L] 1731 102 [U] 1732/1738 113 [U] 1732 3 [U] 1732 31 [U] 1732 66 [U] 1732 78 [U] 1732 90 [U] 1740 112 [L] 1732 112 [U] 1740 filius Andreæ 180 [U] 1732 155 [U] 1741 39 [L] 1732 192 [U]; see 66 [U] 1741 81 [U] 1733 73 [L] 1741 89 [L] 1733 146 [U] 1741 97 [L] 1733 181 [L] 1742/1737 100 [U] 1733 210-211 1742 1 [L] 1734 32 [L] 1742 28 [L] 1734 36 [U] 1742 47 [L] 1734 80 [U] 1742 54 [U] 1734 121 [L] 1742 114 [U] 1734 154 1743 55 [U] 1734 192 [L] 1743 133 [L] 1734 206 1744 16 [U] 1735 50 [U] 1744 51 [U] 1735 68 [L] 1744 85 [U] 1735 69 [U] 1744 169 1735 69 [L] 1745/1725 23 [L] 1735 96 [U] 1745 94 [U] 1735 131 [L] 1749 216 [U] _________________________________________________________________

Others No date No date 1742

C Bergonzi Goffriller (viola ) Montagnana (cello)

188 216 [L] 177 ****************** 42

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Notes 1. The French-language descriptive texts within the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 ledgers are transcribed in italics; significant textual variants which appear only in EF/JF55.4 are transcribed in underlined italics. The descriptive texts have been transcribed with the occasional addition of clarifying punctuation; the punctuation in the translations is the responsibility of the present author. 2. The different French terms used to identify the reflective bands in the maple wood of an instrument’s back plate – ondes and veines – have both been translated as ‘flames’; these flames are further defined in the texts as ondes droites or veines droites (‘straight’). It is possible that the word droites was used to indicate that the back-plate flames were horizontal but there are many occasions on which ondes droites is then followed, for example, by descendant un peu (or similar wording). The flames on the ribs of certain instruments are also described as droites; it is assumed that this indicates flames which are vertical (rather than flames which lean slightly to the left or right). 3. Five different terms are used in the descriptions to indicate breaks in the wood: cassure, fente, brisure, gerçure, and fracture. It is not known whether, during the period 1870-1930, there were subtle differences in the intended understanding of these terms; all have been translated as ‘split’. 4. The terminology talon neuf (literally ‘new heel’) appears frequently within the descriptive texts indicating, probably, that the violin’s neck had been detached from the body of the violin and then the neck lifted, re-angled, and slightly lengthened by the addition of a triangular wedge at the joint between the ‘foot’ of the neck (sometimes referred to as the ‘heel’) and the body of the violin. Talon neuf has therefore been translated as ‘modified neck-foot’ (as has talon remis). The related term, talon original, is understood as indicating that the wedge-modification had never been carried out; i.e. the instrument’s neck was still in its original state, as built by the maker. 5. The French word bouton refers to the small ‘end pin’, at the bottom of the instrument, around which passes the loop of gut which secures the tail-piece. In the English-speaking world the term ‘button’ refers to the semi-circular projection of the back plate upon which the ‘toe’ of the neck-foot is positioned. 6. In some of the descriptive entries there appears the word tache, alternatively spelled tâche. In modern French the two words have different meanings: tache = a blemish, or a dirty stain; tâche = task, or job. It would seem that in France, one hundred years ago, the spellings were not definitive and either could be used to indicate a blemish/stain (which is the clear intention when either word appears in the descriptive entries). 7. There are a few instances of the word flipot (alternatively spelled flipeau, filipot, filipeau or felipeau). According to the 2015 edition of Le Petit Robert: Dictionnaire de la Langue Française the word indicates ‘an insert in a piece of carpentry to cover and conceal a crack’. 8. The word sillet is used to indicate the fingerboard nut; it is also used to indicate the tail-piece saddle; the context clarifies which item is being identified. 9. The phrase le bord à la main (and similar constructions) – ‘the edge at the hand’ – refers to the topright curvature, or ‘shoulder’, of the sound-box where the wood can be worn down through repeated contact with the player’s left hand as he/she shifts up and down the fingerboard. On a cello this worn curvature can be on the top-right shoulder of the back plate (as a result of the curving edge continually being in contact with the player’s chest and his/her clothing) and/or the top-left shoulder of the front plate (top-left when viewed from the rear) as a result of the movement of the left arm and hand.

43

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

10. Because of the abbreviated manner used in the writing of the descriptive texts some Frenchlanguage terms can appear ambiguous; e.g. table de deux pièces, sapin très-fin s’élargissant sur les bords translates as ‘the front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin [i.e. narrow], widening at the edges’. However, the alternative construction – table de deux pièces, sapin fin ayant beaucoup de cassures (entièrement doublée) might suggest that ‘the front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce is thin [?fragile] [and, as a result,] having a lot of splits (the plate is entirely doubled)’. On balance, it is more likely that sapin fin (in the second phrase) is simply a very abbreviated manner of indicating that the rings are narrow across the front plate (which, unrelatedly, happens to be extensively cracked and therefore has been reinforced). One final consideration might be whether the word fin is being used as an indicator of quality, as might be found, for example, at a market-place vegetable stall: haricot extra fins – ‘beans of the highest quality’. Thus it is possible (though unlikely) that the term sapin fin was intended to be understood as indicating that the spruce front plate was made from very beautiful, unblemished pieces of wood (no knots, etc.). Similarly: table de deux pièces, sapin très-serré au milieu et plus larges sur les côtés translates as ‘The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [rings?] are very tight [i.e. narrow] in the middle, wider at the sides’, but Fond de deux pièces, veines remontant, un peu serrées translates as ‘The back plate is made from two pieces, the veins [flames] rising [from the centre-joint], slightly tight’. This latter phraseology does not entirely clarify whether the flames themselves are narrow, medium, or wide – only that they are ‘tight’ (or, perhaps, ‘tightly packed’). 11. A ‘translation’ into numerical equivalents of most of the buying and selling codes (aoxzx, rxzxz, hhxzx, etc.) has been achieved by using internal evidence and a process of deduction: h = 1; a = 2; r = 3; m = 4; o = 5; n = 6; i = 7; e = 8; u = 9. The letters x and z both represent 0; ‘thousand’ can be represented either as xzx or as zxz (but never as xxx or zzz). Thus aoxzx = 25,000 (French francs); rxzxz = 30,000; hhxzx = 11,000; hioxz = 17,500; axhxz = 20,100 etc. Codes used during the 1920s and 30s (a period when there was considerable instability in the value of European currencies) – i.e. codes such as atttttt or sttttt – have proved untranslatable; the letters probably represent Swiss francs or US dollars. 12. Supplementary information for instruments and owners was mostly obtained from sources which are still available to the general reader. Publications which have long been out of print, or publications which, though still available, are hugely expensive to buy, have generally not been consulted. It is acknowledged that some of these sources may be able to provide the history of instruments for which ‘no further information has been located’. For reasons of privacy and security the documentation attached to rare Stradivari and Guarneri instruments – documentation which provides details of sales and purchases and, through certificates, indicates the identity of instruments and owners – has generally not been made available to the present author. 13. The information sourced from the Cozio Archive within the website of Tarisio Fine Instruments and Bows (Tarisio.com) was obtained at various dates from January 2015 onwards and is used courtesy of Tarisio. Such information is cited as ‘CzAr/Tarisio’. **************

44

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

The instruments

JF55.2, p. 1 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 1 [U] (année 1870) M r Alard, à Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1716 Fond de 2 pièces, veines très-larges, descendant un peu, éclisses bois semblable. Table de deux pièces, beau sapin, ayant une petite fente au bas de l’f droite, très-belle tête avec son manche original, vernis rouge splendide. 1875 M r Laurie, 15,000 f 187 M r Adams, 20,000 f. (1870) M. Alard, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1716 The back plate is made from two pieces; very wide flames, descending slightly. The wood used for the ribs is very similar [to that used for the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having a small split at the bottom of the treble f. Very beautiful head with its original neck. The varnish is red; splendid. 1875 M. Laurie, 15,000 francs 187 M. Adams [John Adam], 20,000 francs. The French violinist Jean-Delphin Alard (1815-1888) was the son-in-law of Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume. David Laurie (1833-1897) was a violin dealer based in Glasgow, Scotland. John Adam was a collector who lived in Blackheath, south-east London. It is standard practice for the orientation of the flames on a violin’s two-piece back plate to be described with reference to the centre-joint; i.e. ‘descending’ flames would be those which slant downwards from the centrejoint to the edge of the plate. The 1716 violin described above cannot be that which is usually identified as the Alard Stradivari violin (a violin which is label-dated 1715) since, on the latter violin, the flames slant upwards from the centre-joint (see CzAr/Tarisio ID 41282). In addition, the body-length measurement of the 1716 violin – 358.7mm – sits against recent calliper-derived measurements of the 1715 Alard violin: 356mm (ibid., and in Beare et al. (2013), p. 170). It is noticeable that the descriptive text makes no mention of any letters inked inside the peg-box of the 1716 violin; the 1715 Alard violin has the letters ‘PS’ (or ‘PG’) inked inside. Nonetheless, the information regarding post-Alard owners of the 1716 violin – Laurie, Adam – appears to correspond with the sequence which is usually associated with the 1715 violin. Although Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 186) states that the 1715 Alard violin was sold to David Laurie in 1876 (Henley, p. 59, specifies the same date), elsewhere (Beare et al., ibid.) the date is specified as 1875. In his Reminiscences (p. [172]) David Laurie itemises a 1715 Stradivari violin which he sold to an un-named purchaser on 28 May 1877 for £800; the late-nineteenth-century exchange rate of 1:25 between Pounds Sterling and French Francs produces 20,000 Francs as the equivalent sum. In Beare et al. (ibid.) it is stated that ‘Laurie sold [the 1715 Alard violin] in 1877 to the London collector John Adam, repurchasing it in 1882 with most of Adam’s collection’; for further information see JF55.2, p. 102 [L]. In Les Facteurs d’Instruments de Musique (1893) Constant Pierre writes (p. 382): ‘In the same year [1875] M. Lawrie [sic], whose speciality was the trading of these [rare] instruments, bought from D. Alard a Stradivarius of 1716, for the sum of 15,000 francs, and he re-sold it for 20,000 francs to M. Adams’ (present author’s translation).

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 1 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 1 [L] [M r Alard] (année 1870) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne ½, année 1742 Fond d’une pièce, ondes larges, très-belles, descendant un peu à droite, éclisses semblables, table de deux pièces, sapin très-serré au milieu et plus larges sur les côtés, très-belle tête, vernis jaune rouge doré (très bien conservé). 1890 Musée du Conservatoire (don des héritiers d’Alard). [M. Alard] (1870) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces, 1½ lignes [355.3mm], year 1742 The back plate is in one piece; wide flames, very beautiful, descending slightly to the right. The ribs are very similar [to the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow in the middle, wider at the sides. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow-red (very well conserved). 1890 Museum of the [Paris] Conservatoire (presented by the heirs of Alard). In May 1889 this 1742 Guarneri del Gesù violin was donated by the daughters of Delphin Alard to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire following the death of their mother – Jeanne-Emilie Alard – on 21 March 1889.

***** JF55.2, p. 2; EF/JF55.4, p. 2 (année 1875) Monsieur Alard, Paris (suite) Violon Stradivarius (Le Messie), 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1716 Fond de deux pièces, ondes très-vives descendant un peu, éclisses ondes un peu plus douces, table de deux pièces, sapin très serré au milieu et s’élargissant vers les bords, petite pièce de 13 lignes de long à droite de la touche, deux petites fentes à gauche et une à droite dans le haut de la table, faites en détablant le violon, tête très-jolie, bois un peu doux avec son manche original. Vernis rouge doré. Ce violon comme aspect est comme un instrument neuf. Ex Paolo Stradivarius Ex Comte Cozio de Salabue Ex Tarisio 1824 Ex Vuillaume 1855 1875 M r Alard 25,000 f 1890 M r Crawford (Edimbourg) 50,000 f (Hill) 1,000 f Hill l’a racheté en 1905 – ioxzx. (1875) Monsieur Alard, Paris (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin (Le Messie), 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1716 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are very bright, descending slightly [from the centre-joint]; the flames of the ribs are slightly more mild [i.e. less distinctive]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow in the middle, widening towards the edges. There is a small patch – 13 lignes [29.3mm] in length – to the right of the fingerboard; [also] two small splits to the left [of the fingerboard], and one to the right, in the upper bout of the front plate, brought about during the dismantling of the violin. The head is very attractive, the wood somewhat mild; with its original neck. The varnish is golden red. The violin, in its appearance, is like a new instrument. ex Paolo Stradivari ex Il Conte Cozio di Salabue ex Tarisio, 1824 46

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

ex Vuillaume, 1855 1875 M. Alard, 25,000 francs 1890 M. Crawford (Edinburgh), 50,000 francs; (Hill) 1,000 francs The Hills bought back the violin in 1905; ioxzx. Paolo Stradivari (1708-1775) was the youngest son born of Antonio Stradivari’s second marriage. Il Conte Ignazio Alessandro Cozio di Salabue (1755-1840) was an Italian aristocrat who spent much of his life and wealth acquiring Cremonese instruments which he described and evaluated in an extensive collection of documents which today are archived at the Biblioteca Statale di Cremona, Italy. Luigi Tarisio (c.1790-c.1855) was a self-taught violin dealer who brought to Paris many Italian violins, violas, and cellos. Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume (1798-1875) was the most important French violin maker and dealer during the nineteenth century. Robert Crawford (d. 1912) was a Scottish whisky distiller and a violin collector. Crawford bought the Le Messie violin through the London firm of W. E. Hill & Sons. It is noticeable that the descriptive text does not include any mention of a letter G inked onto the end-face of the neck (where the peg-box cavity begins), nor any mention of two star-shapes impressed into the wood adjacent to the letter G. The end-face of the Messiah violin’s neck currently exhibits the letter G and two such stars. The descriptive text makes no mention of a star-shape punched into the bass-side ‘ear’ of the scroll. After the death of Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume (19 February 1875) his Le Messie violin was offered to Vuillaume’s brother, Nicolas-François, for 12,000 francs, but he declined to buy. The violin therefore became the jointlyowned property of Vuillaume’s two daughters, Jeanne-Emilie and Marie-Claire. Vuillaume’s son-in-law, Delphin Alard – husband of Jeanne-Emilie – bought out Marie-Claire’s half-share in the violin for 25,000 francs. Delphin Alard died in 1888 followed by Jeanne-Emilie in 1889. The two daughters of Delphin and Jeanne-Emilie sold the violin in 1890 to the Hills (who were acting on behalf of Robert Crawford).

***** JF55.2, p. 3 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 3 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Armingaud, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1732 Fond d’une pièce, veines douces remontant à droite, éclisses veines très-prononcées, table de deux pièces, joli sapin, très-belle tête, vernis jaune rouge doré (très-bien conservé). Ex Seghers Vendu à M r F Blanco au Brèsil à Buenos-Ayres en 1899 – 27,500 f, plus 10% Légué à la Ville de Buenos-Ayres. (1870) Monsieur Armingaud, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces, 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1732 The back plate is in one piece; mild flames rising to the right. [In contrast] the flames of the ribs are very distinctive. The front plate is made from two pieces of attractive spruce. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow-red (very well conserved). ex Seghers Sold to M. F Blanco of Brazil from Buenos-Aires in 1899 – 27,500 francs, plus 10% Bequeathed to the town of Buenos-Aires. Jules Armingaud (1820-1900) was a French violinist and composer. François Jean-Baptiste Seghers (1801-1881) was a Belgian violinist who studied with Pierre Baillot at the Paris Conservatoire; see JF55.2, p. 35 [L].

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

In 1922 Isaac Fernández Blanco founded the Museo de Arte Hispanoamericano in Buenos Aires. The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 84) identify a 1732 Guarneri violin, ‘ex Armingaud’, belonging to M. Blanco.

***** JF55.2, p. 3 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 3 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Arpin, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 5 lignes (Longuet) (année 1705) Diapason des f, 7 pouces 3 lignes, fond de deux pièces, ondes peu prononcées, ayant plusieurs cassures, éclisses presqu’unies, cassées en plusieurs endroits, table ayant des cassures à l’âme et au menton. Vernis jaune brun, retouché par Vuillaume. Ex Artot 1876 M r Bérou 18 M r Achille Kierdorff. (1870) Monsieur Arpin, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 5 lignes [363.2mm], (long pattern) (year 1705) The ‘body stop’ [from the top of the front plate, adjacent to the neck-foot, down to the inside notch of the f] is 7 pouces 3 lignes [196.27mm]. The back plate is made from two pieces; faint flames, [the plate] having several splits. The ribs, almost plain, are broken in several places. The front plate having splits at the sound-post and at the chin. The varnish is yellow-brown, retouched by Vuillaume. ex Artot 1876 M. Bérou 18 M. Achille Kierdorff. Alexandre Artot (1815-1845) was a violinist; see also JF55.2, p. 17 [U], 80 [L], and 94 [L]. For M. Bérou see also JF55.2, p. 7 [L]. A survey of 27 Stradivari violins reveals, from a range between 191.2mm and 199mm, an averaged body-stop measurement of 195.2mm (Beare (1993), pp. 316-321); the body stop on M. Arpin’s violin is only one millimetre longer than Stradivari’s norm even though the body-length of this violin is extreme. No information has been located which further identifies this 1705 violin or associates a 1705 Stradivari violin with any of the four named owners. Commentators usually indicate that Antonio Stradivari abandoned his ‘Long Pattern’ style at the turn of the century.

***** JF55.2, p. 4 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 4 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Batta, Versailles Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1714 Fond de deux pièces très-belles, ondes descendant, petite tache noire dans le bois à l’endroit du C droit près du filet, deux petits chanteaux dans le bas du fond, très-belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin ayant plusieurs petites cassures à l’âme, très-belle tête, vernis rouge clair. 1893 M r Hill 60,000 f B on Knop, ooxzx. (1870) Monsieur Batta, Versailles Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1714 48

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

The back plate is made from two very beautiful pieces; descending flames. There is a small black blemish in the [back-plate] wood in the area of the [right-hand] C, next to the purfling; there are two small width-inserts in the lower part [bout] of the back plate. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having several small splits at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. Light red varnish. 1893 M. Hill, 60,000 francs Baron Knop [Knoop], ooxzx. Alexandre Batta (1816-1902) was a cellist. ‘M. Hill’ is a reference to the London firm of violin dealers W. E. Hill & Sons. Baron Johann Knoop (1846-1918) was a collector of violins. The back-plate C-bout blemish and the two additional widths of wood – one inserted at each flank of the backplate’s lower bout – are photographically confirmed in Beare et al. (2013), p. 167. According to Charles Beare (ibid., p. 162) the cello was sold by Jacques Pierre Thibout (1779-1856) to Alexandre Batta in 1836; Batta sold his cello in 1893 to Alfred Hill who was acting ‘on behalf of Baron Knoop’. The Batta cello is specified by the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 98) as having a back-plate length of ‘293/4 inches full’ (755.6mm). The cello is ID 40279 on the CzAr/Tarisio website.

***** JF55.2, p. 4 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 4 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Bénazet, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces 6 lignes, année 1708 Diapason des f, 15 pouces 5 lignes. Fond de deux pièces, très beau bois, ondes très-larges, une éclisse du devant cassée et revernie, belle table bien conservée, vernis rouge foncé. Belle tête. Largeur en haut 13p. 3 lignes fortes, en bas 17 pouces. Ex Christiani Ex Baudiot 1885 Vendu à M r Becker Jean, aoxzx Hill, Leo Stern, Brandt. (1870) Monsieur Bénazet, Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces 6 lignes [771.5mm], year 1708 The ‘body stop’ is 15 pouces 5 lignes [417.35mm]. The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful wood, the flames very wide. A rib at the front has been broken and re-varnished. Beautiful front plate, well conserved. The varnish is dark red. Beautiful head. The [maximum] width of the upper bout is 13 pouces 3 lignes full [358.7mm]; in the lower bout 17 pouces [460.2mm]. ex Christiani [Cristiani] ex Baudiot 1885 Sold to M. Jean Becker, aoxzx Hill, Leo Stern, Brandt. M. Bénazet was likely the son of Oskar Édouard Bénazet (1801-1867); see JF55.2, p. 54 [U]. Lise Barbier-Cristiani (1827-1853) was a cellist. Charles Nicolas Baudiot (1773-1849) was a cellist. Jean Becker (1833-1884) was a violinist; Hugo, his son (1863-1941) was a cellist. Leo Stern (1862-1904) was the soloist at the first London performance (1896) of Dvořák’s Cello Concerto. Robert E Brandt owned a full quartet of Stradivari instruments.

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

The millimetre measurements of this Cristiani cello, from differing sources, are inconsistent: JF55.2, p. 4 [L]:

UB 358.7

(no CB)

LB 460.2

Length 771.5

Body Stop 417.35

Hills (1902), p. 298:

UB 358.7

(no CB)

LB 469.9

Length 774.7

Body Stop 412.7

Beare (1993), p. 317:

UB 355

CB 239.5

LB 456.5

Length 766

Body Stop 417

Beare et al. (2013), p. 98:

Length 732

CzAr/Tarisio (ID 40271):

UB 339

CB 228.5

LB 436

Length 732

Consorzio Liutai (2009):

UB 357

CB 240.6

LB 458.5

Length 771

Body Stop 417

(a)

(a)

Antonio Stradivari: Violoncello Stauffer ex Cristiani 1700, Consorzio Liutai Antonio Stradivari Cremona / Fondazione Antonio Stradivari Cremona – La Triennale (2009), pp. 56-57. The present-day label inside the Cristiani cello shows a date of 1700. Arthur Broadley (Broadley, p. 16) states: ‘This violoncello is dated 1700, but at one time a small piece of paper with the figure 8 was pasted over the final figure.’ Broadley does not indicate how he knows that ‘at one time …’ but close examination of the label as illustrated in the Consorzio Liutai publication (p. 33) reveals what appears to be an area of damage to the labelpaper where the second zero is inked. This damage may have been caused by the glue used to attach the ‘small piece of paper with the figure 8’. Evidently the small piece of paper was removed post-1870. The historical narrative provided by Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. II, p. 88) does not mention Leo Stern or Robert E Brandt. The cello is briefly mentioned by Henley (Henley, p. 37).

***** JF55.2, p. 5 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 5 [U] (année 1870) M me Anne Isabella Blunt, Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1721 (cette date doit être antérieure à l’époque de la fabrication du violon) Fond de deux pièces, veines remontant, un peu serrées, deux cassures à l’endroit de l’âme, pièce sous les dites, beau manche. Vernis rouge doré, très-bien conservé. (1870) Mme. Anne Isabella Blunt [Lady Blunt], London Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1721 (this date must be prior to the period when the violin was made) The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames, rising [from the centre-joint], are slightly tight/narrow. Two splits in the area of the sound-post; a patch underneath these splits. Beautiful neck. The varnish is golden red, very well conserved. Anne Isabella Noel King married Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, a poet, on 8 June 1869, and thereafter was titled ‘Lady Blunt’. The text of a letter (4 October 1864) from Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume to Charles Plowden, announcing Vuillaume’s acquisition of the 1721 violin which, later, would be known as the Lady Blunt, contains: ‘This violin was brought to me from Spain in an indescribable condition but with the neck, the fingerboard, the bass bar of Stradivarius’ (see also the description of the La Pucelle violin, JF55.2, p. 14 [U]). Anne Isabella Noel King studied the violin with Leopold Jansa (1795-1875) who lived and taught in London between 1848 and 1868. A recent calliper-derived measurement of the Lady Blunt body length specifies 357mm (Beare et al. (2013), p. 196).

*****

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 5 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 5 [L] [M me Blunt] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1718 Fond de deux pièces, belles veines larges, cassure partant du côté gauche du talon, biaisant à droite et dépassant le joint à deux pouces une ligne du filet, longueur de la dite cassure 4 pouces ¼ en partant du bord, cette cassure est doublée intérieurement par une pièce en relief, table de 2 pièces très-beau sapin, cassures à l’âme, une à la barre dans toute la longueur, pièces sous l’âme et la barre, trous de vers sous la touche, bouchés par des petites pièces longues,(a) éclisses bien conservées, belle tête. Vernis jaune doré. [Mme. Blunt] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1718 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wide flames. There is a split from the left side of the neck-foot, extending obliquely to the right, passing through the [centre-] joint 2 pouces 1 ligne [56.4mm] from the purfling; the length of this split is 4¼ pouces [115mm] measured from the edge; this split is doubled internally by a surface-mounted patch. The front plate is made from two pieces of very beautiful spruce; splits at the sound-post and one at the bass-bar for the entire length; there are patches underneath the sound-post and at the bass-bar. There are worm tracks under the fingerboard, plugged with small longitudinal patches.(a) The ribs are well conserved. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow. (a)

i.e. the borehole which the woodworm grub creates within the thickness of the front-plate wood is opened-up and the excavated cavity seamlessly patched with a custom-shaped spruce insert which, on its external surface, matches the grain of the surrounding wood. Lady Blunt’s ownership of a 1718 Stradivari violin is not mentioned by Ernest Doring, nor by the Hills in their 1902 Stradivari monograph, nor on the CzAr/Tarisio website. No further information for this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 6 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 6 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Bouchet, S t Malo Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1720 Fond de deux pièces, très-beau, ayant été brisé dans le haut, cette partie a été remplacée par nous,(a) hauteur de la pièce, 2 pouces 3 lignes, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, ayant quelques cassures, jolie tête, bois gris, vernis rouge. Tarisio – Gand 1897 Hill. (1870) Monsieur Bouchet, St. Malo Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1720 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the plate having been broken in the upper bout; this part has been replaced by us.(a) The [longitudinal dimension] of this [replacement] piece is 2 pouces 3 lignes [61mm]. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces, having some splits. Attractive head [but] drab/lacklustre wood. Red varnish. Tarisio – Gand 1897 Hill. (a)

Gand & Bernardel Frères of Paris. Charles Gand provides a small sketch of the upper part of the violin’s back plate showing the area where his workshop employees fitted a new piece of maple wood: the area extends

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

across the full width of the back plate and from the neck-foot to half-way down the upper bout. The sketch is replicated in the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 ledgers. The name of M. Bouchet is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website only in association with the Weinberger/Vornbaum violin (ID 40788) which is label-dated 1696 (or 1698) and has a one-piece back plate.

***** JF55.2, p. 6 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 6 [L] [Monsieur Bouchet] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1721 Fond d’une pièce à contresens, éclisses veines très-larges, table de deux pièces, sapin un peu large sur les bords, ayant une cassure dans le bas du côté droit, belle tête, même bois que le fond. Vernis rouge doré. Ex Rode Ex Beaulieu 1897 Hill Passé entre les mains de Vormbaum à Francfort; racheté par moi, par C.F., vendu Hamma, cédé Hammig qui l’a vendu à Kruse à Londres oxzxz en 1904, recédé au Prince FrédéricGuillaume de Prusse en 1908 pour 50,000 Marks: donné au Prof r Seibert qui le vend à Bauer de Londres, qui le céde à F. Smith pour(a) £2,400 en Janvier 1913. [Monsieur Bouchet] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1721 The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain. The flames of the ribs are very wide. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] slightly wide at the edges; there is a split in the lower bout on the treble side. Beautiful head, made from the same wood as used for the back plate. The varnish is golden red. ex Rode ex Beaulieu 1897 Hill [This violin] passed into the hands of Vormbaum from Frankfurt; re-acquired by me, by C&F; sold to Hamma; passed on to Hammig who sold it to Kruse from London, oxzxz, in 1904; passed on, again, to Prince Friedrich-Wilhelm of Prussia [1882-1951] in 1908 for 50,000 Marks; given to Professor [Willi] Seibert who sold it to Bauer of London who passed it to F Smith for(a) £2,400 in January 1913. (a)

At this point the bottom corner of the JF55.2 ledger-page has been torn off; the concluding text comes from EF/JF55.4. ‘Rode’ is assumed to be Jacques Pierre Joseph Rode (1774-1830) for whom Beethoven composed his final violin sonata, op. 96. Marie-Désiré Martin-Beaulieu (1791-1863) was a violinist, a pupil of Rodolphe Kreutzer. ‘Vormbaum’ was Oscar Vormbaum (unknown dates). ‘Hamma’ was a firm of violin dealers in Stuttgart; Fridolin Hamma (1881-1969) was the father of Walter Hamma (1916-1988). ‘Hammig’ was a firm of violin dealers in Berlin. ‘Kruse’ is Johann Kruse (1859-1927) who was a violinist. ‘Bauer’ is assumed to be Robert A Bower (unknown dates). ‘F Smith’ would appear to be Frederic Smith; see also JF55.2, p. 55 [L].

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 200 and p. 241) associates two Stradivari violins, of 1715 and 1722, with J P J Rode, but not a violin of 1721 (the 1722 violin is described at JF55.2, p. 19 [L]). There appears to be confusion between ‘Bouchet’ (JF55.2, p. 6 [U] and 6 [L]) and ‘Boucher’ (25 [U]). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 61) speak of ‘the fine violin of Mr. Kruse […] belong[ing] to 1720’ but Doring (Doring, p. 233) identifies the Kruse, ex-Vormbaum violin as being dated 1721, as do Biddulph and Chaudière (p. 74) and Henley (p. 70). The detail of the descriptive text is confirmed by the photographs within the Kruse poster published by The Strad magazine (no date); the poster specifies the violin’s label-text as: ‘Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis Faciebat Anno 1721’. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of Johann Kruse is identified only as a one-time owner of the 1721 Lady Blunt violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 7 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 7 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Bourquelot (Provins) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1711 Fond de deux pièces, bois à contre-sens, ainsi que les éclisses, table ayant beaucoup de cassures, estomac doublé, tête faite par Chanot. Vernis rouge. Ex marquis de Rivière Vendu à M r Bret à Paris en 1902 – 12,000 f. (1870) Monsieur Bourquelot (Provins) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1711 The back plate is made from two pieces, the wood cut against the grain, likewise the ribs. The front plate having a lot of splits; the [central] chest area has been doubled. The head made by [Georges?] Chanot. Red varnish. ex Marquis de Rivière Sold to M. Bret, from Paris, in 1902 – 12,000 francs. Charles François de Riffardeau (1765-1828) was Marquis de Rivière, subsequently the first Duc de Rivière. His son, Louis Marie Charles (1817-1890), was the third Duc de Rivière. Marcel Bret was a violinist, based in Paris. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a ‘c.1718’ Stradivari Marquis de Riviere violin ‘dated 1709’ (ID 40928) as having belonged, between 1850 and 1867, to the Marquis, but the website’s photographs of this violin reveal a distinctive one-piece back plate. No further information about the 1711 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 7 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 7 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Bérou, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1727 Fond de deux pièces uni, belles éclisses, table beau sapin, cassure à l’âme, cassure au menton et une à l’f un peu plus à gauche, cassure sur la barre. Les filets du fond sont beaucoup plus minces que ceux de la table, jolie tête unie, vernis rouge brun. Ex Colonel Levesque. (1870) Monsieur Bérou, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1727 53

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

The back plate is made from two plain pieces. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce with a split at the sound-post, a split at the chin, and one at the [?bass-side] f, a little more to the left; [there is also] a split on [?above] the bass-bar. The purflings of the back plate are a lot thinner than those of the front plate. Attractive head of plain wood; the varnish is red-brown. ex Colonel Levesque. For M. Bérou see also JF55.2, p. 3 [L]. According to the CzAr/Tarisio website M. Bérou owned a Stradivari violin label-dated 1714 (ID 41386) and known as the Thibaud (after the French violinist Jacques Thibaud (1880-1953)) but there is no mention of M. Bérou owning a Stradivari violin of 1727. Further information about Colonel Levesque has not been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 8 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 8 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur de Cuvillon, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1715 [the 15 numerals then altered to 27; 1727 in EF/JF55.4; 1715 in Gand] Fond de deux pièces presqu’uni ayant quelques veines peu apparentes sur les côtes, éclisses plus veinées, celle du menton ayant été enfoncée dans le milieu, ainsi que celle du C gauche près du tasseau, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, cassure à l’âme, tête unie, vernis rouge doré décoloré. Vendu à Marsick en Juillet 1902 aoxzx par C & F repris et revendu roxzx à Soudant en 1907 repris à Soudant, revendu à Fiorini en 1911. (1870) Monsieur de Cuvillon, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1715/1727 The back plate is made from two pieces, almost plain, having some barely-visible flames at the sides; the ribs are more noticeably flamed. The rib at the chin has been pushed inwards in the middle, as has the rib of the bass-side C next to the [corner] block. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with a split at the sound-post. The head is plain. The varnish is golden red, [but] faded. Sold to Marsick in July 1902, aoxzx, by Caressa & Français Re-acquired and re-sold, roxzx, to Soudant in 1907 Re-acquired from Soudant and re-sold to Fiorini in 1911. Jean-Baptiste Philémon de Cuvillon (1809-1900) was a violinist. Martin Pierre Marsick (1848-1924) was a Belgian violinist, composer, and teacher. Giuseppe Fiorini (1861-1934) was a violin maker. According to the CzAr/Tarisio website this violin (ID 55859) is known as the Schneiderhan through its ownership, from 1966, by the distinguished violinist Wolfgang Eduard Schneiderhan (1915-2002). The website indicates that the third and fourth numerals on the violin’s label are unreadable. Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. III, p. 140) states that the ‘the figures on the label have since faded away.’ The stylistic(?) evidence which underpins the Caressa & Français specification of 1727 as the date of production is unknown. It was Giuseppe Fiorini who, in 1920, bought all the documents and materials which had been in the possession of Il Conte Ignazio Alessandro Cozio di Salabue and, in 1930, gifted everything to the town of Cremona.

***** 54

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 8 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 8 [L] (année 1870) M r le baron Deurbroucq, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1727 Fond de deux pièces bien ondé, table d’un sapin bien égal, cassure au-dessus de l’f gauche et une à l’âme, cassure à l’éclisse du menton, près du tasseau, belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. (1870) M. le Baron Deurbroucq, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1727 The back plate is made from two pieces; nicely flamed. The front plate is made from spruce of consistent quality; there is a split above the bass f, and one at the sound-post. There is a split in the rib of the chin next to the [lower] block. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. This violin was subsequently owned by the Scottish collector Robert Crawford, who sold it to W. E. Hill & Sons in 1902; the violin was eventually taken to America. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40245) states that the head is ‘later’ and that the scroll is ‘later, of similar wood’ (the source of these statements is not indicated). From the website’s high-resolution photograph of the front plate it is noticeable that although the majority of the frontplate rings are of similar width there is nonetheless a group of approximately thirty rings, underneath the treble foot of the bridge, which are very narrow.

***** JF55.2, p. 9 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 9 [U] (année 1870) M r le marquis Doria, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1685 (Amatisé) Fond d’une pièce à contre-sens, veines très-larges, ayant trois cassures en haut et trois en bas. Table de deux pièces sapin moyen, ayant des cassures partout. Vernis retouché. Tête ayant une petite joue et tous les trous rebouchés. Vernis jaune. M r Hollier-Larousse Vendu Wurlitzer, Cincinnati, 1918, rxzxz. (1870) M. le Marquis Doria, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1685 (Amatisé) The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain; very wide flames, having three splits in the upper bout and three in the lower. The front plate is made from two pieces of medium spruce, having splits everywhere. The varnish [has been] re-touched. The head [peg-box] having a small cheek [patch], and all the peg-holes have been bushed. Yellow varnish. M. Hollier-Larousse Sold to Wurlitzer, Cincinnati, 1918, rxzxz. Julien Hollier-Larousse (1842-1909) was the nephew of Pierre Larousse (editor of the Grand Dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle). In addition to this 1685 violin (see CzAr/Tarisio ID 40470, and Henley, p. 24) the Marquis Giacomo Doria (1840-1913) owned four other violins: two by Maggini, one by Omobono Stradivari (dated 1736) which the Tarisio website associates with Jules Armingaud (for whom see JF55.2, p. 3 [U]), and one by Guarneri del Gesù (1734). The Marquis also owned a cello made by Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume (1863). Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 51) itemises a 1685 Marquis Doria violin which was previously owned by ‘Marquis D’Aligri’, possibly identifiable as Étienne-Jean-François-Charles, 6th Marquis d’Aligre (1770-1847).

*****

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 9 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 9 [L] (année 1870) M r Demanet (Seraing) Belgique Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1712, fausse étiquette(a) Fond de deux pièces ondes remontant un peu de gauche à droite, cassure en biais dans le haut du côté gauche à l’endroit du tasseau,(b) trous de vers bouchés par des pièces et des petites chevilles. Belles éclisses. Table de deux pièces, sapin fin ayant beaucoup de cassures (entièrement doublée). Jolie tête usée dans le haut du côté droit par derrière. Vernis rouge brun doré. 1913 – appartient à M r Paul Donckier de Donceel avocat, Boulevard de la Sauvenière à Liège. Violon réparé ici en 1927; très usé et cassé, mais joli (c) modèle; de 1705 ou 07. (1870) M. Demanet (Seraing) Belgium Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1712, false label(a) The back plate is made from two pieces, the flames rising slightly from left to right. There is an oblique split in the upper bout, on the left, in the area of the block;(b) worm tracks have been plugged by patches and small dowels. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, having a lot of splits ([the front plate is] entirely doubled). Attractive head [but] worn on the upper-right side (when viewed from the rear). The varnish is golden red-brown. 1913 – owned by M. Paul Donckier de Donceel, lawyer, Boulevard de la Sauvenière, Liège. The violin repaired here [A Caressa] in 1927; very worn and broken, but attractive(c) model; of 1705 or 1707. (a)

the words fausse étiquette do not appear in the EF/JF55.4 ledger. the upper corner block of the C? – or the neck block? (c) At this point the bottom corner of the JF55.2 ledger-page has been torn off; the concluding text comes from EF/JF55.4. (b)

Some additional information about this violin appears at JF55.2, p. 178 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 178 [L]:

1909 Xbre 3 P. Donckier de Donceel, avocat, Liège, B d de la Sauvenière 101 Violon A. Stradivarius 1712 Ne connaissons pas; dit lui avoir été vendu par Hill 35,000 f ex-violon Demanet, voir page 9, le signalement. 1909 December 3 P. Donckier de Donceel, lawyer, Liège, Boulevard de la Sauvenière 101 Antonio Stradivari violin, 1712 This violin is unknown to us; it is said that it was sold to him by Hill for 35,000 francs ex Demanet violin; see p. 9 for the description. ***** JF55.2, p. 10 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 10 [U] (année 1870) Madame Ernst, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne ½, année 1709 Fond d’une pièce, très beau, ondes larges, descendant à gauche, éclisses très-belles, table de deux pièces, ayant 2 cassures à l’âme, quatre petites au menton, deux petites dans le bas du côté droit, et une à chaque f, partant du trou du bas et alland au bord, belle tête un peu lourde, vernis rouge. 56

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Ex Ernst (Norman Neruda, Lady Hallé) Ex Ernst, acheté par le D r Emerich à Munich en 1912, 60,000 M. (1870) Madame Ernst, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1½ lignes [355.3mm], year 1709 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful, with wide flames descending to the left. The ribs are very beautiful. The front plate is made from two pieces, having two splits at the sound-post, four small [splits] at the chin, two small [splits] in the lower bout on the treble side, and one at each f, from the lower ‘eye’ to the edge. Beautiful head, a little heavy. Red varnish. ex Ernst (Norman Neruda, Lady Hallé) ex Ernst, bought by Dr Emerich, from Munich, in 1912, 60,000 Marks. This violin is known as the Ernst/Lady Hallé (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40287). George Haddock (Haddock, pp. 141-142) writes: Approaching one hundred years ago, [circa 1810?] two very fine specimens of Stradiuarius workmanship came into the possession of Mr. A. Fountaine, of Narford Hall, in Sussex [Norfolk]. […] Mr. Fountaine, a great enthusiast, was in the habit of inviting musical house-parties from London for the week-ends. Among those who were most frequently invited was [Heinrich Wilhelm] Ernst […]. One memorable Sunday, Ernst played so exquisitely on the "Strad." lent him by his host, that Mr. Fountaine said he must use it regularly as his solo instrument, and straightway made the artist a gift of it. This was the violin shewn me by Ernst in 1852, and which he used till the day of his death. At the death of H W Ernst (1865) his Stradivari violin passed to his wife who subsequently sold it to the Glasgow dealer David Laurie. Haddock continues: After passing through several hands, it was the one selected, twenty years later, by Madame Norman-Neruda, who was requiring such an instrument for her own concert performances. The Moravian violinist, Wilhelmine (Wilma) M F Neruda (1838-1911) married Ludwig Norman in 1864; after Ludwig’s death she married Charles Hallé. When Charles Hallé was knighted she became Lady Hallé. David Laurie’s narrative for this violin can be found in the chapter Fame brought by a Strad in his Reminiscences (pp. 135-142). The financial details of the sale, in 1875, of the 1709 Stradivari violin to Lady Hallé are presented at the end of Laurie’s volume.

***** JF55.2, p. 10 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 10 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Estienne, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1698 (modèle allongé) Fond d’une pièce assez beau, veines moyennes. Table de deux pièces, sapin serré, ayant deux cassures au menton, coin du haut côté gauche cassé et cassure dans le haut, deux cassures à l’endroit de la barre. Jolie tète. Vernis rouge brun, retouché dans beaucoup d’endroits. [JF55.2 only] 1939 Colonel Loche, 59 Avenue de la Baurdoimais Turalides 55.77 Renseigt. Maurice Godeau acheté par Marius Casadessus et M D. (1870) Monsieur Estienne, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1698 (elongated model) 57

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

The back plate is in one piece; fairly beautiful, medium [-width] flames. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow, having two splits at the chin. The upper corner of the bass-side C has been broken, and there is a split in the upper [bass-side?] bout; there are two splits in the area of the bass-bar. Attractive head. The varnish is red-brown, retouched in many areas. 1939 Colonel Loche, 59 Avenue de la Baurdoimais Turalides 55.77 Information: Maurice Godeau Bought by Marius Casadessus [Casadesus] and M D [Maucotel & Deschamp]. The violin workshop of Maucotel & Deschamp was established after Maucotel’s previous partner, Hippolyte Silvestre, died in 1913. The names of M. Estienne and Colonel Loche are unknown to the CzAr/Tarisio website, to Ernest Doring, and to the Hills. For Marius Casadesus (1892-1981), violinist and composer, see also JF55.2, p. 93 [U] and 143 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 11 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 11 [U] (année 1870) M r de Farge, à Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne faible, année 1716 Fond de deux pièces très-beau, veines descendant, ayant près du joint au niveau du bas des C deux petites lettres VC faites avec une pointe, belles éclisses, belle table de deux pièces doublée au milieu, cassure au menton, près du cordier, belle tête, vernis rouge doré. (1870) M. de Farge, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne, barely [354.2mm], year 1716 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the flames descending [from the centre-joint]. Next to the [centre-] joint, and level with the bottom of the Cs, there are two small letters – VC – made with a pointed tool. Beautiful ribs. Beautiful front plate made from two pieces; doubled in the middle; there is a split at the chin next to the tail-piece. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. This violin, with its unique VC lettering inscribed on the back plate, is seemingly unknown within current listings of 1716 Antonio Stradivari violins. No further information for M. de Farge has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 11 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 11 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Ferrand, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1701 Fond de deux une pièces, d’une pièce, voûte pleine, bois peu veiné, belles éclisses, table ayant plusieurs cassures, dont une à l’âme, belle tête. Vernis jaune brun doré et retouché au fond. Vendu à Hill en 1897, eoxz. (1870) Monsieur Ferrand, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1701 The back plate is made from two one piece, of one piece; fulsome arching; the wood is faintly flamed. Beautiful ribs. The front plate having several splits, of which one is at the sound-post. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow-brown, re-touched on the back plate. Sold to Hill in 1897, eoxz. No further information for M. Ferrand or his 1701 Stradivari violin has been located. *****

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JF55.2, p. 12 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 12 [U] (année 1870) M r de Forneret, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes ½, année 1734 Fond de 2 pièces, veines droites douces, éclisses même bois, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, petite cassure au menton, près du cordier, petite à l’âme, belle tête dépouillée derrière. Vernis rouge brun, le fond retouché par Thibout. 188 M r du Seuil 1894 Nadaud hoxzx 1903 Bonjour oxzxz (vendu par Silvestre) repris, cédé Hamma rxzxz par nous; vendu à Burmester rxzxz Marks en 1909. (1870) M. de Forneret, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 2½ lignes [357.6mm], year 1734 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are straight and mild. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with a small split at the chin next to the tail-piece; [another] small [split] at the sound-post. Beautiful head, very worn at the rear. The varnish is red-brown; the back-plate [varnish] re-touched by Thibout. 188 M. du Seuil 1894 Nadaud, hoxzx 1903 Bonjour, oxzxz (sold by Silvestre) Re-acquired, passed on by us to Hamma, rxzxz; sold to Burmester, rxzxz Marks, in 1909. Jacques Pierre Thibout (1779-1856) was a violin maker and dealer. Edouard Nadaud (1862-1928) was a violinist. Willy Burmester (1869-1933) was a violinist. This violin is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website as the Nadaud/Kuhlenkampff (ID 40725). Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 329) draws attention to the ‘unequal length of the center bouts’, a feature which is confirmed by the photographs provided on the CzAr/Tarisio website but is not mentioned in the descriptive text. Abel Bonjour died in 1886; the ‘Bonjour’ identified in 1903 would seem to have been his nephew, Samuel.

***** JF55.2, p. 12 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 12 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Guidou, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne ½, année 1706 [the 0 then altered, with pencil, to 1; 1716 in EF/JF55.4; 1706 in Gand] Fond de deux pièces, beau bois, ondes larges ayant une petite pièce au milieu du fond au joint,(a) belles éclisses, table sapin serré, cassure à l’âme et sur la barre, tête dont le chevillier a été remis, il ne reste que la coquille, que la volute. Beau vernis, rouge doré. ex Maréchal Berthier Vendu Hamma Mai 1908 roxzx par nous, par C.F. repris Hamma pour roxzx vendu à Vecsey par C.F. pour mxzxz avril 09 [JF55.2 only] acheté par Dott ING Paolo Peterlongo, Via Vittorio, Veneto 20, MILANO (Italie) à la soeur de von Vecsey en 1957. (1870) Monsieur Guidou, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 1½ lignes [355.3mm], year 1706/1716

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The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wood, wide flames, having a small patch in the middle of the back plate at the centre-joint.(a) Beautiful ribs. The front-plate spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow, with a split at the sound-post and on the bass-bar. The peg-box has been replaced; only the [original] scroll remains, only the [original] volute remains. Beautiful varnish, golden red. ex Maréchal Berthier Sold to Hamma, May 1908, roxzx, by us, by Caressa & Français Re-acquired from Hamma for roxzx Sold to Vecsey by Caressa & Français for mxzxz April 1909 Bought by Dr ING Paolo Peterlongo, Via Vittorio, Veneto 20, MILAN (Italy), from the sister of von Vecsey, in 1957. (a)

Gand provides a drawing of the triangular piece of wood which had been inserted into the back plate, centred on the joint; the drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4. Maréchal Louis Alexandre Berthier (1753-1815) was a Marshal and Vice-Constable of France. Franz von Vecsey (1893-1935) was a Hungarian violinist and composer. Paolo Peterlongo was an Italian businessman who helped establish the Fondazione Pro Canale. This violin is ID 41409 on the CzAr/Tarisio website (Berthier/Franz von Vecsey). The associated photographs do not reveal the triangular insert in the back plate, but high-resolution photographs (Thöne, Vol. III, pp. 182 and 185) do show the insert. The six Thöne photographs of the pegbox and scroll do not clearly reveal the breakage and re-build as defined in the descriptive text. The Tarisio website information states that the violin has an ‘original label … 1716’.

***** JF55.2, p. 13 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 13 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Gras, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1715 Fond d’une pièce, veines droites très-belles, pièce au coin du C gauche d’un pouce de long sur 1 ligne ½ de large,(a) très-belles éclisses, ondes plus larges, table de deux pièces beau sapin, cassure au bas de l’f droite jusqu’en bas, pièce à l’âme, très-belle tête, vernis rouge tirant sur le brun. 1878 M r Garcin 18 M r Labitte 18,000 f 18 M r Laurie. (1870) Monsieur Gras, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1715 The back plate is in one piece; straight flames, very beautiful. There is a patch at the [upper] corner of the left-side C, 1 pouce in length [27mm] by 1½ lignes [3.4mm] in width.(a) Very beautiful ribs with wider flames [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce; a split from the bottom of the treble f to the bottom [of the plate]; there is a patch at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is red, verging towards brown. 1878 M. Garcin 18 M. Labitte, 18,000 francs 18 M. Laurie.

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(a)

Gand adds a small drawing of the upper corner of the bass-side C to show the repair; this drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and in EF/JF55.4. Jules Auguste Garcin (1830-1896) was a violinist. Louis Labitte (unknown dates) was, it seems, a collector of musical manuscripts. According to the CzAr/Tarisio website this violin (ID 40603) is the Cremonese/ex Harold Joachim; the back length is specified as 357mm. Photographs of the back plate reveal a patch above the upper corner of the leftside C. In 1889 the violin was presented to Joseph Joachim; in 1961 the violin was bought by the city of Cremona; today the violin is exhibited at Cremona’s Museo del Violino.

***** JF55.2, p. 13 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 13 [L] (année 1870) M r Garcin, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1719 [the 19 numerals then altered to 33; 1733 in EF/JF55.4; 1719 in Gand] Fond de 2 pièces peu veiné, table ayant pas mal de cassures, trous de vers, bords et coins assez gros, voûtes prononcées. Vernis rouge brun, ayant été retouché. Vendu à M r Carl Schaub à Francfort en Janvier 1903, aioxz, par C & F. (1870) M. Garcin, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1719/1733 The back plate is made from two pieces, slightly flamed. The front plate having quite a lot of splits; worm tracks; the edges and the corners are fairly large; the plate archings are fulsome. The varnish is red-brown, having been re-touched. Sold to M. Carl Schaub, from Frankfurt, in January 1903, aioxz, by Caressa & Français. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies two Stradivari violins which belonged to Jules Auguste Garcin (one-time violin pupil of Delphin Alard at the Paris Conservatoire). The first violin – ID 40603, the Cremonese/ex Harold Joachim – has a one-piece back plate and is dated 1715 (see previous entry). The second violin – ID 41560 – has a two-piece back plate and is associated with Carl Schaub in 1903 but the label-date is specified as ‘1731’, a date which is also specified by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 305). It is unclear why there should be three different dates – 1719, 1731, and 1733 – associated with this violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 14 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 14 [U] (année 1870) M r Glandaz, Paris Violon Stradivarius (La Pucelle), 13 pouces 1 ligne ½, année 1709 Fond de deux pièces superbe, très-belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, belle tête. Vernis rouge doré splendide. 1878 M r Glandaz fils, 22,210 f 50 cs (Ex Herman – Ex Leroy (de Chabrol) Acheté par Silvestre, Hill, & nous en 9bre 1903 pour roxzx vendu par Hill à Londres en 1904 pour nxzxz. (1870) M. Glandaz, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin (La Pucelle), 13 pouces 1½ lignes [355.3mm], year 1709 The back plate is made from two superb pieces. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden-red, splendid. 61

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1878 M. Glandaz, son, 22,210 francs 50 centimes (ex Herman – ex Leroy (de Chabrol) Bought by Silvestre, Hill, and us [Caressa & Français] in November 1903 for roxzx. Sold by Hill, of London, in 1904 for nxzxz. No further information for M. Herman has been located other than he appears to have also been the owner of a 1730 Stradivari violin (see JF55.2, p. 15 [U]). It is assumed that the profit from the 1904 sale was divided between Silvestre, Hill, and Caressa & Français. According to the descriptive text which was written by Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume and published in the catalogues for the 1872 Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments at the South Kensington Museum (1872 catalogue p. 17, 1873 catalogue p. 9) the La Pucelle violin was brought to Paris in 1840: 90. VIOLIN By A. Stradiuarius, 1709; named “La Pucelle.” “Il a été surnommé ‘La Pucelle’ à cause de sa parfait conservation. Cet instrument a été apporté à Paris en 1840; il était dans le commerce, et il a passé dans les mains de M. Leray Banquier, (a) et à sa mort il a été adjugé à M. Glandaz, son propriétaire actuel. Vernis splendide; conservation parfait.” The property of M. Glandaz. Lent by M. Vuillaume, Paris. It has been nicknamed ‘The Maiden’ [or ‘The Virgin’] because of its perfect conservation. This instrument was brought to Paris in 1840, put up for sale, and passed into the hands of Monsieur Leray Banquier,(a) and, at his death, it was ‘knocked down’ to M. Glandaz, the current owner. Splendid varnish, perfect conservation. (a)

The catalogue’s translated text has become muddled: banquier = banker.

The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 272) state: 1851: “La Pucelle” violin, dated 1710 [sic], was bought from Vuillaume by M. Leroy de Chabrol, a Parisian banker, for 6,000 francs = £240. A few years later it passed into the possession of M. Glandaz, after whose death it was sold at the Hôtel Drouot in 1878 for 22,100 francs = £884. The merchant-banking firm of Leroy de Chabrol et Cie was declared bankrupt in 1857. The 1878 auction at the Hôtel Drouot was reported in the pages of the weekly Parisian newspaper le Ménestrel and in the London Pall Mall Gazette: le Ménestrel 17 February 1878: ‘Sold this week, at the Hôtel Drouot, a superb Stradivarius, starting at 10,000 francs; the bids climbed to 22,000 francs’ [at which point the violin was ‘bought in’ by M. Glandaz’s son] Pall Mall Gazette 16 February 1878: ‘A Stradivarius, signed and dated 1709, was sold at the Hôtel Drouot on Thursday. It was put up at 10,000 f. and was adjudicated for the large sum of 22,100 f. […].’

***** JF55.2, p. 14 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 14 [L] (année 1870) M r le Vicomte de Gabriac, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces [blank space] année [blank space] Fond d’une pièce bien veiné, jolies éclissés, ayant quelques cassures, table cassée à plusieurs endroits. Jolie tête. Vernis jaune brun usé généralement. Ex George Hainl. (1870) M. le Vicomte de Gabriac, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces […] year […] The back plate is in one piece; nicely flamed. Attractive ribs, having some splits. The front plate has been broken in several places. Attractive head. The varnish is yellow-brown, worn everywhere. ex George Hainl. 62

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François George-Hainl (1807-1873) was a cellist and conductor. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies two Stradivari violins (ID 40789 and 43092) as having been in the possession of the Comte de Gabriac but both violins are shown to have two-piece back plates. ‘Gabriac’ may be the same as ‘Cabriac’; see JF55.2, p. 92 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 15 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 15 [U] (année 1870) M r Herman, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1730 Fond d’une pièce, complètement uni, éclisses ondes très-douces, table de deux pièces, très-beau sapin, le bord du menton légèrement doublé, très-jolie tête, vernis rouge doré. Parfaitement conservé. Ex baron de Trémont 1879 M r C. G. Meïer, à Londres, 12,000 f. (1870) M. Herman, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1730 The back plate is in one piece; completely plain. The flames of the ribs are very mild. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce; the edge at the chin has been lightly doubled. Very attractive head. The varnish is golden red. Perfect conservation. ex Baron de Trémont 1879 M. C G Meïer, from London, 12,000 francs. For M. Herman see also JF55.2, p. 14 [U]. The CzAr/Tarisio website does not associate the names of M. Herman, Baron de Trémont (1779-1852), or C G Meïer with a Stradivari violin of 1730. Instead, the website associates these three names with a violin, soubriquet Ames/Totenberg, with an ‘original label’ of 1734 (ID 40545). The website photograph of the onepiece back plate of this 1734 violin clearly shows swerving grain-lines which sweep up the entire length of the plate; these lines are particularly noticeable on the right of the lower bout. It is curious (if the 1730 violin described above is the 1734 Ames/Totenberg violin) that there is no mention of this distinctive physical condition in the descriptive text. The brochure produced for the Stradivarius Memorial Concert (at Carnegie Hall in New York, 20 December 1937) contains the following text (p. 26) describing the Ames violin of 1734: The middle of the Nineteenth Century finds this superb masterpiece of Stradivari’s late period in the possession of Baron de Tremont of Paris, an amateur violinist. In 1870 it passed to a professional player of the name of Hermann in Paris, and it was purchased by Gand & Bernadel in 1879, who sold it to the well known amateur Mr. C. G. Meier of London. Mr. Meier sold it to the late George Hart, who in 1886 sold it to the banker, Mr. George Ames, a member of the well known Bristol family. The 1734 Ames violin was stolen in 1980 but recovered in 2015. A web-article published by The Strad, in August 2015, included an interview with the New York violin dealer who confirmed the re-discovered violin’s identity. In the article Philip Injeian draws attention to ‘a prominent dark ring on the right lower side of the back’. This ring is confirmed by the back-plate photograph included in the aforementioned concert brochure (p. 26); the ring is not visible in the photograph provided on the CzAr/Tarisio website for the Ames/Totenberg violin, nor is it mentioned in the JF55.2 description of M. Herman’s 1730 violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 15 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 15 [L] (année 1870) M r Hébert, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, dernière époque, année marquée 1723

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Bords massifs, ressemblant à Omobonus, fond d’une pièce à contresens, ayant été cassé et doublé, table ayant aussi des cassures. Eclisses bien conservées. Belle tête, vernis rouge brun. 3,500 f en 1867 Légué au Conservatoire. (1870) M. Hébert, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm]; from the last period [but] the year is indicated as 1723. Massive edges, resembling [those which are found in violins made by] Omobono [Stradivari]. The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain, having been broken and [?as a result] doubled [reinforced]. The front plate also having splits. The ribs are well conserved. Beautiful head. The varnish is red-brown. 3,500 francs in 1867 Bequeathed to the Conservatoire. The French painter and academic Antoine Auguste Ernest Hébert (1817-1908) is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as having owned a Stradivari violin (ID 40249) with a label date of ‘172?’ – the last numeral is apparently unreadable but a ‘9’ is proposed; this violin’s soubriquets are Romanoff/Maurin/Rubinoff. The violin appears in Thöne (Vol. IV, pp. 210-217): ‘c.1729, Maurin/Rubinoff ’; the photographs confirm the reference to ‘massive edges’ (which are particularly noticeable on the back plate). Thöne’s historical narrative suggests that M. Hébert obtained the violin following the death of the violinist Jean-Pierre Maurin (1822-1894) but the date of the descriptive text (above) – 1870 – sits against such a suggestion.

***** JF55.2, p. 16 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 16 [U] (année 1870) M r de Kermoysan Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1744 Fond de deux pièces très-belles, ondes larges descendant, très-belles éclisses. Table de deux pièces, beau sapin, cassure à l’âme, bord au menton. Bord au fond du côté droit en bas. Belle tête ayant des joues à la place des chevilles du La et du Ré. Vernis jaune brun tirant sur le rouge. Vendu par Hill à Arbos en 1910 oxzxz. (1870) M. de Kermoysan Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1744 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful, with wide flames, descending [from the centre-joint]. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with a split at the sound-post, [another split] at the edge of the chin, [and another] at the bottom edge of the right-hand lower bout. Beautiful head, having cheek patches at the A-string and Dstring pegs. The varnish is yellow-brown, verging towards red. Sold by Hill to Arbos in 1910, oxzxz. Fernández-Enrique Arbós (1863-1939) was a Spanish violinist, composer, and conductor. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies three violins in association with F-E Arbos: two Stradivari violins (labeldated 1722 and 1729) and the Lutti/Senn Guarneri (ID 40430); the latter violin is described at JF55.2, p. 180 [U] where it is dated 1740. No further information for M. Kermoysan’s 1744 Guarneri violin has been located.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 16 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 16 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Leroy, Sedan Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1721 Fond de deux pièces veines peu apparentes, dans le haut du côté gauche une veine ayant l’apparence d’un joint, table ayant pas mal de cassures dont une à l’âme, tête assez usée. Vernis rouge décolorée. (1870) Monsieur Leroy, Sedan Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1721 The back plate is made from two pieces, the flames only slightly visible. In the upper bout [of the back plate], on the left, there is a vein-line having the appearance of a joint. The front plate having quite a lot of splits, of which one is at the sound-post. The head is fairly worn. The varnish is red [but] faded. M. Leroy (de Chabrol) was, for a time, the owner of the 1709 La Pucelle violin (see JF55.2, p. 14 [U]); it is unclear whether, in the above description, M. Leroy, of Sedan (Ardennes region, north-eastern France) is the same person. Neither the Hills, nor Ernest Doring, nor William Henley, nor the CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a 1721 Stradivari violin which is associated with a M. Leroy.

***** JF55.2, p. 17 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 17 [U] (année 1870) M r Lenepveu, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes fortes, année 1721 Fond de deux pièces, veines droites un peu serrées, talon neuf, éclisses veines plus larges, table de deux pièces, sapin inégal un peu serré, cassures au menton et à l’âme, jolie tête, bois brun. Vernis rouge doré. Ex Artot Ex Falcon 1897 Germain, Août, heiox, Août 97 (p r Rinuccini) 1897 Rinuccini, payé par M r Voisin. (1870) M. Lenepveu, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes full [358.7mm], year 1721 The back plate is made from two pieces; the straight flames are slightly tight/narrow. Modified neck-foot. The ribs have flames which are wider [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] uneven, slightly tight/narrow. There are splits at the chin and at the sound-post. Attractive head; brown wood. The varnish is golden red. ex Artot ex Falcon 1897 Germain, August, heiox, August [18]97 (for Rinuccini) 1897 Rinuccini, paid by M. Voisin. M. Lenepveu is likely to have been Charles Lenepveu (1840-1910) who was the winner of the Grand Prix du Rome (for composition) in 1867; he was a professor at the Paris Conservatoire from 1880. Emile Germain (1853-1933) was a violin dealer in Paris. Charles-Louis Rinuccini (b. 1873) was awarded a Premier Prix at the Paris Conservatoire in 1887 (aged 14). No further information for M. Voisin has been located. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a 1728 Stradivari violin (ID 41541) – the Artot/Godowsky – as having been owned both by Alexandre Artot (d. 1845) and then, ‘until 1897’, by M. Falcon, but this latter ownership cannot be related to the 1721 violin owned by M. Lenepveu since his instrument, even by 1870, was being identified as

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‘ex Falcon’. The CzAr/Tarisio web-page for the Artot/Godowsky violin specifies the violin’s body length as 354mm, more than 4mm short of the measurement specified in 1870 for M. Lenepveu’s violin. The 1728 Artot/Godowsky violin is described and photographed in Robinson (pp. 18-19); the associated historical commentary does not mention M. Lenepveu, M. Rinuccini, or M. Voisin. A 1728 ‘The Artot’ violin is itemised in the brochure (p. 24) produced for the 1937 Stradivarius Memorial Concert in New York; again there is no mention of Lenepveu, Rinuccini, or Voisin: This instrument was for many years in the possession of Artot, well known French violinist; since 1870 we find it the property of a Monsieur Falcon in Paris, who sold it to the French luthier Germain in Paris in 1897. It then passed into the hands of W. E. Hill & Sons, of London, and was sold by them in 1902 to the Dutch artist, F. A. W. Hack, of the Hague, in Holland. The Hills’ 1902 sale of a 1728 violin to J A W Hack was accompanied by a certificate which is reproduced in Robinson (p. 82); see JF55.2, p. 214 [L] for further information. The various discrepancies suggest that the histories of two violins – one dated 1721, the other 1728 – have become tangled together; see also JF55.2, p. 72bis [U]. No further information about the Artot/Falcon/Lenepveu/Germain/Rinuccini violin of 1721 has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 17 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 17 [L] (année 1870) M r Leudet, à Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1692 ou 99 Fond de deux pièces presqu’uni, éclisses ondes serrées, cassures aux deux du bas. Table de 2 pièces faite par Lupot. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge doré. Acheté par Maucotel et Deschamp en 192. pour 22,500 f – Hotel des Ventes (Vente Mazeran par Léon Bernardel). (1870) M. Leudet, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1692 or 99 The back plate is made from two pieces; almost plain. The flames of the ribs are tight/narrow; there are splits in the two ribs of the lower bout. The front plate, in two pieces, was made by Lupot. Attractive head. The varnish is golden red. Bought by Maucotel & Deschamp in 192. for 22,500 francs – [?the Hôtel Drouot] auction house (the Mazeran auction, by Léon Bernardel). Louis Ferdinand Leudet (1814-1879) was a violinist. Nicolas Lupot (1758-1824) was a violin-maker. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a violin (ID 44445) as Leudet/Brandi/Amatise, with an ‘original label but the date was written over at a later date.’ One of the website photographs shows the violin to have a one-piece back plate.

***** JF55.2, p. 18 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 18 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Lamoureux, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne ½, année 1735 Fond de deux pièces presqu’uni, éclisse plus veinées, très-belle table et très-belle tête. Les filets sont un peu écartés dans certains endroits. Les bords sont lourds, les f également sauf la tête le

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violon ressemble a un Guadagnini – vernis chocolat, assez terreux – sec de pâte. Instrument complètement intact. Vernis rouge doré,(a) très-beau. Complètement intact. Ex marquis de Louvencourt 1910 entre les mains de Chevillard 1922 Maucotel et Deschamp 88,000 f + 17 f.50% = 103,400 f.00 Vendu Hamma – vendu Steiner-Schweizer – Zurich (1924) Vendu à E. Lachmann de Berlin. (1870) Monsieur Lamoureux, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 1½ lignes [355.3mm], year 1735 The back plate is made from two pieces; almost plain. The ribs are more flamed. Very beautiful front plate and very beautiful head. There are slight gaps in the purfling in some areas. The edges are heavy, similarly the fs, but not the head. The violin looks like a Guadagnini; chocolate varnish, rather muddy, like dry paste. The instrument is completely intact. The varnish is golden red (golden red-brown),(a) very beautiful. Completely intact. ex Marquis de Louvencourt 1910 in the hands of Chevillard 1922 Maucotel & Deschamp, 88,000 francs + 17f.50% = 103,400.00 francs Sold [to?] Hamma – sold [to?] Steiner-Schweizer – Zurich (1924) Sold to E. Lachmann of Berlin. (a)

the word brun subsequently inserted in JF55.2 between rouge and doré

Charles Lamoureux (1834-1899) was a French conductor, concert promoter, and violinist. The Marquis de Louvencourt may be Louis Joseph Ghislain Maximilien Adolphe de Louvencourt (1799-1863). The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies this violin (ID 40546) as Lamoureux/Zimbalist, and the photographs reveal an entirely plain two-piece back plate. In the Hills’ 1902 Stradivari monograph (p. 89) the 1735 Lamoureux violin is listed as one of twelve ‘most representative specimens known to us of these last years.’ The name ‘Chevillard’, and the date of 1910, may refer to a grandson(?) of the cellist Pierre Alexandre François Chevillard (1811-1877); see also JF55.2, p. 175 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 18 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 18 [L] [Monsieur Lamoureux] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1722 Fond de deux pièces, veines un peu serrées remontant un peu, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces ayant une petite cassure à l’âme, une petite au menton près du cordier, marque d’usure faite par l’archet,(a) tête beau modèle. Vernis rouge doré clair. 187 M r Accursi, 5,000 1874 M r Laurie, 5,500 1886 Joachim. [Monsieur Lamoureux] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1722 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are slightly tight/narrow, rising slightly [from the centre-joint]. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces having a small split at the sound-post, [another] small split at the chin next to the tail-piece. There are wearmarks made by the bow.(a) The head is a beautiful example. The varnish is light golden red. 187 M. Accursi, 5,000 67

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1874 M. Laurie, 5,500 1886 Joachim. (a)

This is a reference to damage done to the front-plate treble-side C where the frog of the bow has occasionally clipped the edge of the plate. Clear photographic evidence for this damage can be found in Thöne (Vol. IV, p. 16). Jost Thöne identifies this violin as the Joachim/Elman/Bloomfield; his historical narrative relates a complex history but one which does not include the name of Charles Lamoureux. A further discrepancy exists between a record of David Laurie selling a 1722 Stradivari violin to Joseph Joachim on 10 March 1880 for £500 (Laurie, Reminiscences, p. [172]) and Gand’s identification of 1886 as the date when Joachim became the owner of the violin described above. Thöne cites Ernest Doring for the information that the violin was sold in 1893 via the widow of the Berlin violin maker, August Riechers. The name of August Riechers appears in the descriptive text at JF55.2, p. 125 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 125 [L] for a 1721 Stradivari violin; the text was probably written by Gustave Bernardel in 1892 or 1893:

M r Van Oordt, à La Haye Violon Stradivarius, année 1721, 13p. 1l., Fond de 2 pièces, très-beau bois, ondes moyennes vives descendant, éclisses très-belles, table de 2 pièces, sapin serré au milieu et côté gauche; cassure à l’âme, pièce d’âme et doublure; plusieurs autres cassures au-dessus des ff et au menton; belle tête bien caractérisée, beau vernis rouge doré, bien conservé au fond et aux éclisses, et plus dépouillé à la tête et à la table. Acheté à Richers, de Berlin A dû appartenir à Joachim. M. van Oordt, from The Hague Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1721, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful wood, with bright medium [-width] flames, descending [from the centre-joint]. The ribs are very beautiful. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow in the middle and on the bass side. There is a split, a patch, and a doubling at the sound-post; several further splits above the fs and at the chin. Beautiful head, very characteristic. Beautiful varnish, golden red, [the varnish] well conserved on the back plate and on the ribs, [but] more abraded at the head and on the front plate. Bought [in 1893?] from [?the widow] Richers [Riechers], of Berlin [by Van Oordt?] It must be the violin which belonged to Joseph Joachim. Jan Van Oordt was a distinguished Dutch violinist; see also JF55.2, p. 126 [L] and the Appendix. August Riechers (1836-1893) was closely associated with Joseph Joachim. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 236) dates the Mischa Elman, ex Joachim violin to 1721. However, the CzAr/Tarisio website identifies the Joachim/Elman violin (ID 41503) as: ‘Original label but date is faded: “Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis faciebat Anno 1722”.’ The website specifies the violin’s back-plate flames as ‘sloping downwards from the joint’, a condition which is confirmed by the website’s photographs and by the descriptive text (above) for the violin which is dated 1721. The website specifies the first known owner of the 1722 Joachim/Elman violin as ‘Accursi’, and subsequent owners are specified as David Laurie, Joseph Joachim, Jan van Oordt, August Riechers, and Mischa Elman (between 1907 and 1953). The identities and histories of two violins, of 1721 and 1722, have possibly been tangled together.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 19 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 19 [U] (année 1872) M r Lamoureux, Paris (suite) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes ½, année 1717 Très beau fond un peu à contresens, très belles éclisses, table très-beau sapin ayant une cassure très-peu visible sur la barre, tête moderne. Vernis rouge doré magnifique. Ex Soyer de Rouen 1877 M r Laurie (avec une tête de Stradivarius) 8,000 1878 M r Van de Weghe, Lille, 13,500 1890 M r J. G. Orchar, Dundee (Ecosse) 25,000. (1872) M. Lamoureux, Paris (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 2½ lignes [357.6mm], year 1717 Very beautiful back plate, cut slightly against the grain. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made of very beautiful spruce, having a split – only just visible – on the bass-bar. The head is modern. Golden-red varnish; magnificent. ex Soyer, of Rouen 1877 M. Laurie (with a head of Stradivari) 8,000 1878 M. van de Weghe, Lille, 13,500 1890 M. J G Orchar, Dundee (Scotland) 25,000. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a 1717 Stradivari violin (ID 41425) as the Nightingale, this violin having belonged to J G Orchar between 1890 and 1898; however there is no mention of M. Soyer, Charles Lamoureux, or M. van de Weghe as previous owners. Equally, the CzAr/Tarisio listing of violins owned by David Laurie does not include a Stradivari violin of 1717. The comment – that the violin was sold to David Laurie ‘with a head of Stradivari’ – suggests that a head was salvaged from a Stradivari violin which was damaged beyond repair and then substituted for the modern head.

***** JF55.2, p. 19 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 19 [L] [Monsieur Lamoureux] (année 1872) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1722 Fond d’une pièce magnifique, veines larges remontant à droite, très-belles éclisses, avec rinceaux peints en noir (oiseaux et têtes de serpents) tête avec rinceaux, table de deux pièces, sapin un peu fin, petite cassure à l’âme, et une au-dessus de l’f gauche, doubles filets avec incrustations en ivoire, losanges et ronds sur fond noir. Vernis rouge doré magnifique. Ex Rode Ex Norès, de Niort 1890 M r Ch. Oldham (Brighton) 30,000 f (Hill). [Monsieur Lamoureux] (1872) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1722 The back plate is in one piece; magnificent; wide flames rising to the right. Very beautiful ribs with floral designs painted in black (birds and serpent-heads); the head [also] with floral designs. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] slightly thin. There is a small split at the sound-post and one above the bass f. Double purfling with an ivory inlay – lozenges and discs – on a black base. The varnish is golden-red; magnificent. ex Rode ex Norès, of Niort 1890 M. Charles Oldham (Brighton) 30,000 francs (Hill). 69

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The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 271) comment on this violin: The “Rode” violin, dated 1722, was purchased from the Duc D’Olbreuse, who had obtained it from Rode, by M. Norès, a musician, for 4,000 francs = £160. M. Norès sold his violin in 1873 to MM. Gand & Bernadel frères for 5,000 francs, who resold it to M. Lamoureux for 6,000 francs = £240. In 1890 it passed into our hands at the increased price of £1,200. The violin is listed on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 40244. For J P J Rode see also JF55.2, p. 6 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 20 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 20 [U] (année 1870) M r Leloup de Sancy, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1726 Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes presque droites, belles éclisses, ondes larges, table de deux pièces, sapin assez fin, cassures à l’âme, au bas de l’f droite, au coin gauche en haut, flipot filipot au menton près du cordier. Vernis rouge doré, bien conservé. voir le signalement page 165, repris par Caressa Janvier 1907 Vendu à Andreieef en 1930 – mltttt. (1870) M. Leloup de Sancy [de Rolland], Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1726 The back plate is in one piece, the small flames almost straight. Beautiful ribs with wide flames. The front plate is made from two pieces, the spruce [?rings are] quite thin. There are splits at the sound-post, at the bottom of the treble f, and at the upper corner of the bass C. There is a covering piece of wood at the chin next to the tail-piece. The varnish is golden red, well conserved. See the description on page 165; re-acquired by Caressa [& Français] in January 1907. Sold to Andreieef in 1930 – mltttt. A much-extended 1907 description of this violin appears at JF55.2, p. 165; EF/JF55.4, p. 165:

1907 M r le baron Leloup Rolland de Sancy de Sancy de Rolland, 40 62 rue de Monceau, Paris, en été à Janville – Paluel – […?] Violon A. Stradivarius 1726, étiquette originale; taille 356mm Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes droites, très vives; veines en travers, longitudinales, filetage très-pur; le bord à la main usé jusqu’au filet, talon usé original, cheville sur les tasseaux du haut et du bas; petite trace de brisure sous le talon. Eclisses à larges ondes, magnifiques, celle du bas en une seule pièce; trace de l’ancien sillet. Table en sapin, 2 pièces; moyen, régulier, splendide à l’œil; ½ bords partout; à droite, cassures; une de 3cms environ au coin du bas, une à l’âme; une du bas de l’f gauche droite allant jusqu’au bord; une petite dans le haut et le bas du trou supérieur de l’f. Cassures à gauche: une au coin du haut; une au sommet de l’f, le long de la barre; une petite à la patte de l’f. Tête fort belle, un peu lourde déjà; bois à grosses ondes peu apparentes; les coulisses dépouillées, presque blanches derrière, noircies dans le bas; un petit trou rebouché, en forme de pastille, sur l’arête, s’arrêtant au cul de poule. Vernis rouge vif, merveilleux partout. Violon de grande allure, admirable. Offert aoxzx en 1907, nxzxz en 1920 – refuse toujours de le vendre en 1923 Acheté par Mme la Csse Leloup de Sancy, à M r A. Frey, artiste de l’Académie Royale de Musique à Paris, éditeur, en 1826, 2,400 f 70

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Wolfman à Varsovie en 1914; cédé à son gendre Andreeff Alexis en 1929. Acheté par M r Wolfmann de Varsovie pour son gendre M r Andreef Alexis en 1929, mltttt, repris Laurentius Guadagnini pour 150,000 francs. 1907 M. le Baron Leloup Rolland de Sancy de Sancy de Rolland, 40, 62, rue de Monceau, Paris; in the summer he is at Janville, Paluel, […?] Antonio Stradivari violin, 1726, original label, length 356mm The back plate is in one piece; small straight flames, very bright; there are vein-lines crossing [the flames] longitudinally. The purfling is very pure. The edge [of the plate] at the hand has been worn down to the purfling. The original neck-foot is worn. There is a [locating] dowel in the upper block and in the lower block and a faint trace of a split underneath the neck-foot. The ribs have wide flames, magnificent; the lower rib [around the tail-piece end pin] is in one piece. There is a trace of the original [tail-piece] saddle. The front plate is made from two pieces of spruce; medium [-width rings?], regular, a splendid sight; half edges throughout. On the right there are splits: one of about 3cms at the lower corner of the C; one at the sound-post; one at the bottom of the bass treble f extending to the edge; a small [split] above and below the upper hole of the f. Splits on the left: one at the upper corner; one at the summit of the f, the length of the [bass] bar; a small split in the ‘tab’ [wing] of the f. The head is very beautiful, slightly heavy, the wood with very wide flames but barely visible; the flutings are bare, almost white at the rear; black stains in the lower part; a small hole, plugged, shaped like a lozenge, on the edge, terminating at the hen’s tail. The varnish is bright red, marvellous throughout. This is a violin of great beauty, admirable. Offered aoxzx in 1907, nxzxz in 1920; still refusing to sell it in 1923. Bought in 1826 by Mme. la Comtesse Leloup de Sancy from M. A Frey, artiste of the Royal Academy of Music in Paris, editor: 2,400 francs. Wolfman, Warsaw, in 1914; passed to his son-in-law Andreeff Alexis in 1929. Bought by M. Wolfmann, of Warsaw, for his son-in-law, M. Andreef Alexis, in 1929, mltttt; [part-exchanged?] a Lorenzo Guadagnini [violin?] for 150,000 francs. Jules, Général Le Loup de Sancy de Rolland (1842-1922). The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a Stradivari violin (ID 41977) – the Andrejeus – as belonging to Leloup de Sancy, and identifies the label as ‘original … 1726’ but also lists the violin as of the year 1708. The CzAr/Tarisio website photographs of the Andrejeus violin confirm a one-piece back plate with small, narrow, flames which descend slightly from left to right. The front-plate rings are of medium width and there appears to have been some repair work carried out at the edge of the plate to the left and to the right of the tailpiece; curiously, this repair work is not so visible in the Thöne photographs (Thöne, Vol. II, p. 328). The photographs do not reveal a plate edge which is worn down to the purfling, nor an upper locating dowel. The back length is specified as 356.5mm. A certificate for the Andrejeus violin, written by Albert Caressa (19 June 1930) and issued to Alexis Andreeff, identifies the violin as being dated 1726. The certificate concludes by identifying the Leloup de Sancy family as having owned the violin from 1826 ‘until today’ (but M. Wolfmann apparently obtained the violin in 1914). The CzAr/Tarisio website cites a 1998 certificate for the Andrejeus violin, issued by Machold Rare Violins, NY: ‘It is original [in] all its essential parts like table, back, ribs and scroll.’ See JF55.2, p. 43 [L] for Stradivari’s 1713 Sancy/Kubelik violin.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 20 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 20 [L] Le violon ce-dessous repris et recédé à l’Allegemeine Musik gesellschefat [sic] à Bâle ahxzx en 1903 (année 1870) M r Labitte, à Reims Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 5 lignes, année 1681 [the 8 then altered to 9; 1691 in EF/JF55.4; 1681 in Gand] (longuet) Beau fond de deux pièces, veines droites, un peu serrées, ayant une cassure dans le haut a 11 lignes du joint, et une en biais partant du bord à un pouce au-dessus du coin gauche, arrivant à deux lignes du filet et descendant en ligne droite jusqu’au filet du C. Table de deux pièces, sapin très-serré ayant plusieurs cassures, poitrine doublée, très belle tête, trous rebouchés. Vernis rouge brun doré. 3,200 f Ex marquis de Villers M r Labitte hoxzx M r A Willan, A Villon, aaoxz, Août 97 M r E de Mlynarski à Varsovie, zxzxz, en 1902 Vendu à Friedmann, ablttt, en 1926 The violin below was re-acquired [from Mlynarski?] and passed on to the Allgemeine Musikgesellschaft, Basel [Switzerland], ahxzx, in 1903 (1870) M. Labitte, from Reims Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 5 lignes [363.2mm], year 1681/1691 (long pattern) Beautiful back plate made from two pieces; straight flames, slightly tight/narrow; having a split in the upper bout 11 lignes [24.8mm] from the [centre-] joint, and [another split] obliquely from the edge to one pouce [27mm] above the corner of the left-side C, finishing two lignes [5.5mm] from the purfling and descending in a straight line as far as the purfling of the C. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow, having several splits; the chest area has been doubled. Very beautiful head; the peg-holes have been bushed. The varnish is golden red-brown. 3,200 francs ex Marquis de Villers M. Labitte, hoxzx M. A Willan, A Villon, aaoxz, August 1897 M. E de Mlynarski, from Warsaw, zxzxz, in 1902 Sold to Friedmann, ablttt, in 1926. The Marquis was Ludwig Viktor, Marquis von Villers, Comte de Grognoncourt (1810-1881). On the CzAr/Tarisio website Reverend Albert Willan is associated with two Stradivari violins, of 1686 and 1703. Emil Szymon Mlynarski (1870-1935) was a Polish composer, conductor, and violinist. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies only two Stradivari violins dated 1681: the Fleming (ID 40076) and the Reynier/Comte de Chesnais (ID 40675); for the latter violin see JF55.2, p. 209. Ernest Doring identifies only the Reynier violin. The Tarisio website identifies a 1691 violin (ID 41450) as the Dancla/Marquis de Villars. The quoted sequence of ownership includes Marquis de Villars, Labitte, and Emil Szymon Mlynarski but the associated photographs show a violin with a one-piece back plate with narrow flames slightly descending from left to right. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 80) associates a 1691 violin with Charles Dancla and with the Marquis de Villers, and compares this instrument with the 1690 Stephens (or Steffens) violin. The Stephens violin (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40726) has a one-piece back plate with narrow flames slightly ascending from left to right. *****

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JF55.2, p. 21 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 21 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Luce, Douai Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1727 Fond d’une pièce, très-beau bois, veines descendant un peu à droite, trous de vers dans le bas et sur les bords à différents endroits, éclisses même bois, table de deux pièces, sapin un peu serrée, cassures à l’âme, au menton, et au bas de l’f droite, très-belle tête, beau vernis rouge doré. (1870) Monsieur Luce, Douai Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1727 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful wood, with flames descending slightly to the right; there are worm tracks in the lower bout and at the edges in various places. The ribs are made of the same wood [as the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] slightly tight/narrow; there are splits at the sound-post, at the chin, and at the bottom of the treble f. Very beautiful head. Beautiful varnish, golden red. Little is known of this violin, other than (according to the Hills (1902), p. 270) the violin was bought in 1803 by M. Luce for 1,400 francs, and ‘after his death it was put up for sale by auction in 1854, and was repurchased by the family for 2,630 francs.’ It would seem, therefore, that the M. Luce identified in the descriptive text was likely a son of the previous owner.

***** JF55.2, p. 21 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 21 [L] (année 1870) M r de Lamartre, à Avranches Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, 3 lignes, année 1715 Fond de deux pièces superbe, veines descendant un peu mais presque droites, éclisses ondes plus larges, celle de la main ayant été cassée, table de 2 pièces, cassures à l’âme et de chaque côté dans le bas, très-belle tête. Vernis rouge brun doré. Taille 356mm. 1879 M r Marsick, 10,000 f 1880 M r Werner Siemens, 11,000 f racheté par Germain en 1904, marqué 1716 (a) repris par nous à Germain en 1911 – rxzxz vendu à Stubiger à Vienne en 1911 – mxzxz. (1870) M. de Lamartre, from Avranches Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1715 The back plate is made from two pieces, superb, the flames descending a little but almost straight. The flames of the ribs are wider [than on the back plate]; the rib of the hand having been broken. The front plate is made from two pieces, with splits at the sound-post and on each side [of the front plate] in the lower bout. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden redbrown. The body-length is 356mm. 1879 M. Marsick 10,000 francs 1880 M. Werner Siemens, 11,000 francs Bought back by [Emile] Germain in 1904, marked 1716 (a) Re-acquired by us [Caressa & Français] from Germain in 1911 – rxzxz Sold to Stubiger, from Vienna, in 1911 – mxzxz. (a)

The label-date had been altered? If so, was the label subsequently altered once more to re-establish the date of 1715?

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Werner von Siemens (1816-1892) was a German inventor and industrialist; see also JF55.2, p. 78 [L]. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies three Stradivari violins as having been owned by Martin Pierre Marsick (1847-1924): one of 1705 and two of 1715. The 1715 violin which today carries Marsick’s name as its soubriquet is shown on the website (ID 40667) as having back-plate flames which descend quite steeply from the centre-joint, not ‘descending a little but almost straight’. In addition, the website photographs, likewise those provided by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 391), show that the back-plate flames all but disappear halfway up the upper bout, especially on the right, the wood having a ‘cross-hatched’ appearance; this feature is not mentioned in the descriptive text. Also not mentioned is the almost total loss of the back-plate varnish other than in the channels around the edges of the plate at the C-bout (although this loss might conceivably have taken place since 1870). The website’s high-quality photographs do not reveal splits on either side of the front-plate lower bout. Nonetheless, the website indicates a line of ownership for the 1715 Marsick violin which includes Lamartre, Siemens, Marsick, Emile Germain, and Stubiger. The second violin of 1715 which is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 55859, Schneiderhan) is associated, initially, with a Monsieur de Cuvillon, and subsequently (from July 1902) with Martin Pierre Marsick; see JF55.2, p. 8 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 22 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 22 [U] (année 1870) M r de Montgenet, Crimée Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1725 Fond de deux pièces veines serrées, éclisse du bas côté gauche ayant au milieu une partie de bois écorchée assez profondément, table de 2 pièces beau sapin (chaque côté ayant au milieu une partie d’1 centimètre très-serrée) deux cassures au menton, dont une remontant jusqu’à l’f, une autre cassure partant de l’ouïe et allant au haut de la table, une petite en dessous, belle tête, vernis rouge brun. Ex Ernst (1875 M r Macalister, nxzx) [JF55.2 only] taille 356mm, ex Comte Eugen-Plotemyi – ex Harry Wahl. (1870) M. de Montgenet, Crimea Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1725 The back plate is made from two pieces; tight/narrow flames. The rib on the lower-left side has, in the middle, an area of wood which is quite deeply scratched. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce (each half-width having, in the middle, a 1-centimetre width with very tight/narrow [rings]). There are two splits at the chin, of which one extends upwards as far as the f. There is another split from the [upper?] eye [of the f] into the upper bout of the front plate, and another, small [split] below. Beautiful head. The varnish is red-brown. ex Ernst (1875 M. Macalister, nxzx) Length 356mm; ex Comte Eugen-Plotemyi [Plotenyi?] – ex Harry Wahl. Harry Wahl (1869-1940) was a Finnish businessman and a collector of violins. The CzAr/Tarisio website associates a 1726 Stradivari violin (ID 40247) with Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, ‘Plotenyi’, and Harry Wahl, but there is no mention of M. de Montgenet or M. Macalister. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 81) identify a 1726 violin as ‘M. Plotenyi, ex Ernst’ but, likewise, do not mention Montgenet or Macalister. The CzAr/Tarisio photographs of the front plate of the Ernst/Plotenyi violin clearly show a one-

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centimetre-wide band of extremely narrow rings in the middle of each half-width. The difference in the label dates – 1725 and 1726 – is unexplained.

***** JF55.2, p. 22 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 22 [L] (année 1870) M r de Maupas Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1690 (Amatisé) Fond d’une pièce à contresens peu moiré, belles éclisses, table ayant des cassures au menton, estomac doublé et demi-bords tout autour, tête assez usée. Vernis jaune rouge, assez très dépouillé. Ex Thillon Nothomb, à Marche [JF55.2 only] Ysaÿe l’a acheté en 1897 pour aoxzx. (1870) M. de Maupas Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1690 (Amatisé) The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain, having a slightly ‘watery’ appearance. Beautiful ribs. The front plate has splits at the chin; the stomach has been doubled and there are half-edges all round. The head is fairly worn. The varnish is yellow-red; quite very worn. ex Thillon Nothomb, from Marche Ysaÿe bought it in 1897 for aoxzx. The family home for the extensive Nothomb family was in the Walloon municipality of Marche-en-Famenne. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies this violin as the Jupiter (ID 41306), having a sequence of ownership which apparently began with Giovanni Viotti, followed by J P J Rode, and others, before being in the possession of ‘Thillon’, subsequently with the Vicomte de Maupas, and with Pierre Nothomb in 1891. Photographs of this Jupiter violin suggest a ‘watery’ appearance in the back plate; see also JF55.2, p. 74 [U]. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 107) specifies the date of the violin as 1700 (following his personal inspection of the instrument); the CzAr/Tarisio website identifies an ‘original label’ with the date of ‘17- -’. The historical commentary provided by Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. II, p. 116) repeats the date of ‘17- -’ and states that ‘the last two digits are obscure.’ Thöne cites Emil Herrmann who ‘noted that the year on the label was probably 1698.’ William Henley (Henley, p. 36) specifies the date as 1700. It is difficult to explain how the first two numerals – apparently clearly readable as ‘17’ – could have been specified in the descriptive text as ‘16’. The varnish colour of the Jupiter violin is defined by Thöne as ‘an intense red-brown colour’ rather than ‘yellow-red’; Thöne’s high-resolution photographs do not suggest that the violin’s varnish is ‘very worn’.

***** JF55.2, p. 23 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 23 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Myèvre, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1721 [1721 in EF/JF55.4; 1710 in Gand] Fond de deux pièces, belles veines presque droites, belles éclisses celles du bas ayant été rehaussées ainsi que celle du C gauche. Table de deux pièces ayant une petite cassure audessus de l’f gauche, une au-dessus de l’f droite et une petite à l’âme, chanteau en bas du côté gauche allant jusqu’au milieu de l’f, ne se voyant que parceque le pore du sapin est un peu plus fin. Belle tête, beau vernis rouge. Germain vendu à Hamma 17,500 f en 98. 75

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(1870) Monsieur Myèvre, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1721/1710 The back plate is made from two pieces, the beautiful flames almost straight. Beautiful ribs; the lower-bout ribs having been raised, likewise [the rib] of the left-side C. The front plate is made from two pieces, having a small split above the bass f, [another] split above the treble f, and a small [split] at the sound-post. A width-insert on the lower-left side extends as far as the middle of the f; [the insert] can only be seen because the grain of the spruce is slightly thinner [than the surrounding wood]. Beautiful head. Beautiful red varnish. Emile Germain sold [the violin] to Hamma for 17,500 francs in [18]98. No further information for M. Myèvre has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 23 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 23 [L] [Monsieur Myèvre] (année 1870) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1745 [1745 in EF/JF55.4; 1725 in Gand] Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes remontant de gauche à droite, belles éclisses. Table de deux pièces, très-bien conservée, ayant deux petites fentes près du filet en bas des deux côtés. Belle tête. Très-beau vernis rouge. Germain vendu à Doyen 35,000 f en 98 Racheté par nous, à Doyen, aaoxz vendu à Beare en 1915: maoxz. [Monsieur Myèvre] (1870) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces, 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1745/1725 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful flames rising from left to right. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; very well conserved, having two small splits next to the purfling in the lower bout of both half widths. Beautiful head. Very beautiful red varnish. Sold by [Emile] Germain to Doyen, 35,000 francs, in [18]98. Re-bought by us [Caressa & Français] from Doyen, aaoxz. Sold to Beare [of London] in 1915: maoxz. In an undated booklet produced (1900?) by Louis Doyen – Le Violon et les Grands Luthiers Italiens – he provides (p. 23) a black-and-white reproduction of the back plate of his Guarneri violin; the reproduction clearly and precisely corresponds with photographs of the Doyen back plate (Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 142); see also the CzAr/Tarisio website, ID 40436. Doyen writes: Cet instrument (1735) d’un vernis rouge brun et transparent, d’une sonorité mâle et chaude, est admirablement conservé; c’est un des derniers Guarnerius détenus par l’Italie. L’an passé, il était encore à Gênes; il est maintenant en notre possession This instrument (1735) has a varnish which is red-brown, transparent, and a sonority which is manly and warm, and has been admirably conserved; it is one of the last Guarneri [instruments] held within Italy. Last year it was still in Genoa; it is now in our [my] possession. It has been reported (Chiesa et al., ibid.) that the 1735 label was ‘false’ and that the current label inside the violin – 1741 – was inserted by the Hills. The same source (Vol. Two, p. 117) stylistically dates the violin to 1744, and specifies the body length as 350.5mm (back) and 351mm (front).

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JF55.2, p. 24 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 24 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Massart, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, 3 lignes, année 1720 Fond d’une pièce, veines droites larges très douces (presqu’uni) éclisses semblables, table de deux pièces, très-beau sapin, deux petites cassures au menton, une petite à l’âme, très-belle tête. Beau vernis rouge doré. Ex Kreutzer 1896 Doyen 34,000 f 1920 Maucotel, hioxzx, pour Hill. (1870) Monsieur Massart, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1720 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are straight, wide, and very mild (the wood almost plain); the [condition of the] ribs is very similar. The front plate is made from two pieces of very beautiful spruce; two small splits at the chin and a small [split] at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. Beautiful varnish; golden-red. ex Kreutzer 1896 Doyen 34,000 francs 1920 [sold by?] Maucotel [& Deschamp?], hioxzx, for [?on behalf of] Hill. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies four Stradivari violins which are associated with the violinist Rodolphe Kreutzer (1766-1831) – the dedicatee of Beethoven’s Violin Sonata, Op. 47. ID 41961: dated 1701 ID 41382: dated 1714 ID 40535: the Kreutzer. One-piece back plate; tightly-packed narrow flames which descend, very slightly, from left to right, label-dated 1727. See JF55.2, p. 161 (which includes JF55.2, p. 174 [U]) ID 41558: the Kreutzer. One-piece back plate; wide and somewhat faded flames which descend, very slightly, from left to right, label-dated 1720. In the booklet written by Louis Doyen (see previous entry) he specifies the label-date of Kreutzer’s Stradivari violin as 1720. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 89) write of ‘the “Kreutzer” owned by M. Doyen’ and date this violin to within the period 1730-36. The Hills imply that the label inside the Kreutzer violin has ‘either been changed or [the] figures tampered with’ but they provide no evidential details. After Kreutzer’s death, in 1831, his widow passed his violin to Lambert Massart (1811-1892). On 30 May 1896 this Kreutzer/Massart violin was sold by Massart’s nephew to Louis Doyen. It is this 1720 Kreutzer/Massart/Doyen violin which is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 41558, the associated photographs revealing the widely-spaced back-plate flames which descend slightly from left to right. The website also identifies an internal label, glued to the upper block, which contains the text ‘Kreutzer-Doyen 1795-1896’. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 303) briefly mentions a ‘1731 period ex KREUTZER’ violin which ‘was later owned by the French collector M. Doyen.’ William Henley (Henley, p. 82) identifies a ‘1731 The Kreutzer’ violin ‘formerly owned by a French collector, M. Doyen, from the possession of Rudolphe Kreutzer.’ It was this 1720/1730-36/1731 Kreutzer/Massart/Doyen violin which was auctioned by Christie’s in June 2014, the violin having belonged to the reclusive and then-recently deceased Huguette Clark, of New York; the auction operated by sealed bid. According to a notice in the August 2014 issue of The Strad, ‘the “Kreutzer” violin of 1731, valued at $7.5m (£4.5m) failed to attract [a] buyer.’ Historical information provided by Christie’s at the time of the 2014 auction indicated that this violin was purchased ‘in 1920 by W. A. and Anna Clark for their then-teenaged daughter Huguette […]. The pleased parents heralded the purchase of the legendary Kreutzer with a telegram to Huguette from Paris reading: Darling … bought you the most wonderful violin in the world.’ The second wife of William Andrews Clark (1839-1925) was Anna Eugenia La Chapelle (1878-1963); the marriage produced two children; Louise Amelia (1902-1919) and Huguette (1906-2011).

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The annotation 1920 Maucotel, hioxzx, pour Hill seemingly refers to the purchase of this violin, in Paris, by William A Clark and Anna E Clark. William Henley (Henley, p. 69) specifies the body length of the ‘1720 The Kreutzer’ violin as ‘141/16 inches’ (357.2mm) and ‘Sold to an American for 14,000 dollars in 1921.’

***** JF55.2, p. 24 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 24 [L] (année 1870) M r Meugy, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1725 Fond d’une pièce, très-beau à contresens, éclisses plus unies, table(a) de deux pièces ayant des cassures au menton à la barre et à l’âme, pièce dans le haut à droite.(b) Jolie tête ayant été cassée et ayant une pièce de 18 lignes du côté de la tête, de la cheville du La, deux chevilles en bois du côté du petit bout par derrière. Vernis rouge doré. Ex Grasset Destreicher, Juin 1917 Racheté par Hill et M.D. en Amèrique (1870) M. Meugy, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1725 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful, cut against the grain. The ribs are plainer. The front plate(a) – by Bergonzi – is made from two pieces, having splits at the chin, at the bass-bar, and at the sound-post; there is a patch in the upper bout, on the right.(b) Attractive head, having been broken and having a patch of 18 lignes [40mm] at the side of the head, at the A-string peg; two wooden dowels on the peg-tip side [bass side of the peg-box] from the rear. The varnish is golden red. ex Grasset Destreicher, June 1917 Re-bought by Hill and MD [Maucotel & Deschamp], [now?] in America. (a)

At this point in JF55.2 the annotation de Bergonzi has been added; the annotation is repeated in EF/JF55.4.

(b)

Here Gand includes a drawing of the violin’s front-plate upper bout, showing a triangular insert to the right of the fingerboard, starting at the edge of the plate and pointing down the body towards the bridge. The drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4. Jean Jacques Grasset (1769-1839) – a French violinist, composer, and conductor – is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as owning a ‘c.1718’ Stradivari violin (ID 41520, soubriquet Lubbock) which is also associated with ‘Meugy’. The list of subsequent owners of the violin includes ‘Destreicher’ and, in 1925, Rudolph Wurlitzer. The website states that the violin is a composite, with a one-piece back plate ‘cut on the slab’ and the top having subsequently been made by Stradivari ‘c.1730’. No images of the violin were available. Ernest Doring discusses this violin (Doring, p. 263) and dates it to 1725. Doring’s photographs are not of highenough resolution to securely illustrate his identification of a bridge-foot insert (which is not mentioned in the descriptive text) nor the triangular insert in the upper bout which is mentioned, and illustrated, in the JF55.2 text.

***** JF55.2, p. 25 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 25 [U] (année 1870) M r Maurin, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne ½, année 1718 78

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Fond de deux pièces superbe, très-belles éclisses, celle de la main cassée près du tasseau du coin, table de deux pièces, sapin très-fin s’élargissant sur les bords, petite cassure à l’âme et une au bas de l’f droite descendant jusqu’au bord; très-belle tête. Vernis rouge brun doré. Ex Boucher Ex comte de Chaponay (GB axzxx) 1883 Rutson 25,000. (1870) M. Maurin, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1½ lignes [355.3mm], year 1718 The back is made from two pieces; superb. Very beautiful ribs; the rib of the hand [upper bout on the treble side] has been broken near the corner-block. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin, widening at the edges; there is a small split at the sound-post and one from the bottom of the treble f down to the edge. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red-brown. ex Boucher ex Comte de Chaponay (GB [Gand & Bernardel], axzxx) 1883 Rutson, 25,000. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the sequential owners of this violin (ID 40507) are listed as: 1. Count de Chaponay 2. Luigi Tarisio 3. Romheause 4. Alexandre Boucher ‘in 1817’ (the source of this information is not identified) 5. Jean Pierre Maurin ‘until 1883’ 6. John Rutson ‘1883-1906’ 7. Royal Academy of Music ‘from 1906’ If Alexandre-Jean Boucher (1770-1861) – a violinist – was in possession of this violin in 1817 then the earlier involvement of Luigi Tarisio is most unlikely since Tarisio’s date of birth is usually stated to have been c.1790 and his first visit to Paris is usually dated to 1827. No information has been located for ‘Romheause’. An alternative history might be that the violin’s existence is unknown prior to its 1817 acquisition, from an unidentified source, by A-J Boucher. Subsequently, Boucher sold the violin to Comte Antoine de Chaponay (1816-1889); the Count sold the violin to Gand & Bernardel who then sold it to J P Maurin (1823-1894) who succeeded Delphin Alard as professor of violin at the Paris Conservatoire. From Maurin the violin passed to John Rutson and then to the Royal Academy of Music in London.

***** JF55.2, p. 25 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 25 [L] Jh Guarnerius fils d’andré (année 1870) M r Millont, Marseille Violon Joseph Guarnerius,(a) fils André, portant une étiquette de C. Bergonzi, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1730 Fond de 2 pièces, veines descendant, givelure dans le bas côté droit partant du C. Eclisses ondes de différentes largeurs, ondes irrégulières. Table de deux pièces, cassures à l’âme, pièce à gauche près du cordier au menton pour boucher une résine. Jolie tête. Vernis brun. Cédé à Brouzet Cédé à Enesco en 1900 (pour hexzx) contre son Stradivarius. 79

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Giuseppe Guarneri, filius Andreæ (1870) M. Millont, Marseille Giuseppe Guarneri [del Gesù?] violin,(a) filius Andreæ, carrying a C Bergonzi label, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1730 The back plate is in two pieces, the flames descending; a ‘scalloped’ pattern in the wood on the lower-right side below the C. The flames of the ribs are of various widths, irregular flames. The front plate is made from two pieces, with splits at the sound-post. There is a patch on the left, near the tail-piece, at the chin, to close up a resin [cavity?]. Attractive head. Brown varnish. Made over to Brouzet Made over to Enesco [George Enescu] in 1900 (for hexzx) against his Stradivarius. (a)

At this point, in JF55.2, a subsequent writer has crossed out Joseph Guarnerius and written above, in black ink, Carlo Bergonzi; a further annotation, in different ink, adds the word étiquette in front of Carlo. An article published on the Tarisio website in February 2017 identifies this violin as the Guarneri del Gesù ‘ex Enescu’ of ‘c.1725’. George Enescu (1881-1955) was a Romanian violinist, composer, and teacher.

***** JF55.2, p. 26 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 26 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Maulaz, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1714 Fond de deux pièces, belles veines descendant, très-belles éclisses veines un peu moins larges, table de deux pièces, cassure à l’âme, et une à un centimètre du joint du côté de la barre, deux coins du côté droit remis, très-belle tête. Vernis rouge magnifique. Ex Cuisinier 1875 M r Hart, Londres, 8,295 f. (1870) Monsieur Maulaz, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1714 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames which descend [from the centrejoint]. Very beautiful ribs having flames which are slightly narrower [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; a split at the sound-post and another which is 1 centimetre from the centre-joint on the bass-bar side; both [C-bout] corners on the treble side have been replaced. Very beautiful head. Magnificent red varnish. ex Cuisinier 1875 M. Hart, London, 8,295 francs. George (II) Hart (1860-1939) was the son of George (I) Hart (1839-1891) who, in turn, was the son of John Hart (1805-1874); all were violin dealers. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41383) states that the front plate of this 1714 violin (soubriquet Adam/Mischakoff) is ‘also by Stradivari, but later’. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 177-178) identifies Cuisinier, Maulaz, George Hart, and John Adam as owners of the violin. Doring’s photographs confirm that the violin’s ribs, at least on the bass side, have flames which are narrower than those which are seen on the back plate. *****

JF55.2, p. 26 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 26 [L] [Monsieur Maulaz] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1717

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Fond d’une pièce, très belles ondes descendant un peu à droite, cassure en travers sur le tasseau du haut et deux dans le bas, dans toute la largeur, deux cassures dans la longueur du côté droit, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, ayant beaucoup de cassures. Tête moderne, tête de Chanot, vernis rouge doré. 1875 M r Hart, Londres, 2,331 f Vendu par Hill à M. Otto Senn en 1904 pour £480 repris à Otto Senn à Bâle, avril 1922 – roxzx. cédé à Feydel à Asnières, ditto, ditto – noxzx repris et vendu à Hamma en 1923 – Mai – moxzx par Friedmann à Hamma. [Monsieur Maulaz] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1717 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful flames which descend slightly to the right. There is a split crossing the upper block, and two splits across the entire width of the lower bout; there are two full-length longitudinal splits on the right-hand side. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces, having a lot of splits. The head is modern, made by Chanot. The varnish is golden red. 1875 M. Hart, London, 2,331 francs Sold by Hill to M. Otto Senn in 1904 for £480 Re-acquired from Otto Senn, from Basel, April 1922 – roxzx Made over to Feydel, from Asnières [sur Seine, Paris] April 1922 – noxzx Re-acquired and sold to Hamma in May 1923, moxzx, by Friedmann to Hamma. The name of ‘Friedmann’ also appears at JF55.2, p. 20 [L]. The CzAr/Tarisio website does not associate a 1717 Stradivari violin with M. Maulaz, and the website’s listing of Stradivari violins owned by George Hart (1839-1891) identifies from 1717 only the Whitney/Park/Gillott violin (which has a two-piece back plate). Ernest Doring does not identify a 1717 violin which is associated with Maulaz, Hart, and Otto Senn; neither do the Hills (1902) or Henley.

***** JF55.2, p. 27 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 27 [U] (année 1872) Monsieur Maulaz, Paris (suite) Alto Stradivarius, 15 pouces 3 lignes, année 1727 Fond de 2 pièces, veines un peu serrées, éclisses plus unies. Table de deux pièces, beau sapin ayant une nuance dans le milieu de chaque côté ayant un peu l’apparence d’un chanteau. Tête très-beau modèle, bois uni, vernis rouge clair. Cet alto est intact sauf 2 petites fentes près du sillet, une de chaque côté. Ex Durand (5,040 f) 1875 G et B f res, 7,350 f 1875 M r Casavetti, Londres, 10,000 f Brandt, à Londres, axzxz. (1872) Monsieur Maulaz, Paris (continuing) Antonio Stradivari viola, 15 pouces 3 lignes [412.8mm], year 1727 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames slightly tight/narrow. The ribs are plainer. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce having a [change of] colour in the middle of each [half-width], giving the impression of an insert. The head is a very beautiful

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example, plain wood. The varnish is light red. This viola is intact except for two small splits near the [tail-piece] saddle, one on each side. ex Durand (5,040 francs) 1875 Gand & Bernardel Frères, 7,350 francs 1875 M. Casavetti [Cassavetti], London, 10,000 francs [Robert E.] Brandt, from London, axzxz. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 104) state that this viola’s label has been amended, ‘to make the inscription pass as 1721’. The Hills also identify ‘the stiffness of the curves, in short, the whole character of the work’ as reflecting Stradivari’s age. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40115) states that the label is ‘original, with Stradivari’s stamp applied after the label had been glued to the instrument’ (this statement implies that part of the monogram is stamped on the bare wood adjacent to the label). Within the descriptive text (above) the identification of ‘Durand’ points towards J N Durand who was a dealer (see Hill (1902), p. 261 and p. 268). Count Cozio di Salabue sold instruments to M. Durand and also provided the latter with a list of Italian terms for the parts of a violin, the list translated into French by the Count (see N. Sackman, The ‘Messiah’ violin: a reliable history? (2015)). The Cassavetti viola is now housed at the Library of Congress in Washington DC, USA (the Library’s documentation identifying the body length as 410.6mm). The Library’s website photographs do not include an image of the viola’s label but the descriptive commentary states that ‘one can see a part of this stamp [the circular Stradivari monogram] on the lower corner’ (this comment seems to imply that the remaining part of the monogram cannot be seen). There is no mention of the label-date having been amended. The LoC photographs confirm the identification of two longitudinal bands of front-plate rings which have a contrasting colour. Front and back photographs of the viola – ‘Cremona, 1727’ – appear in Wurlitzer’s 1931 catalogue Rare Violins, Violas, Violoncellos of the seventeenth eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, p. 164. High-quality photographs and a detailed historical narrative for this viola appear in Thöne (Vol. IV, pp. 152-161); the backplate measurement of length is specified as 412mm.

***** JF55.2, p. 27 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 27 [L] (année 1870) M r de Munck, Weimar Violoncelle Stradivarius, 27 pouces 6 lignes, année 1710 Largeur en haut 12 pouces, aux C 8 pouces 3 lignes, en bas 15 pouces 6 lignes. Fond de 2 pièces, petites ondes douces, petit nœud dans le haut à droite. Table de 3 pièces très-beau sapin, la pièce du milieu à 3 pouces 2 lignes ½. Très-belle tête; vernis rouge pâle pâteux. Ex de Barrau. (1870) M. de Munck, Weimar Antonio Stradivari cello, 27 pouces 6 lignes [744.5mm], year 1710 [Maximum] width of the upper bout is 12 pouces [324.8mm], [minimum width of] the C-bout is 8 pouces 3 lignes [223.3mm], [maximum width of] the lower bout is 15 pouces 6 lignes [419.6mm]. The back plate is made from two pieces; small mild flames; there is a small knot in the upper bout, to the right. The front plate is made from three pieces of very beautiful spruce; the piece in the middle is 3 pouces 2½ lignes [in width; 86.9mm]. Very beautiful head. The varnish is pale red; thick consistency. ex de Barrau. Ernest de Munck (1840-1915) was a Belgian cellist and composer. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 144) comment on this cello:

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[…] the instrument of M. de Munck, which, although dated 1710, really belongs to this period [Stradivari’s late period]. The [cello] formerly belonged to M. de Barrau, a Parisian amateur […]. (a) It was subsequently lent to Franchomme […]. Through the medium of the firm of MM. Gand and Bernardel Frères, it then passed to the present owner. (a)

Auguste Joseph Franchomme (1808-1884) was a cellist and composer.

Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 299) indicates that the cello’s label-date of 1710 was the result of an alteration; such an alteration is not mentioned in the descriptive text. On the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40061) the cello is identified as Feuermann/De Munck/Gardiner and three of its dimensions specified as UB 327mm, LB 419mm, and body-length as 746mm.

***** JF55.2, p. 28 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 28 [U] (année 1870) M r le Comte Vicomte Molitor, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1717 Fond d’une pièce, veines peu prononcées et inégales descendant un peu à droite, rayure dans le milieu du haut ayant un peu l’apparence d’une cassure. Eclisses bois uni du côté de la barre et plus veiné du côté de l’âme. Table de 2 pièces très bien conservée sauf une petite cassure partant du rond du bas de chaque f et allant au bord du C, tête bois uni, coquille assez fouillée. Vernis rouge brun doré, gras. Vendu au 1917, haoxzx, à M. Courvoisier Ex de Récamier (cédé en 1804 pour 4,000 f à Molitor) bre [written in the left margin of JF55.2] vendu en 8 1920 à de Ygartua, aoxzxz Repris Ygartua, vendu Elman 1925, $26,000. (1870) M. le Comte Vicomte Molitor, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1717 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are faint and uneven, descending slightly to the right; there is a scratch in the middle of the upper bout looking a little like a split. The wood of the ribs is plain on the bass-bar side [but] more flamed on the sound-post side. The front plate is made from two pieces; very well conserved except for a small split starting at the lower ‘eye’ of each f and extending to the edge of the C. The wood of the head is plain; the scroll is quite ornate. The varnish is golden red-brown, oily. Sold in 1917, haoxzx, to M. Courvoisier ex de Récamier (passed to Molitor, in 1804, for 4,000 francs) Sold in October 1920 to de Ygartua, aoxzxz; re-acquired from Ygartua; sold [by Albert Caressa?] to [Mischa] Elman, 1925, 26,000 dollars. The Comte Molitor referred to as having received this violin in 1804 would appear to be Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor (1770-1849) who was a Marshal of France. The Comte (or Vicomte) Molitor who was the owner of the violin in 1870 was either a son, also called Gabriel (1795-1870), or a grandson, Olivier (1831-1897). This violin is identified as that which was presented to the Paris socialite Jeanne-Françoise Julie Adélaïde Récamier (1777-1849) – known as Juliette – by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Memoirs and Correspondence of Madame Récamier (Luyster) does not contain any mention of such a presentation; the evidence from the Memoirs is that Juliette met Napoleon Bonaparte only once, at a dinner party in the winter of 1799-1800. There is no mention of ‘Molitor’ within the Memoirs and Correspondence. The single meeting with Napoleon is reiterated in E Herriot, Madame Récamier (p. 55): ‘[Juliette] only spoke to Napoleon once in her life […] in the winter of 1799-1800 […] This was the only interview they ever had.’ Herriot, in his exhaustive two-volume study of Juliette’s life, makes no mention of ‘Molitor’.

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The CzAr/Tarisio website associates three Stradivari violins with ‘José [Julio?] de Ygartua’: 1708 (ID 41340): the Empress Caterina of Russia/Salzard 1715 (ID 41393): the Titian 1717 (ID 41424): the Gariel. None of these violins has a one-piece back plate with flames descending slightly from left to right. See also JF55.2, p. 125 [U] for a 1697 Stradivari violin which belonged to Comte Molitor. For Mischa Elman see also JF55.2, p. 209 (in connection with a Stradivari violin dated 1735).

***** JF55.2, p. 28 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 28 [L] (année 1870) M r Millaut, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1742 Joli fond d’une pièce veines remontant à droite, éclisses veines un peu plus larges, celles du C et du bas rehaussées, partant à rien du coin du haut et arrivant à une hauteur d’une ½ ligne au bas. Table de 2 pièces, sapin fin au milieu, large sur les côtés, jolie tête. Vernis jaune brun doré bien conservé. Acheté par Nadaud en 1912: hexzx. (1870) M. Millaut, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1742 Attractive one-piece back plate, the flames rising to the right; the flames of the ribs are slightly wider [than on the back plate]. The ribs of the C-bout and of the lower bout [have been] raised: starting from nothing at the upper [C-bout] corner and finishing by being a half-ligne [1.1mm] higher at the bottom [at the tail-piece end pin]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin in the middle, wide at the sides. Attractive head. The varnish is golden yellow-brown. Well conserved. Bought by Nadaud in 1912: hexzx. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies Edouard Nadaud as having owned only two Stradivari violins – of 1734 (ID 40725) and 1708 (ID 43076). The name ‘Millaut’ has not been further identifiable.

***** JF55.2, p. 29 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 29 [U] (année 1870) M r Nagornoff Violon Stradivarius (Chant du Cygne) 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1737 à l’âge de 93 ans (le chiffre de l’étiquette surchargé porte 1707) Fond de 2 pièces ondes assez larges, mais pas très-vives, table de 2 pièces, coin gauche du haut ayant été arraché et recollé, petite cassure entre le coin du bas et l’ouïe de l’f, cassure partant du filet du même coin et allant au bas de la table. Tête bien conservée. Vernis rouge brun un peu louche [in EF/JF55.4 the words un peu louche, having been written, are then crossed out]. 18 M r de S t Senoch 17,500 1887 M r White 20,000 1913 C.el Maître 100,000 1919 J. L. Courvoisier 175,000 racheté J. L. Courvoisier $35,000 $45,000, Vanamacker John 1925, eltttt Wurlitzer en 1933 84

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

1934 Zlatko Balokovic à New York 1959 Revendu par E. Herrmann en Allemagne 1972 M. Guy Gremper, Villa Yasmin, 6926 Montagnola, TI, télé (091) 28436. (1870) M. Nagornoff Antonio Stradivari violin (Chant du Cygne) 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1737, at the age of 93 years (the figure of the label overwritten to show 1707) The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are fairly wide but not very bright. The front plate is made from two pieces; the upper corner of the left-side [bass] C having been broken off and re-attached. There is a small split between the lower corner [of the bass C] and the ‘eye’ of the f, and a split starting at the purfling of the same corner and extending to the bottom of the front plate. The head is well conserved. The varnish is red-brown, slightly opaque, slightly opaque. 18 M. de Saint Senoch, 17,500 1887 M. [José Silvestre] White, 20,000 1913 Colonel Maître, 100,000 1919 J L [Jean Louis] Courvoisier, 175,000 Bought back from J L Courvoisier, 35,000 dollars 45,000 dollars, [sold to] John Vanamacker [Wanamaker] 1925, eltttt Wurlitzer in 1933 1934 Zlatko Balokovic, from New York 1959 re-sold by E. Herrmann in Germany 1972 M. Guy Gremper, Villa Yasmin, 6926 Montagnola, [Ticino, Switzerland], tel. (091) 28436. For an extensive and detailed examination of the history of the Chant du Cygne violin see N. Sackman, The Stradivari ‘Chant du Cygne’ violin: a question of labelling (Galpin Society Journal, vol. LXX, March 2017).

***** JF55.2, p. 29 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 29 [L] (année 1870) M r Oechsner, au Hâvre Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1715 Fond de 2 pièces très-beau, les éclisses du haut et du bas, côté de la main, ont chacune une cassure. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin bien égal, petites cassures au bas de chaque f et au menton, pièce à l’endroit de l’âme. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. (G.et B. hxzxz) 1881 M r Meïer, Londres, 20,000 f. (1870) M. Oechsner, from Le Havre Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1715 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful. The ribs in both the upper and lower bouts, on the side of the hand [treble side], each have one split. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] nicely uniform; there are small splits at the bottom of each f and at the chin, and a patch in the area of the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. (Gand & Bernardel, hxzxz) 1881 M. Meïer, London, 20,000 francs. C G Meïer was a violin collector.

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The violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 41471] as the Baron Knoop/Bevan violin, and is described by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 193).

***** JF55.2, p. 30 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 30 [U] (année 1870) M r de Pinteville, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1720 Fond de 2 pièces belles ondes descendant, belles éclisses. Table de 2 pièces ayant une cassure du côté droit dans toute sa longueur. Très-jolie tête. Vernis rouge foncé (un peu inégalement usé). Ex Garcia de Cadix 1879 M r Van Hal, de Bruxelles, 15,000 f. (1870) M. de Pinteville, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1720 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames which descend [from the centrejoint]. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces, having a split on the treble side for the entire length [of the plate]. Very attractive head. The varnish is dark red (somewhat unevenly worn). ex Garcia, of Cadiz 1879 M. van Hal, from Brussels, 15,000 francs. The CzAr/Tarisio website makes no mention of M. Pinteville, nor ‘Garcia, of Cadiz’. The website does identify a François van Hal (further identified by Doring (Doring, p. 275) as being ‘an art lover of Brussels’) but the label-date of Hal’s Stradivari violin is specified as 1726 (ID 41527, the Hubay; for this violin see JF55.2, p. 50 [L]). See JF55.2, p. 41 [L] for a Stradivari violin of 1693 (1722) which was also owned at one time by Garcia (of Cadiz).

***** JF55.2, p. 30 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 30 [L] (année 1870) M r de la Panouze, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1720 Fond de 2 pièces beau bois, éclisses très-belles, celle du C, côté du Sol, ayant une cassure. Table ayant quelques cassures, pièce d’âme. Tête beau modèle, beau bois. Vernis rouge, bien conservé. 1882 de La Panouse fils racheté succession 16,000 f 11bis rue St. Dominique vu en Mars 1912: le manche a été arraché, les éclisses cassées de chaque côté: fond et éclisses vernis rouge vif cerise, fort beau; table nombreuses cassures, ½ bords, bord du C droit et coins abîmés; vernis raccordé, noir et grésillé sous le chevalet; tête trous rebouchés, petite gerçure à la cheville du Mi; grandes gerçures dans la coulisse derrière, vaut aoxzx. (1870) M. de la Panouze, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1720 The back plate is made from two pieces of beautiful wood. The ribs are very beautiful; the Cbout rib on the G-string side having a split. The front plate has some splits, with a patch at the sound-post. The head is a beautiful example, beautiful wood. The varnish is red, well conserved. 86

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1882 the son of de la Panouze, bought back, inheritance, 16,000 francs 11bis rue St. Dominique Seen in March 1912: the neck has been torn off, the ribs broken on each side: the back plate and the ribs have bright cherry-red varnish, really beautiful. The front plate has numerous splits; half edges. The edge of the treble-side C is damaged, as are the corners; the varnish touched up, black and crackled underneath the bridge. The peg-holes in the head have been bushed; a small split at the E-string peg; large splits in the rear fluting. Worth aoxzx. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 31 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 31 [U] (année 1870) M r le Comte de Pluvié, à Hennebon Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces moins 1 ligne, année 1732 Fond d’une pièce à contresens, cassure côté étiquette, éclisses rehaussées, celles des C ondes larges, les autres ondes serrées, table de 2 pièces ayant des cassures au menton et au-dessus de l’f gauche. Table de del Gesù d’un autre instrument, filets plus larges que ceux du fond, bois recoupés en haut et en bas et rapportés. Tête bien conservé. Vernis jaune brun, sale, entièrement recouvert de gomme laque; bords de la table refaits; clavette à la tête. offert mxzx en 1907 appartient à M r Steinbach 1931, acheté à M r Steinbach en 1931: 30,000 f Vendu à M r Huguenin à Vevey en Sepbre 1931 amlttt (donnée facture attttt). (1870) M. le Comte de Pluvié, from Hennebont [Brittany] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces minus 1 ligne [349.6mm], year 1732 The back plate is in one piece, [the wood] cut against the grain; there is a split at the side of the label. The ribs [have been] raised; the ribs of the Cs have wide flames, the other [ribs] have tight/narrow flames. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits at the chin and above the bass f. The front plate is from a different del Gesù instrument: [the front-plate] purflings are wider than those on the back plate, the wood re-cut in the upper and lower bouts and re-attached. The head is well conserved. The varnish is yellow-brown, dirty, entirely recovered with gum lacquer [shellac?]. The edges of the front plate have been re-made. There is a locking pin [a dowel?] in the head. Offered mxzx in 1907 Owned by M. Steinbach in 1931. Bought from M. Steinbach in 1931: 30,000 francs Sold to M. Huguenin, from Vevey [Switzerland], in September 1931, amlttt (the invoice made out for attttt). The Comte de Pluvié seems to have been Fortuné Ferdinand, Marquis de Pluvié (1811-1892). The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a Pluvié Guarneri violin (ID 40392) – ‘c.1730’ – which also has a one-piece back plate, but no descriptive details are provided. Previous and subsequent owners of this Pluvié violin are identified as the Conte de Chaponay, and, in 1931, Felix E Kahn. The Hills’ Guarneri monograph of 1931 identifies (p. 84) a 1731 Guarneri violin belonging to ‘Mr. Felix Kahn, ex Cte de Chaponay’. Neither source mentions the names of M. Steinbach or M. Huguenin. According to the CzAr/Tarisio website Gustav Huguenin is associated only with a Stradivari violin of 1705 (see JF55.2, p. 139) and an Amati brothers violin of 1618.

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JF55.2, p. 31 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 31 [L] [M. le Comte de Pluvié] (année 1870) Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1725 Fond de deux pièces belles ondes, vernis usé dans le haut à droite et dans le milieu, éclisses unies ayant une veine du côté du fond (inégale) dans toute la longueur de l’instrument. Table de 2 pièces, cassures à l’âme et à l’f droite en haut, petites à l’f gauche en bas. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. Ex de Savalette Ex Baudiot Ex Jaures. [M. le Comte de Pluvié] (1870) Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1725 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames; the varnish is worn in the upper bout, to the right and in the middle. The ribs are plain, having a vein-line near the joint with the back plate (thus dividing the rib height into two unequal halves) around the entire length [perimeter] of the instrument. The front plate is made from two pieces; splits at the sound-post and at the treble f in the upper bout; small splits at the bass f in the lower bout. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. ex de Savalette ex Baudiot ex Jaures. The name ‘de Savalette’ possibly refers to the Marquis de Savalette de Langes (1745-1797). The identity of ‘Jaures’ is uncertain. This cello is extensively described by the Hills (Hill (1902), pp. 141-142): The “Baudiot” bass was for many years in the possession of the artiste of that name [Charles Nicolas Baudiot (1773-1849)] at whose death it was sold by his widow (in 1850) for ten thousand francs, = £400 [presumably to M. Jaures]. It subsequently passed into the hands of the Marquis de Pluvié, a most enthusiastic amateur violoncellist, who bequeathed it to his daughter, the Comtesse de Kerdrel, from whom we purchased it in 1894. […] The sides, which are of quite plain wood, in contrast to the back, which is comparatively handsome, are curiously marked by a pronounced vein or sap-mark running round them all; to the casual observer this conveys the impression that they have been heightened. The Comtesse de Kerdrel can be identified as Allyre Cécile Renée de Pluvié (1841-1921) who became Comtesse de Kerdrel at her marriage, in 1862, to Amaury M Audren de Kerdrel (1837-1921); see the previous descriptive entry for an identification of Allyre Cecile’s father. The CzAr/Tarisio ID for this cello is 40286.

***** JF55.2, p. 32 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 32 [U] (année 1870) M r Roederer, au Hâvre Violon Stradivarius 13 pouces [blank space] ligne, année 1710 Fond de deux pièces très-beau, belles éclisses. Table ayant deux cassures au bas de l’f droite dont une allant jusqu’au bord, une petite dans le haut du côté droit de la dite f et une au-dessus de chaque ouïe du bas des deux f. Belle tête. Vernis rouge doré (un peu decoloré). Geo. H. Andrews, New York, hoxzxz, 1921 88

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[JF55.2 only]

M lle Erduran son père Docteur […?] Turquie[?] New York, acheté à Rembert Wurlitzer, 1955.

(1870) M. Roederer, from Le Havre Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, [blank space] ligne, [351.9mm], year 1710 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful. Beautiful ribs. The front plate having two splits at the bottom of the treble f, one of which extends to the edge; there is a small [split] in the upper bout, treble side, [above] the aforementioned f, and one above the lower ‘eye’ of each f. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden red (a little faded). George H Andrews, New York, hoxzxz, 1921 Mlle. Erduran, his father, Doctor […?] Turkey[?]. New York, bought from Rembert Wurlitzer, 1955. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 157) confirms that this violin was acquired by George H Andrews, of New York, in 1921.

***** JF55.2, p. 32 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 32 [L] (année 1870) Madame Raillard, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1734 Fond d’une pièce, ondes larges assez vives, remontant de gauche à droite. Table de 2 pièces ayant une cassure au menton, allant du bord à l’f et une petite au-dessus, cassure à l’éclisse du C droit. Très-belle tête. Vernis jaune. Ex Pugnani 1891 M r Withers 10,000 f Vendu par Hamma à Grohmann, à Lodz, hoxzx, en 1893 (racheté par la maison en 1923, hxzxzx, et vendu à MD, axzxzz) (1870) Madame Raillard, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1734 The back plate is in one piece; wide flames, fairly bright, rising from left to right. The front plate is made from two pieces, having a split at the chin from the [plate] edge to the f, and a small [split] above; [there is another] split at the rib of the treble C. Very beautiful head. Yellow varnish. ex Pugnani 1891 M. Withers [of London], 10,000 francs Sold by Hamma to Grohmann, from Lodz [Poland], hoxzx, in 1893 (Re-bought by the firm [Caressa] in 1923, hxzxzx, and sold to Maucotel & Deschamp axzxzz). Gaetano Pugnani (1731-1798) was a violinist and a composer. A 1734 violin by Guarneri del Gesù, owned by Gaetano Pugnani and then by Madame Pugnani, is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40402). The website associates this violin with George Withers & Sons, Hamma & Co., and H Grohmann, but the associated photographs show a violin with a two-piece back plate with distinct flames which rise steeply from the centre-joint. The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 84) identify a 1734 del Gesù violin as ‘H. Grohmann, ex Pugnani’ but no physical details are provided.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 33 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 33 [U] (année 1870) M r Léon Reynier, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1729 Fond de deux pièces, petites ondes, éclisses bois pareil, petits chanteaux au fond dans le bas. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, belle tête. Vernis rouge un peu terreux. Parfaitement conservé. Ex Mozcinski 1895 Hill. (1870) M. Léon Reynier, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1729 The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames. The ribs are made of similar wood. There are small width-inserts in the lower part of the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce. Beautiful head. Red varnish, slightly muddy. Perfect conservation. ex Mozcinski 1895 Hill. Léon Reynier (1833-1895) was an 1848 winner of a Premier Prix, for violin, at the Paris Conservatoire. A Reynier violin is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41533) but the instrument’s label-date is stated to be 1727 and there is no mention of ‘Mozcinski’ as an owner. The CzAr/Tarisio photographs do not clearly reveal any width-inserts in the lower part of the violin’s two-piece back plate. Charles Beare (Beare (1993), p. 258) writes of the ‘1727’ Reynier: ‘The London dealer George Hart acquired it from an English gentleman who had bought it from Reynier’s widow […].’ This narrative sits against the JF55.2 information which suggests that the Hills acquired the violin in 1895 following the death of Léon Reynier on 5 May 1895. There is no straightforward explanation for the discrepancy between the label-dates – 1729 and 1727. No further information for ‘Mozcinski’ has been located. For another violin associated with Léon Reynier see JF55.2, p. 209.

***** JF55.2, p. 33 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 33 [L] (année 1870) M r Révenaz, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1721 Fond de 2 pièces très-beau, veines assez larges descendant, cassures en travers dans le haut, provenant de trous de vers, talon neuf. Eclisses ondes un peu moins larges. Table de 2 pièces, sapin fin au milieu, cassures à l’âme et au côté droit en haut et en bas. Tête bois uni. Vernis rouge doré. Ex Brillat-Savarin Hart, 1896, 25,000 f. (1870) M. Révenaz, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1721 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; with fairly wide flames which descend [from the centre-joint]; there are splits crossing the upper bout caused by woodworm. The neck-foot has been modified. The flames on the ribs are a little less wide [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin in the middle; there are splits at the sound-post and on the treble side in both the upper and lower bouts. The head is of plain wood. The varnish is golden red. ex Brillat-Savarin 90

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Hart, 1896, 25,000 francs. Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826) was a French lawyer, politician, and gourmet. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 235) writes extensively about this violin, identifying it as the 1721 ‘Francis Macmillen’ (photographs are ibid., p. 234). Francis Macmillen was born in 1885 in Marietta, Ohio, USA. According to a report in the Marietta Daily Times, dated 1 March 1911, Macmillen was presented with his violin – ‘valued at $7,000’ – in London by ‘Lady Palmer’. For Lady Palmer see also JF55.2, p. 53 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 34 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 34 [U] (année 1870) M r Sauzay, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1709 Fond d’une pièce, veines remontant un peu à droite, chanteaux de 4 à 5 lignes dans le bas de chaque côté. Très-belles éclisses ondes plus larges. Table de deux pièces beau sapin, cassure à l’âme, cassure au menton bouchée par un flipot, filipot, belle tête, beau vernis rouge brun. Vendu à J. Thibaud en 1902, moxzx [JF55.2 only] détruit lors de l’accident par avion sur venu à Jacques serendant au Japon. (1870) M. Sauzay, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1709 The back plate is in one piece, the flames rising slightly to the right; there are inserts, 4-5 lignes in width [c.10mm], on each side of the lower bout. Very beautiful ribs, with wider flames [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce; a split at the sound-post, and a split at the chin closed with a covering piece of wood. Beautiful head. Beautiful red-brown varnish. Sold to J Thibaud in 1902, moxzx Destroyed in the aeroplane accident in which Jacques Thibaud died (while en route to Japan). Charles Eugène Sauzay (1809-1901) was a French violinist (studied with Pierre Baillot) and composer. The next descriptive entry in JF55.2 (see below) is for another Stradivari violin (of 1721) also belonging to C E Sauzay, and this is followed by yet another violin, of 1737/1740, belonging to Sauzay’s son, Julien. Jacques Thibaud was killed on 1 September 1953 when the plane in which he was travelling crashed on its approach to the airport at Nice (southern France). Some internet sources indicate that Thibaud’s Stradivari violin was dated 1720, not 1709.

***** JF55.2, p. 34 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 34 [L] [M r Sauzay] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1721 Fond de 2 pièces veines un peu serrées remontant, tache noir du côté gauche à côté du joint à la hauteur du coin du bas, belles éclisses veines plus larges, table de deux pièces ayant pas mal de cassures. Belle tête (très-usée comme vernis). Vernis rouge doré. [M. Sauzay] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1721 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are slightly tight/narrow, rising [from the centre-joint]. There is a black blemish on the left side next to the centre-joint, level with the lower corner of the C-bout. Beautiful ribs; the flames are wider [than on the back plate]. The 91

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front plate is made from two pieces having quite a lot of splits. Beautiful head (very worn, as is the varnish). The varnish is golden red. In the JF55.2 ledger this descriptive entry is followed by two lines of additional information but these have been obliterated (with a form of correction fluid?) and are now entirely unreadable.

***** JF55.2, p. 35 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 35 [U] (année 1870) M r Julien Sauzay, Paris Violon Stradivarius fils, 13 pouces 1 ligne, portant l’étiquette de Stradivarius année 1737 et sur l’éclisse du C une étiquette autographe d’Omobonus année 1740. Fond de 2 pièces uni ayant une cassure de chaque côté du joint dans le haut, table de 2 pièces beau sapin, ayant pas mal de cassures, pièce a l’âme, belles éclisses (celle du C côté de l’âme n’en est pas) tête bois uni. Vernis rouge doré. (1870) M. Julien Sauzay, Paris Violin [made by] Stradivari’s son, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], carrying the label of [Antonio] Stradivari of the year 1737 and on the rib of the C there is an autograph label of Omobono, the year 1740. The back plate is made from two pieces of plain wood having a split on each side of the centrejoint in the upper bout. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce having quite a lot of splits and a patch at the sound-post. Beautiful ribs (the rib of the C next to the soundpost is not [beautiful]). The head is of plain wood; the varnish golden red. This violin may be the 1740 Omobono Stradivari instrument identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 49421 (but no mention is made of an internal Antonio Stradivari label of 1737 nor Omobono’s written label on the rib of the C). The website information states that the ribs are ‘of wood similar to back (the center ribs are not original).’ The website photographs suggest that the back plate is plain, likewise the wood of the head. The varnish could be described as ‘golden red’ but alternative photographs (Biddulph and Chaudière, p. 89) display a distinctly brown colour for both front and back plates. See also JF55.2, p. 141 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 35 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 35 [L] (année 1870) M r Seghers, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1717 Fond de 2 pièces, veines presque droites, cassure du côté droit partant du coin du haut à 9 lignes et allant jusqu’à bord, belles éclisses, celle du menton ayant une cassure, table de 2 pièces, bords doublés, 2 cassures au menton, une au côté droit du cordier, plusieurs en haut du côté gauche, jolie tête ayant un petit trou dans la coulisse au niveau de la cheville du La. Vernis rouge pâle. (1870) M. Seghers, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1717 The back plate is made from two pieces, the flames almost straight. There is a split on the righthand side, from the upper corner [of the C], 9 lignes [20.3mm], extending as far as the edge. Beautiful ribs; the rib of the chin having a split. The front plate is made from two pieces, with doubled edges; there are two splits at the chin, one to the right of the tail-piece, and several in 92

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the upper bout on the left. Attractive head having a small hole in the fluting, level with the Astring peg. The varnish is pale red. François Jean-Baptiste Seghers (1801-1881) was a Belgian violinist and conductor; see also JF55.2, p. 3 [U]. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies an instrument (or a bow) with the name ‘Seghers’ but, when accessed in March 2016, no publicly-available details were available. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 36 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 36 [U] (année 1870) M r Sainton, Londres Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1734 Fond de deux pièces ondes moyennes et douces ayant un petit nœud. Table de deux pièces sans cassures, écartement des f 17 lignes. Ce violon est très-grossièrement fait, mais très caractérisé. Tête ayant eu les trous rebouchés, fente au chevillier. Vernis jaune. (1870) M. Sainton, London Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1734 The back plate is made from two pieces; flames of medium [width], and mild, having a small knot. The front plate is made from two pieces, without any splits. The measurement between the [upper eyes of the] fs is 17 lignes [38.4mm]. The violin is very crudely made, but very characteristic [of Guarneri del Gesù]. The peg-holes in the head have been bushed, and there is a split in the peg-box. Yellow varnish. Edward Heron-Allen, in his volume Violin making as it was, and is, refers to this violin in footnote 1 of his Chapter XXI (p. 282): ‘The models and outlines of this chapter and of Plate V are taken in the minutest facsimile from a magnificent Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù [violin] of the date 1734, the property of M. [Prosper Philippe Catherine] Sainton. It is one of the most celebrated and characteristic instruments of this great master’s make which exists.’ Heron-Allen’s ‘Plate V’ is a life-size plan of the ‘inside mould, cramping blocks, and outline models for violin of Joseph Guarnerius, 1734, I.H.S, drawn by Edward Heron-Allen, from the violin of M. Sainton.’ Heron-Allen’s ‘Plate VI’ is a life-size plan of the centre-bout of the same violin, the plan being labelled ‘Joseph Guarnerius del Gesu 1734, from a violin of M. Sainton.’ According to this plan, the distance between the two upper eyes of the fs is 37.5mm. The Hills’ 1931 Guarneri monograph (p. 88) identifies a Guarneri violin belonging to M. Adolfo Betti (18751950) and previously to Prosper Sainton (1813-1890) but this violin is dated by the Hills to 1741. The Hills’ identification of ownership is repeated (ibid.) on p. 102, and the date of 1741 is repeated (ibid.) on p. 104. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a Sainton/Betti Guarneri violin (ID 40434) which is stated to be ‘labelled 1741’ but is attributed to ‘c.1744’. It is difficult to believe that both Charles Gand and Edward Heron-Allen could be mistaken (at the time of their writings) with regard to the label-date inside the Sainton Guarneri del Gesù violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 36 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 36 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur Soil, Moscou Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 4 lignes, année 1690

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Fond d’une pièce, veines assez vives, pas très-larges, petite cassure à l’endroit de l’étiquette. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin, ayant pas mal de cassures sous l’âme, le menton, etc. Ecartement des f 17 lignes. Jolie tête, trous des chevilles de la chanterelle et du Sol rebouchés. Vernis jaune rouge. [JF55.2 only] Vendu à M. Zinimer en 1904 pour roxzx par lui [no further text] (1870) Monsieur Soil, Moscow Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 4 lignes [360.9mm], year 1690 The back plate is in one piece; the flames fairly bright, not very wide; there is a small split in the area of the label. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin, having quite a lot of splits under the sound-post, at the chin, etc. The measurement [between the upper eyes] of the fs is 17 lignes [38.4mm]. Attractive head; the peg-holes for the ‘singing string’ [E-string] and the G-string have been bushed. The varnish is yellow-red. Sold to M. Zinimer in 1904 for roxzx by him [no further text]. The measurement of the violin’s body-length – 360.9mm – is identical to the measurement obtained by Count Cozio di Salabue on 29 May 1816 from a 1716 Stradivari violin. It is also identical to the Count’s measurements of a 1719 violin belonging to ‘Signor Molere’ and the 1724 violin which Count Cozio sold to Niccolò Paganini (see the Appendix). These violins were built around a mould which was in Count Cozio’s possession (but is no longer extant) and which was inscribed with the date 1687 (or 1681). See Chapter 2 of N. Sackman, The Messiah violin: a reliable history? (2015). See also JF55.2, p. 65 [U]. Both the Hills and Ernest Doring identify two Stradivari violins associated with Amédée Soil (Belgian Consul to Moscow): one of 1708 (also known as the Straus) and the other of 1714; see JF55.2, pp. 160 and 182.

***** JF55.2, p. 37 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 37 [U] (année 1870) M r Sarasate, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1724 Fond de 2 pièces assez beau, veines remontant, trous de vers rebouchés dans le haut à gauche principalement, belles éclisses veines un peu plus serrées, table de 2 pièces, sapin serré au milieu et s’élargissant sur les bords, cassure partant du haut de l’f gauche et allant jusqu’au bord; 2 petites fentes sous la main et une à droite du cordier, belle tête, manche original. Vernis rouge pâle décoloré. Légué au Musèe du Conservatoire en 1908. (1870) M. Sarasate, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1724 The back plate is made from two pieces; fairly beautiful, the flames rising. Worm tracks – principally in the upper bout, on the left – have been plugged with inserts. Beautiful ribs with flames which are slightly tighter/narrower [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow in the middle, widening towards the edges. There is a split from the top of the bass f extending to the edge; two small splits under the hand [upper-treble bout] and one to the right of the tail-piece. Beautiful head, original neck. The varnish is pale red, faded. Bequeathed to the Museum of the [Paris] Conservatoire in 1908. The descriptive text makes no mention of any letters inked inside the violin’s peg-box; Pablo de Sarasate’s violin (now at the Musée de la Musique, Paris) has the letters ‘PG’ inked inside the cavity. This 1724 Sarasate violin should not be confused with the Stradivari Boissier/Sarasate violin of 1713.

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Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 37 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 37 [L] (année 1870) M r Servais, Bruxelles Violoncelle Stradivarius, 19 pouces 2 lignes, année 1701 Fond de 2 pièces splendide veines larges descendant, chanteaux en haut et en bas, éclisses superbes, table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, petite fente à l’âme. Largeur de l’instrument en haut 13 pouces 6 lignes, aux C 9 pouces 5 lignes, en bas 17 pouces 3 lignes. Ecart des f 4 pouces moins 1 ligne. Longueur du diapason aux crans des f 15 pouces 9 lignes. Hauteur des éclisses en haut 4 pouces 7 lignes, en bas 4 pouces 8 lignes. Très belle tête, vernis usé. Vernis rouge doré décoloré. Très belle tête, tout son vernis, jaune ambré magnifique et doré, Ex Raoul Ex A. F. Servais M r Couteau Pce de Caraman Chimay 52,000 f Racheté en 1919 par CF: 100,000 Courvoisier, Juillet 1919, hzoxzx Vendu Courvoisier, Juillet 1919, hzoxzx, reprise vendue F. Pollain en 1919: hioxzx. (1870) M. Servais, Brussels Antonio Stradivari cello, 19 pouces 2 lignes [518.8mm], year 1701 The back plate is made from two pieces; splendid; wide flames which descend [from the centrejoint]; extra widths of wood [at the flanks] inserted in both the upper and lower bouts. Superb ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with a small split at the soundpost. The [maximum] width of the upper bout is 13 pouces 6 lignes [365.5mm]; the [minimum] width of the C-bout is 9 pouces 5 lignes [254.9mm]; the [maximum] width of the lower bout is 17 pouces 3 lignes [467mm]. The distance between [the upper ‘eyes’ of] the fs is 4 pouces minus 1 ligne [106mm]. The length of the diapason [the ‘body stop’ – from the front face of the fingerboard nut] to the [inside] notch of the fs is 15 pouces 9 lignes [426.3mm]. The height of the ribs at the upper end [at the neck-foot] is 4 pouces 7 lignes [124.1mm]; at the lower end [at the tail-piece end pin] the height is 4 pouces 8 lignes [126.4mm]. Very beautiful head, the varnish is worn. The varnish [on the body?] is golden red, faded. Very beautiful head. All the varnish [is original]; yellow-amber, magnificent and golden. ex Raoul ex A F Servais M. Couteau [Joseph] Prince de [Caraman-] Chimay [1858-1937], 52,000 francs Re-bought in 1919 by Caressa & Français: 100,000 Courvoisier, July 1919, hzoxzx Sold to Courvoisier, July 1919, hzoxzx; re-acquired and sold to [Ferdinand] Pollain in 1919: hioxzx. The Hills specify the dimensions of the Servais cello as: Upper bout 143/8 inches [365.1mm] Centre bout is not specified by the Hills but specified by Roger Hargrave (see below) as 255mm Lower bout 18½ inches [470mm] Ribs (upper) 47/8 inches [123.8mm] Ribs (lower) 5 inches [127mm] Body Stop 16¾ inches [425.4mm]

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The measurement given in the descriptive text for the distance between the upper eyes of the fs – 106mm – is exactly confirmed by Roger Hargrave: http://www.roger-hargrave.de/PDF/Artikel/Strad/Artikel_1987_12_Stradivari_Antonio_Servais_PDF.pdf According to the historical information supplied by the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 123) and by Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 109-111) this cello was owned by a French statesman, lawyer, and cellist, Jean-Marie Raoul (previous owners of the instrument being unknown); after M. Raoul’s death in 1837 the cello passed to J-B Vuillaume. Information on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40273) indicates that the cellist Adrien-François Servais (18061866) obtained this instrument from ‘Prince Nicholas Yusupov’. Prince Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov (17511831) married Tatiana Vasilievna von Englehardt (1769-1841) in 1793. The historical narrative supplied by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 109 and 111) and by Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. II, p. 132) indicates that Servais received the cello as a gift which had been promised by Princess Tatiana; the cello was presented to Servais notwithstanding the death of the Princess. The date of the descriptive text points towards ‘M. Servais’ being Joseph Servais (1850-1885) the son of Adrien-François.

***** JF55.2, p. 38 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 38 [U] (année 1870) M r Tattegrain, Amiens Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1685, Amatisé Beau fond d’une pièce à contresens, belles éclisses, table ayant trois cassures au menton, dont une allant jusqu’en haut, plusieurs cassures aussi du côté de l’âme. Jolie tête, presqu’unie. Vernis jaune doré. Vendu à Hill en 1898, hoxzx. (1870) M. Tattegrain, Amiens Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1685, Amatisé Beautiful one-piece back plate, cut against the grain. Beautiful ribs. The front plate having three splits at the chin, of which one extends into the upper bout; also several splits on the sound-post side. Attractive head, [the wood] almost plain. The varnish is golden yellow. Sold to Hill in 1898, hoxzx. See JF55.2, p. 132 [U] for a more detailed description of what is likely the same violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 38 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 38 [L] (année 1870) M r Tuvache, Rouen Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne ½, année 1701 Fond de 2 pièces veines douces presque droites, veines dans le bas à droite faisant l’effet d’un chanteau d’1 pouce de large, petit nœud à côté, petite pièce triangulaire à mi-bois au bord, du côté gauche en bas, la pointe s’arrêtant au filet. Talon neuf. Au-dessus du talon, à partir du filet un ½ cercle de 28 lignes de diamètre tracé au compas. Eclisses veines plus larges et plus vives. Table de deux pièces, sapin très-serré au milieu et large sur les bords, cassures à l’âme et au menton. Voûte un peu étroite, belle tête un peu usée du côté de la cheville du La. Vernis rouge clair. 187 M r Laurie 187 M r Engelhard, Francfort 1900 Edler l’a acheté pour aoxzx 1904 Vendu à M r Koenigswarther à Francfort, roxzx M. 96

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

(1870) M. Tuvache, Rouen Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1½ lignes [355.3mm], year 1701 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames mild, almost straight; vein-lines [or saplines] in the lower bout, on the right, give the appearance of an insert, one pouce [27mm] in width; there is a small knot at the side and a small triangular patch halfway to the edge on the lower-left side, the tip [of the patch] finishing at the purfling. Modified neck-foot. Above [around] the neck-foot, starting from the purfling, there is a semicircle, 28 lignes in diameter [63.3mm], inscribed with a compass. The ribs have flames which are wider and brighter [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow in the middle, wide at the edges; there are splits at the sound-post and at the chin. The arching is slightly narrow [?concentrated in the centre of the front plate]. Beautiful head, slightly worn on the side of the A-string peg. The varnish is light red. 187 M. Laurie 187 M. Engelhard, Frankfurt 1900 Edler bought it for aoxzx 1904 Sold to M. Koenigswarther, from Frankfurt, roxzx Marks. Charles F Edler was a violin dealer based in Frankfurt. The violin appears on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 41312, the Circle/Nachéz. The associated photograph of the back plate reveals the inscribed semicircle and the lower-right knot, but does not reveal the ‘small triangular patch’. See JF55.2, p. 153 for a description of a 1701 violin which, very likely, is the same instrument.

***** JF55.2, p. 39 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 39 [U] (année 1870) M r Vieuxtemps, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1710 Fond d’une piece très-beau, veines assez larges, très-belles éclisses, celle du bas côté du menton ayant quelques marques de trous de vers et l’autre une petite cassure auprès du bouton, table de 2 pièces beau sapin un peu serré au milieu, petite cassure et pièce à l’âme. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. 1884 M r le duc de Camposelice 20,000 f D r Geissmar à Francfort Maunheim, acheté 32,000 M. en 1899 à Hamma (1870) M. Vieuxtemps, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1710 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful, the flames fairly wide. Very beautiful ribs; the lower-bout rib at the side of the chin showing some evidence of woodworm, and the other [lower-bout rib] has a small split next to the end pin. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce; [?the rings are] slightly tight/narrow in the middle; there is a small split and a patch at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. 1884 M. le Duc de Camposelice, 20,000 francs Dr Geissmar, of Frankfurt Mannheim, bought [the violin] for 32,000 Marks, in 1899, from Hamma. Henri Vieuxtemps (1820-1881) was a Belgian violinist and composer. Isabella Eugénie Boyer (b. 1841) married Isaac Singer (the founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Co.) in 1863; Isaac died in 1875. In 1879 Isabella married a violinist, Jan Victor Nicolas Reubsaet, who subsequently claimed the title of Vicomte d’Estenburgh and then, in 1881, received the title of Duc de Camposelice.

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On the CzAr/Tarisio website this 1710 violin is identified as ID 41359. Information which was web-published by the dealers Darnton and Hersh included an historical narrative sourced from the Hills: Mr. Hohenmensen, who is a banker, referred to Geissmar, the lawyer of Mannheim, with whom we did business some years ago, and who now owns the Vieuxtemps Strad, which we sold to Percy Woodgate for £800, and he sold it to Hart for £1,400, and Hart sold to Hamma for £1,500. Dr. Geissmar gave the last named 31,000 Marks for it, so the man who made the great profit was the private person, Woodgate, all the dealers coming off second best. When we sold the violin on behalf of the Duchess de Camposelice to Woodgate, I think we got about £100 out of the transaction. According to the Darnton and Hersh website Stradivari’s 1710 Vieuxtemps violin remained in the possession of the Geissmar family for more than 100 years. Some further information about the violin appears in Henley (p. 52).

***** JF55.2, p. 39 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 39 [L] [M r Vieuxtemps] (année 1870) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1741 Fond de deux pièces, veines presque droites, éclisses plus unies, table de 2 pièces très-bien conservée (petites fentes aux f). Belle tête. Vernis rouge jaune. 1884 M r le duc de Camposelice 20,000. [M. Vieuxtemps] (1870) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1741 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames almost straight. The ribs are plainer. The front plate is made from two pieces; very well conserved (small splits at the fs). Beautiful head. The varnish is red-yellow. 1884 M. le Duc de Camposelice, 20,000. This violin – the Vieuxtemps – is now (2015) in the hands of the violinist Anne Akiko Meyers, having been bought for her by an anonymous benefactor from the philanthropist Ian Stoutzker (who acquired the violin in 1966). This violin is ID 40433 on the CzAr/Tarisio website. According to the website, the sequence of ownership during the nineteenth century was: Until 1804: Giacomo Antonio Monzino Until 1858: Dr [Joseph Charles?] Benziger [1799-1873; book publisher] 1858: Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume 1870: Henri Vieuxtemps 1881-1884: Eugène Ysaÿe 1884-1891: Duc de Camposelice 1891-1927: Maurice Sons On 30 December 1822 Il Conte Cozio di Salabue wrote a description of a 1741 Giuseppe Guarneri violin (BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 47, folio 114r); it is thought that Count Cozio’s violin is today’s Vieuxtemps violin but the date of 1822 sits against the dates specified in the CzAr/Tarisio history (above): Descrizione violino del eredi del Consigliere [?], nipote del Pressto[?] Ghiringhello da lui l’accomperai colla cassa, del Joseph Guarnerius col bollo solito e biglietto originale del 1741 […] Description of the violin belonging to the heirs of Counsellor [?], nephew [or grandson] of [?] Ghiringhello, obtained from him, with a case, of Giuseppe Guarneri, with the usual stamp and an original label of 1741.

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The back plate is made from two pieces of maple, rather beautiful. The neck-button is small, flattened (through heavy usage) on the left side on the side of the ‘singing’ string [the E-string]. In the back plate there are two locating pins, the lower pin being adjacent to the purfling while the upper pin is underneath/within the purfling. The ribs are made of similar foreign wood. The back plate, the ribs, and the neck are all in good condition. The front plate is made from pine with very narrow, but consistent, rings; it seems in good condition but there is a (well-repaired) crack at the end of the f on the bass side. […] The archings are rather elevated, especially in the front plate, and extend as far as the purfling (except on the back plate where the arching is flatter in the lower third [i.e. the lower bout]). […] The height of the ribs is 1 polici, 2½ ponti [32.7mm] in the lower part and 1 polici, 1½ ponti [30.5mm] in the upper part. […] Red varnish, but extensively worn in the upper and lower [bouts] especially in the lower third of the back plate down to the tail-piece end pin. Overall, the violin is not beautiful. (present author’s translation)

Count Cozio continues: Le grosezze […] sono nel fondo sufficienti, e nel coperchio mancanti per cui piega sotto il ponticello (‘The thicknesses […] in the back plate are satisfactory but are deficient [too thin] in the front plate which, as a result, is bending underneath the bridge’). With respect to the violin’s voice, Count Cozio writes: La sua voce è più tosto forte e purgata come stato molto suonato (‘The violin’s voice is quite strong and clear, due to it having been played so much’). In February 1823 Count Cozio included a 1741 Guarneri violin within an inventory of thirty-four instruments, this collection then being deposited with his Milanese banker, Carlo Carli, to be sold; this date of 1823 also sits against the CzAr/Tarisio history (see above). The Count’s brief 1823 description (BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 73) of this 1741 Guarneri violin is: Guarnerio Giuseppe (detto del Gesù nipote d’Andrea) intatto, fondo in due pezzi, vernice rossa, già molto suonato, dell anno 1741 Giuseppe Guarneri (this ‘del Gesù’ being the nephew [or grandson] of Andrea), undamaged, back plate in two pieces, red varnish, already much played, of the year 1741. This violin was evidently sold (on an unknown date and to an unknown person) since there is no mention of the instrument in the inventory of ‘left-over’ instruments and artefacts which was drawn up by Giuseppe Carli (Carlo Carli’s son) in 1841 after the death of Count Cozio in December 1840. See JF55.2, p. 47 [L] for the 1742 Guarneri violin which, although owned and used by Henri Vieuxtemps for fifteen years, does not carry his name as its soubriquet.

***** JF55.2, p. 40 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 40 [U] (année 1870) M r Wilmotte, Anvers Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1704 Fond de 2 pièces très-beau, ondes larges remontant, très-belles éclisses, table beau sapin un peu plus serré auprès du joint. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré magnifique. Complètement intact (une petite raie dans le vernis du fond à 9 lignes du joint du côté droit dans la longueur du C). Ex Betts (7,000 f) 1873 M r C. G. Meïer de Londres (15,000 f) 187 M r Hart, Londres 1886 duc de Camposelice (30,000 f) Zweifeld 50,000 f Vendu par Freemann en U.S.A., 1,200,000 f en 1924 à [no further text] (1870) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1704 99

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful, with wide flames, rising [from the centre-joint]. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce; [?the rings are] slightly tight/narrow next to the centre-joint. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red; magnificent. Completely intact (a small scratch in the varnish of the back plate 9 lignes [20mm] from the joint, on the right-hand side, for the length of the C). ex [Arthur] Betts (7,000 francs) 1873 M. C G Meïer, of London (15,000 francs) 187 M. Hart, London 1886 Duc de Camposelice (30,000 francs) Zweifeld 50,000 francs Sold by [Jay C.] Freeman in the USA, 1,200,000 francs, in 1924, to [no further text]. All the descriptive evidence is confirmed by photographs of the 1704 Betts Stradivari violin (now at the US Library of Congress); see CzAr/Tarisio ID 40118. ‘Zweifeld’ is identified on the website as Jacques Zweifel. Charles Wilmotte was a Belgian violinist (1817-1893). In 1827 he entered the École Royale de Musique de Liège (which, in 1831, became the Conservatoire Royal de Musique). In 1834 Wilmotte was awarded the Premier Prix for violin, and subsequently became the leader of the orchestra at L’Opéra in Paris. Subsequently settling in Antwerp, Wilmotte was appointed leader of the orchestra at the Théâtre Royal de la Ville, but, inheriting a fortune, he gave up on his performing career and devoted some of his wealth to collecting violins.

***** JF55.2, p. 40 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 40 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1715 Fond d’une pièce splendide, ondes larges descendant un peu à droite. Très-belles éclisses. Table très-beau, sapin bien égal. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré magnifique. Complètement intact. Ex de Barrau (7,000 f) 1873 M r D. A. Meïer, Londres (10,000 f) 1881 M r Joachim, 45,000. [M. Wilmotte] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1715 The back plate is in one piece; splendid; wide flames which descend slightly to the right. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is very beautiful, the spruce [?rings are] nicely uniform. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red; magnificent. Completely intact. ex de Barrau (7,000 francs) 1873 M. D A Meïer, London (10,000 francs) 1881 M. Joachim, 45,000. D A Meïer would appear to be Dietrich A Meïer, the son(?) of C G Meïer. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 272) state that Joseph Joachim (1831-1907) obtained his first Stradivari violin, labeldated 1714, in 1849 (see also Henley, p. 58). Joachim subsequently exchanged this violin for the 1715 de Barrau violin (which is dated on the CzAr/Tarisio website to 1714 (ID 41389)). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 60) state that Joachim possessed three Stradivari violins of 1715, these instruments being identified as the ‘ex Barrou’, the ‘ex Joachim-Aranyi’, and the ‘ex Harold Joachim’ (now identified as the Cremonese for which see JF55.2, p. 13 [U]).

***** 100

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

JF55.2, p. 41 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 41 [U] (année 1870) M r Wilmotte, Anvers (suite) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 5 lignes, année 1694 (longuet) Fond de 2 pièces veines un peu serrées, belles éclisses, table sapin serré, plus larges sur les bords dans le bas, belle tête usée dans le haut du côté gauche en regardant le fond, en 1888 la tête a été changée par Laurie. Vernis brun doré un peu usé sur la table. Complètement intact. 1881 M r G. Meïer, Londres (10,000 f) 1891 M r Van de Weghe, 16,000 (avec la tête primitive à laquelle on a ajusté une grande pièce à l’endroit usé (porte la date de 1696 (surchargé) l f [JF55.2 only] 1897 vendu H des Ventes 25,000 . (1870) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp, (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 5 lignes [363.2mm], year 1694 (long pattern) The back plate is made from two pieces, the flames slightly tight/narrow. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from tight/narrow spruce; [?the rings are] wider at the edges in the lower bout. Beautiful head, worn on the upper-left side (viewed from the rear); in 1888 the head was changed by [David] Laurie. The varnish is golden brown, a little worn on the front plate. Completely intact. 1881 M. G Meïer, London (10,000 francs) 1891 M. van der Weghe, 16,000 (with the original head to which has been added a large patch at the worn area, [the violin now] (showing a label-date of 1696 ([1694 being] over-written). 1897 sold at the auction house [Hôtel Drouot, Paris?], 25,000 francs. This violin has been identified as the 1694 ex-Muir Mackenzie (further Stradivari violins which belonged to the Muir Mackenzie family, and which are identified by that name, are dated 1730 and 1736). Kenneth Augustus Muir Mackenzie was born in 1845 and died in 1930; his wife, Amelia, died in 1900, and their only son died the following year; there were three daughters – Margaret Mary (1879-1958), Dorothea Frances (b. 1881), and Magdalen (1884-1971). William Henley (Henley, p. 29) states that Lady Muir-Mackenzie presented the violin to her husband in 1896. The CzAr/Tarisio chronology of ownership (ID 40775) places this violin with ‘Lady Muir Mackenzie’ between 1902 and 1920. Two distinguishing features of this violin are 1) its extreme length, and 2) the spelling of ‘Antonius’ as ‘Antonins’ on the internal label. The ‘Antonins’ spelling is confirmed in an ex-Muir Mackenzie poster published by The Strad (the commentary written by Roger Hargrave) which included a colour photograph of the 1694 label. The first two numerals – I6 – are printed; the third numeral – 6 – is printed but modified (as was Stradivari’s habit) to show as a 9, and the fourth numeral is hand-drawn as an entirely unambiguous 4; there is no visible evidence for the 1694 label-date being overwritten to show 1696. The descriptive text (above) makes no mention of an ‘Antonins’ spelling on the violin’s label. Hargrave’s poster-commentary mentions ‘a small repair to the pegbox’ but not a ‘large patch’ on the upper-left side of the head (when viewed from the rear).

***** JF55.2, p. 41 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 41 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1693 Fond d’une pièce ondes larges, descendant un peu à droite, belles éclisses, celle de gauche en bas ayant été cassée près du coin de la table (il y a 2 petits morceaux). Table beau sapin un peu large, cassure à l’âme, une au coin droit en bas et une à gauche du menton, belle tête, bois peu ondé. Vernis rouge brun doré magnifique. Ex Garcia, de Cadix 1885 M r G. Meïer, Londres (30,000 f). 101

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[M. Wilmotte] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1693 The back plate is in one piece; wide flames descending slightly to the right. Beautiful ribs; the rib on the lower-left side having been broken near the corner of the front plate (there are two tiny patches). The front plate is made from beautiful spruce; [?the rings are] slightly wide, with a split at the sound-post, [a split] at the lower-right corner, and [a split] to the left of the chin. Beautiful head, the wood [only] slightly flamed. The varnish is golden red-brown; magnificent. ex Garcia, of Cadiz 1885 M. G Meïer, London (30,000 francs). The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a Stradivari violin of 1722 (ID 40527) – ‘original label Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis Faciebat Anno 1722’ – which it names as Cadiz/Willmotte and, in the associated ‘Notes’, cites Charles Gand as having specified the violin’s date as 1693. If the 1693 violin described above is the same as the 1722 Cadiz/Wilmotte violin then the reason for Gand’s inexplicable mis-identification of the date is unknown. The first owner of the 1722 violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as Bernardo Darham who owned the violin between 1820 and 1860. The name of Bernardo Darham appears in the Spanish newspaper La Tertulia (20 May 1849) indicating that he had recently been a guest conductor of the Philharmonic Society of Cadiz. Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. IV, p. 4) provides high-quality photographs and an extended history for a ‘c.1722 Cadiz/Cannon/Wilmotte’ violin. This history does not mention ‘Garcia, of Cadiz’, the ‘Cadiz’ element within the violin’s soubriquet being the result of Bernardo Darham being a resident of Cadiz. It is indicated that Darham also owned a 1720 Stradivari violin; for this instrument see JF55.2, p. 30 [U] where the violin is identified as ‘ex Garcia, of Cadiz’. Doring (Doring, p. 247) writes briefly about the ‘Cadiz ex Wilmotte’ violin of 1722.

***** JF55.2, p. 42 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 42 [U] (année 1870) M r Wilmotte, Anvers (suite) Alto Stradivarius, 15 pouces 4 lignes, année 1696 Fond d’une pièce très-beau, ondes montant un peu à droite avec un nœud peu visible dans le milieu de la partie du haut, belles éclisses, ondes un peu plus serrées, table sapin serré, 2 petites cassures à l’âme, très-belle tête. Vernis brun doré magnifique. 1873 (M r Bonjour, Abel) 7,000 f 1873 M r Muntz, de Birmingham 9,400 f. (1870) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp, (continuing) Antonio Stradivari viola, 15 pouces 4 lignes [415.1mm], year 1696 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful, the flames rising slightly to the right; with a knot, just visible, in the middle of the upper bout. Beautiful ribs, the flames slightly tighter/narrower [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from tight/narrow spruce, with two small splits at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden brown; magnificent. 1873 M. Abel Bonjour, 7,000 francs. 1873 M. Muntz, of Birmingham, 9,400 francs. Abel Bonjour was a cellist. George Frederick Muntz (1794-1857) was an industrialist and a member of Parliament; the ‘M. Muntz’ identified above would appear to have been one of his seven sons.

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This viola is the 1696 Archinto which, it seems, passed from Muntz to John Rutson; Rutson subsequently bequeathed the viola to the Royal Academy of Music, in London. The bequest was formulated in 1890 but only activated on the death of Rutson in 1906 (information from the RAM website, accessed May 2015). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 101) identify a 1696 viola ‘known as the “Archinto”, from having belonged to a Count of that name […]. We presume he was the “Conte Giuseppe Archinto” […].’ Elsewhere (ibid., p. 276) the Hills supplement this information with: Count Archinto, of Milan, who died about 1860, was the possessor of a quartet of Stradivari instruments, afterwards purchased by Vuillaume for, we believe, 15,000 francs. The tenor [viola] of this quartet is the fine example [the Archinto] now owned by Mr. Rutson; […]. The Hills’ description (ibid., p. 101) of the Archinto viola is brief: The “Archinto” viola is equally beautiful, presenting a number of interesting variations on the previous example [the Spanish Court decorated viola], though the maple used is very similar; the arching of the model is fuller, the corners longer. These, added to the neat edge and graceful purfling, again reflect Amati’s teaching. The head and sound-holes remain distinctly Stradivarian, and the varnish is of a lustrous red, perhaps the most brilliant in appearance of any used on the violas. The Hills make no mention of the most distinguishing feature of the Archinto viola – the significant lowering of the height of the ribs (see below). The earliest and most detailed description of what must be the present-day Archinto viola comes from Il Conte Cozio di Salabue, writing on 29 October 1816 (Biblioteca Statale di Cremona, LC, ms. Cozio 47, folio 93r; translation by the present author): I have seen the viola of the late Antonio Stradiuari, with a label – spelled correctly with a ‘u’ – dated 1696, previously with Signor Conte Carlo Gambara of Brescia, currently with Conte [Giuseppe] Archinto of Milan, who paid him [Conte Gambara] 106 Luigi [2,120 francs] through Serrafino Trivelli, musician from Brescia. Description: the workmanship, overall, is very beautiful, in eighteenth-century style. The red varnish, in many areas, has already been lost through heavy usage. The source-mould is the ‘C.V.’ which was made especially for the Grand Duke of Tuscany on 4 October 1690 [...]. The height of the ribs progressively reduces; at the neck the rib measures one polici and two ponti [31.6mm]; at the [tail-piece] end pin the rib measures polici one and ponti three [33.9mm] and thus it can be seen that, at an earlier date, the rib height was reduced by about two ponti [4.5mm]. The upper rib-linings have been reduced by about half of their height [normally c.8mm], and the hole for the [tail-piece] end pin is [therefore] no longer central within the height of the rib. David Rattray (Rattray, p. 60) specifies the current Archinto rib heights as 31.7mm and 34.6mm (cf. Count Cozio’s measurements of 31.6mm and 33.9mm); the usual rib height for a viola is c.37-39mm. Continuing with Count Cozio’s descriptive commentary: The rib on the side of the ‘singing string’ [the viola’s ‘A’ string] is broken in the upper part. The bass-bar has already been changed – badly. The two-piece top plate, of foreign wood, has very narrow veins [rings], with a crack above the sound-post and another in the area of the fourth string [the C string], below the left corner, more than one oncia in length, [the crack] created when, at a prior date, the top was removed. The first [crack] is reinforced with an oval patch. [One oncia was approximately 45mm in length.]

The fs are beautiful and [the wings are] hollowed at their lower end; that of the ‘singing’ string [i.e. the treble f] is set higher than the other and closer to the edge by a half of one ponto [1.13mm]. The width of the edges [outside of the purfling] is two ponti [4.5mm].

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[David Rattray, ibid., specifies the bout edge ‘thickness’ of the Archinto viola as 4.5mm.]

The back plate is in one piece, beautiful flames [...?] but not too wide, with two thin dowels in the purfling for improved fastening [of the lower plate] to the [upper and lower] blocks. The neck is good, a little worn [...]. The archings are adequately elevated and well graduated. Francesco Mantegazza told me that he recently saw the viola in Milan, at Signor Alessandro Rolla’s residence, and heard it being played; the tone was good but there was not much of it.

***** JF55.2, p. 42 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 42 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1870) Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces 5 lignes, année 1689 Fond de 2 pièces très beau, (veines à peu près de 4 lignes) belles éclisses, celle sous la main ayant eu des trous de vers rebouchés ainsi que celle du bas du côté opposé (jambe droite), table de 2 pièces, très-beau sapin, 2 petites cassures à l’âme, très-belle tête, trous rebouchés avec des pièces octogones du côté des têtes des chevilles, et rondes au petit bout. Vernis rouge brun doré magnifique. 1873 M r Abel Bonjour, 13,000 f 1887 M r Delsart (vente Bonjour) 19,000 f ex Archinto Acheté entre H.S.C. pour rxzxz, Janvier 1907 Vendu à M r Gaillard à Marseille par Silvestre en Juillet 1907 B Kingmann en 1932. En Juillet 1932 appartient à M r Russel B. Kingman Esq., Orange, New Jersey. r [JF55.2 only] 1938 M Brown, Rhode Island à Providence, USA. [M. Wilmotte] (1870) Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces 5 lignes [769.3mm], year 1689 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the flames are about 4 lignes [9mm] [apart]. Beautiful ribs; that under the hand [i.e. the cellist’s left hand] having had worm holes patched, as has the lower rib on the opposite side [i.e. next to the cellist’s] (right leg). The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce, with two small splits at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The [peg-] holes have been bushed with octagonal inserts at the side of the peg-heads; there are circular inserts at the small tip [of each peg]. The varnish is golden redbrown; magnificent. 1873 M. Abel Bonjour, 13,000 francs 1887 M. [Jules] Delsart (at the [posthumous] Bonjour auction) 19,000 francs ex Archinto Bought between H.S.C. [Hill, Silvestre, Caressa & Français] for rxzxz, January 1907 Sold to M. Gaillard, from Marseille, by Silvestre in July 1907 B Kingmann in 1932. In July 1932 owned by M. Russell B Kingman, of Orange, New Jersey. 1938 M. Brown, Rhode Island, Providence, USA. This cello is also known today as an Archinto instrument. As with the viola itemised above, the cello apparently remained with the Archinto family for more than 150 years until the death of Il Conte Giuseppe Archinto in 1861. After the death of Abel Bonjour, in 1886, all his instruments and bows were auctioned at the Hôtel Drouot in Paris on 5 February 1887; the 1689 Stradivari cello was bought by Jules Delsart (a Professor at the Paris

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Conservatoire) for 19,000 francs (see le Ménestrel, issue dated 13-19 February 1887). Subsequently the cello was taken to America (as is indicated in the annotations to the descriptive text). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 117) imply that this Archinto cello had been reduced in size: The remaining examples known to us have all been reduced in size – in some cases satisfactorily and judiciously, in others not so. The “Archinto” bass [cello], dated 1689 [… is an] excellent example. Information from the American firm of Robertson and Sons (displayed on the CzAr/Tarisio website, ID 40269) implies that the Archinto cello has not been reduced: ‘[Stradivari’s] early cellos were made of large dimensions and most have been reduced in size, however, this [1689] cello remains slightly over 30 inches’ [therefore ‘slightly over’ 762mm]. In an Archinto monograph, written by John Dilworth (Usk Publishing, 2014), the back length of the cello is specified (p. 41) as 768.2mm. Photographic evidence within the monograph shows circular bushings at the small-tip end of the tuning pegs; on the other side of the peg-box the peg-heads obscure any sight of octagonal bushings.

***** JF55.2, p. 43 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 43 [U] (année 1870) [1871 in Gand] M r Wilmotte, Anvers (suite) Violon Stradivarius 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 17 Fond d’une pièce, veines douces montant de gauche à droite, trous de vers bouchés au mastic dans deux endroits au milieu et dans le bas. Table ayant plusieurs cassures à l’âme, à la barre, et au bouton, usure faite par l’archet du côté gauche, belle tête, vernis rouge doré clair. Ex Dessöer (2,400) 1877 M r C. G. Meïer, Londres (12,000 f). (1870/1871) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp, (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 17 The back plate is in one piece; mild flames rising from left to right; worm tracks plugged with mastic in two areas in the middle, and in the lower bout. The front plate having several splits at the sound-post, at the bass-bar, and at the end pin; wear and tear caused by the bow on the left[?] side. Beautiful head. The varnish is light golden-red. ex Dessöer (2,400) 1877 M. C G Meïer, London (12,000 francs). ‘Dessöer’ may be F J Desöer, who was active in Paris at the end of the eighteenth century as a book publisher; see also JF55.2, p. 47 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 43 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 43 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1870) Violon Stradivarius 13 pouces [blank space] lignes, année 1713 Fond d’une pièce très-beau, veines droites assez larges, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, assez bien conservée, belle tête. Vernis rouge magnifique. Ex de Sancy (4,500) 1873 M r Gleichauf de Francfort (5,000 f) (Laurie) 188 M r le duc de Camposelice, 17,000 1909 Kubelik l’à acheté chez Hill, 37,500

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Rolland Leloup de Sancy, 62 Rue de Monceau, Paris, possède 1 Stradivarius violon, renseignement année 1923 (Andreef). [M. Wilmotte] (1870) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [blank space] lignes, year 1713 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful, the flames are straight and fairly wide. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, fairly well conserved. Beautiful head. The varnish is red, magnificent. ex de Sancy [de Rolland] (4,500) 1873 M. Gleichauff, of Frankfurt (5,000 francs) (Laurie) 188 M. le Duc de Camposelice, 17,000 1909 [Jan?] Kubelik bought it from W. E. Hill & Sons, 37,500 Rolland Leloup de Sancy, 62 rue de Monceau, Paris, possesses one Stradivari violin, this information [received] in the year 1923 [from?] (Andreef). This 1713 violin is now identified as the Sancy/Kubelik (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40491); the website specifies the back length to be 355mm (source and methodology unknown). See JF55.2, p. 20 [U] for a Stradivari violin of 1726 which was also owned by M. le Baron Leloup de Sancy (de Rolland) and subsequently owned by Alexis Andreef (a.k.a. Alexis Andrejeus).

***** JF55.2, p. 44 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 44 [U] (année 1874) M r Wilmotte, Anvers (suite) Violon Stradivarius 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1708 Fond d’une pièce magnifique ondes très-larges, descendant à droite, très-belles éclisses, table de 2 pièces ayant 2 petites cassures à l’âme et une à la barre, une au-dessus de l’f gauche. Tête jolie ayant une pièce à la joue, à la cheville du La. Beau vernis rouge brun doré. 8,000 f ex Guichard, de Lyon. (1874) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp, (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1708 The back plate is in one piece; magnificent; the flames very wide and descending to the right. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces, having two small splits at the sound-post, [another split] at the bass-bar, and one above the bass f. Attractive head, having a patch in the cheek [the peg-box wall] at the A-string peg. Beautiful varnish, golden red-brown. 8,000 francs ex Guichard, of Lyon. Neither the Hills, nor Ernest Doring, nor the CzAr/Tarisio website has any information for M. Guichard; the website does not list a 1708 Stradivari violin as having belonged to Charles Wilmotte.

***** JF55.2, p. 44 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 44 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1878) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1677 Fond d’une pièce très-beau, ondes larges, éclisses même bois, table ayant quelques cassures, écartement des f 15 lignes. Incrustations de ronds et losanges en ivoire sur fond noir, dans un 106

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double filet en bordure au fond et à la table. Rinceaux incrustés en noir sur les éclisses et la tête. Vernis jaune doré nuance Amati. Ex Grosjean (10,000) 1895 Bovet, amxzx 1921 Laberte, haxzxz 1922 acheté par Caressa nxzxz, vendu à Marc Laberte à Mirecourt, haxzxz (nommi Le Lever du Soleil). [M. Wilmotte] (1878) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1677 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful, with wide flames. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate has some splits. The distance [between the upper eyes] of the fs is 15 lignes [33.9mm]. There are inlays of ivory discs and lozenges on a black base, within double purfling, at the border of both the back and front plates. There are floral designs, in black, inlaid on the ribs and on the head. The varnish is golden yellow – an Amati colour. ex Grosjean (10,000). 1895 Bovet, amxzx 1921 Laberte, haxzxz 1922 bought by Caressa, nxzxz, sold to Marc Laberte, of Mirecourt, haxzxz (named ‘The Sunrise’). This instrument is ID 40931 on the CzAr/Tarisio website. High quality photographs and a more detailed historical narrative can be found in Thöne, Vol. I, pp. 96-103; measurements provided by Jost Thöne specify the dimension between the upper eyes of the fs as 33mm. The violin is briefly described in Henley (p. 20).

***** JF55.2, p. 45 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 45 [U] (année 1878) M r Wilmotte, Anvers (suite) Violon Stradivarius 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1700 (Amatisé) Joli fond d’une pièce à contresens, ayant une petite cassure à droite du talon, jolies éclisses sur mailles, celle du bas cassée au tasseau près de l’f droite, table beau sapin, bien conservée. Jolie tête, vernis jaune doré. Ex Midleton. (1878) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp, (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1700 (Amatisé) Attractive back plate in one piece, cut against the grain, having a small split to the right of the neck-foot. Attractive ribs cut ‘on the cross’, the lower rib broken at the block near the treble f. The front plate is of beautiful spruce, well conserved. Attractive head. The varnish is golden yellow. ex Midleton. No further information about this violin has been located. The name ‘Midleton’ (‘Middleton’?) is unknown to the CzAr/Tarisio website, also unknown to Doring and to the Hills. The website’s listing of 21 instruments associated with Charles Wilmotte does not include a Stradivari violin of 1700.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 45 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 45 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1878) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1721 Fond d’une pièce, veines larges remontant à droite, éclisses veines plus serrées, celle du C droit ayant un petit trou ovale rebouché,(a) celle du haut opposée à la main ayant trois petites cassures. Table de 2 pièces ayant une cassure au bas de l’f droite, très-belle tête (joues neuves). Vernis rouge doré magnifique. (Ex Halma) Ex Dancla (9,000 f) 188 M r Labitte, 17,500 f 1888 M r Croal (Edimbourg) l’étiquette a été changée et porte le date 1710 [JF55.2 only] Nathan Milstein. [M. Wilmotte] (1878) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1721 The back plate is in one piece; wide flames rising to the right; the flames of the ribs are tighter/narrower. The rib of the right–hand C having a small oval hole, plugged;(a) the upper rib on the side opposite the hand having three small splits. The front plate is made from two pieces, having a split at the bottom of the treble f. Very beautiful head (new cheeks). The varnish is golden red; magnificent. (ex Halma) ex Dancla (9,000 francs) 188 M. Labitte, 17,500 francs 1888 M. Croall (Edinburgh); the label has been changed and [now] shows the date 1710 Nathan Milstein [1904-1992]. (a)

At this point Gand draws an oval shape – a flattened ‘O’; the drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4. See JF55.2, p. 99 [U] for what may be an explanatory narrative from David Laurie. This violin has an uncertain identity. The CzAr/Tarisio website does not list a Stradivari violin of 1721 or 1710 as having been in the possession of Charles Wilmotte. The name of (Hilaire E) Halma is not mentioned by Ernest Doring, nor by the Hill brothers. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies an instrument, or a bow, which is associated with ‘Halma’ but no publicly-available details were available (as of November 2015). A Dancla/Milstein violin of 1710 is listed on the Tarisio website (ID 43077) but the photographs show a twopiece back plate with the flames rising from the centre-joint. Photographs provided by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 152) show the same two-piece back plate. A C-rib oval hole is not mentioned in the three certificates which have been issued for the 1710 Dancla/Milstein violin (two-piece back plate): Hill (1934), Wurlitzer (1934), and Herrmann (1946); these certificates are reproduced in Antonio Stradivari in Japan (Yokoyama). All three certificates state that the two-piece Dancla/Milstein violin contains its ‘original label’ of 1710; the varnish is described as ‘orange-brown’ (Hill), ‘a rich golden yellow’ (Wurlitzer), and ‘a golden orange-brownish color’ (Herrmann). Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 153) specifies a ‘rich orange-brown varnish’. Clearly, the 1710 two-piece Dancla/Milstein violin has no connection with Charles Wilmotte’s one-piece 1721/1710 violin (as described above). The CzAr/Tarisio website presents the following sequence of ownership for the 1710 Dancla/Milstein: the names of Halma, Labitte, and Croall do not appear in this list: until 1870 in 1877 from 1877 until 1884 in 1884

Florent Gand et Bernardel frères C G Meïer Charles Dancla Charles Gand

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??? in 1914 ??? 1925-1929 from 1929

M. Legrand Rodman Wanamaker Rudolph Wurlitzer Co.

There are further owners thereafter: Isador Berger, Nathan Milstein (in 1934), Louis Krasner, etc. Confusingly, Dr Isador Berger also owned another Stradivari violin of c.1710; this violin also has a two-piece back plate (and is illustrated in Doring, p. 388). Henley (Henley, p. 53) describes Berger’s violin and states that it contains a label of 1717 ‘but [the label] is not original’. An alternative historical narrative appeared on the website of the violinist Linus Roth (www.linusroth.com) whose violin was identified as ‘The Dancla Stradivari 1703’. Roth’s website (accessed June 2015) identified a 1938 letter from the Hills in which the sequence of ownership for his 1703 violin was specified as: Baron Roger, ‘an amateur violinist’ Hilaire E Halma [winner of the Premier Prix for violin at the Paris Conservatoire in 1824] Bernardel Frère, Paris, from c.1854 Charles Dancla until 1876 when he sold the violin to the firm of Chanot-Chardon in Paris Charles Wilmotte sold it, in 1883, to David Laurie Laurie sold it to Louis Labitte Laurie re-acquired the violin in 1887 and sold it to William Croall who kept it until 1906 [Croall died in 1906] The violin then passed to a Mr Kirkhope of Edinburgh, to the Hills in London, to Richard Bennett, back to the Hills, before passing to H Werro (of Bern, Switzerland) and then to ‘Fiez’ (of Lucerne, Switzerland). The Hills’ sequence of ownership is copied, almost verbatim, in Henley (Henley, p. 42); Henley identifies Nathan Milstein as a subsequent owner of this 1703 violin but indicates that, after Milstein, the violin ‘once again reverted to Hill’s.’ In 1959 the violin was auctioned at Christie’s and since 1997 it has been owned by L-Bank, the Staatsbank für Baden-Württemberg in Germany. Photographs of the 1703 Dancla violin (Thöne, Vol. II, pp. 226-229) show a one-piece back plate with wide flames rising to the right, the flames on the bass-side ribs being narrower than on the back plate. However, information which was received from Linus Roth indicated that there was no visual evidence for the existence of a plugged oval hole in either of his violin’s C-bout ribs (and no such feature can be perceived in the high-quality Thöne photograph (ibid., p. 230)). Clearly, the date of the Linus Roth violin – 1703 – does not match with the date of 1721 (subsequently 1710) inside Charles Wilmotte’s violin, and the absence of a plugged oval hole also indicates that Roth’s violin is not Wilmotte’s. However, the repetition within the Hills’ historical chronology for Roth’s violin of the same names which are identified in the JF55.2 descriptive text for Wilmotte’s violin – Halma, Dancla, Wilmotte, Labitte, and Croall – cannot be merely a coincidence. A 1710 Stradivari violin is described at JF55.2, p. 77 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 77 [U]:

(année 1877) M r C. G. Meïer, Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 lignes, année 1710 Fond de 2 pièces ondes douces remontant, belles éclisses ondes larges. Table de deux pièces, cassures à l’âme, au bas côté droit, et en haut côté gauche. Tête bien conservée. Vernis jaune brun, le fond plus pâle, décoloré et rechargé de vernis blanc. Ex Florent [JF55.2 only] Vendu John Wamaker, 1925. (1877) M. C G Meïer, London Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], 1710 The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames rising [from the centre joint]. Beautiful ribs with wide flames. The front plate is made from two pieces with splits at the sound-post, at 109

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the bottom of the treble side, and in the upper bout on the left. The head is well conserved. The varnish is yellow-brown, the back plate is paler, faded, and re-covered with white varnish [transparent sealer/varnish?]. ex Florent Sold to John Wamaker [Wanamaker], 1925. The label-date of this violin, the names of Florent, Gand, Meïer, and Wanamaker, the two-piece back plate with rising flames, the wide flames of the ribs – all these items of evidence suggest that the aforementioned CzAr/Tarisio sequence of ownership (see earlier) applies to this 1710 violin. It is notable that the CzAr/Tarisio sequence includes the name of M. Legrand; this name reappears in a descriptive entry at JF55.2, p. 200 [U] and EF/JF55.4, p. 200 [U], a text which very closely echoes that of 1877 (above):

1914 M r Legrand, 15 rue de Prony, Paris. (Milstein)? Violon A. Stradivarius, 1710 Fond 2p., ondes douces remontantes; belles éclisses ondes plus larges; table 2p., cassures, pièce d’âme; tête bien conservée; vernis jaune brun, fond décoloré (rechargé de vernis blanc; 13p. 1l. (mxzx) Gand & B el f res acheté à Florent en 1877 (oxzx) vendu à Meïer de Londres, 20 août 1877 [JF55.2 only] (exzx) par Meïer à Dancla en 1884 (hxzxz) par Dancla à Gand & B el en 1884 (hhxzx) vendu à Legrand, 29 Janvier 1884 Vendu en 1925 à J. Wanamacker, bmlttt. 1914 M. Legrand, 15 rue de Prony, Paris. (Milstein)? Antonio Stradivari violin, 1710 The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames rising [from the centre-joint]. Beautiful ribs with wider flames [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; splits [and a] patch at the sound-post. The head is well conserved. The varnish is yellow-brown; faded on the back plate (re-covered with white varnish); [the body length] is 13 pouces, 1 ligne [354.2mm]. (mxzx) Gand & Bernardel Frères bought the violin from Florent in 1877 (oxzx) sold to Meïer, of London, 20 August 1877 (exzx) from Meïer to [Charles] Dancla in 1884 (hxzxz) from Dancla to Gand & Bernardel in 1884 (hhxzx) sold to Legrand, 29 January 1884 [and, evidently, still owned by M. Legrand in 1914] Sold in 1925 to John Wanamaker, bmlttt. Perhaps, following Emile Français’s annotation – (Milstein?) – it is M. Legrand’s violin which was owned by Nathan Milstein.

***** JF55.2, p. 46 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 46 [U] (année 1878) M r Wilmotte, Anvers (suite) Violon Stradivarius 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1694 (longuet) Fond d’une pièce recoupé du haut par nous, veines remontant à droite, éclisses bois pareil, table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin au milieu, cassure au menton et à l’âme, très-belle tête. Vernis rouge brun doré. (1878) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp, (continuing) 110

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Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1694 (long pattern) The back plate is made from one piece, the upper bout re-cut by us [Gand & Bernardel Frères], the flames rising to the right. The ribs are made of similar wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin in the middle. There is a split at the chin and another at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red-brown. The description indicates that this long and narrow violin (as it was when made in 1694) was cut down by the Gand & Bernardel workshop personnel to a more normal body length, hence the measurement of 356.4mm. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 46 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 46 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1874) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1710 Fond d’une pièce, veines douces un peu larges presque droites, éclisses presqu’unies, table de deux pièces, cassures au menton et à l’âme au-dessus de l’f droite et deux en dessous. Tête unie un peu usée. Vernis rouge doré. [M. Wilmotte] (1874) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1710 The back plate is made from one piece; the flames are mild, slightly wide, almost straight. The ribs are almost plain. The front plate is made from two pieces; splits at the chin, at the soundpost, above the treble f, and two [more splits] below. The head is plain, slightly worn. The varnish is golden red. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 47 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 47 [U] (année 1878) M r Wilmotte, Anvers (suite) Violon Joseph Guarnerius 13 pouces, année 1710 Fond d’une pièce, belle ondes larges, éclisses semblables, table de 2 pièces, très-beau sapin, tête bien faite n’ayant pas le caractère ordinaire, gorges très-plates.(a) Vernis jaune doré clair. (Complètement intact). Ex Desöer 1881 M r C. G. Meïer, Londres, 15,000. (1878) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp, (continuing) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [352mm], year 1710 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wide flames. The [wood of the] ribs is very similar. The front plate is made from two pieces of very beautiful spruce. The head is well made, not having the usual character; the grooves [at the top of the scroll] are very flat.(a) The varnish is light golden-yellow. (Completely intact). ex Desöer 1881 M. C G Meïer, London, 15,000. (a)

‘Because of the nature of del Gesù’s heads it is often hard to establish boundaries between the work of father [Giuseppe Guarneri filius Andreæ] and son [Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù]’ (Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. Two, p. 137; see also (ibid.) Fig. 20, p. 138).

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For ‘Desöer’ see JF55.2, p. 43 [U]. In the latter part of the nineteenth century the birth-date for Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù was believed to have been 8 June 1683 (as had been stated by F-J Fétis in Antoine Stradivari, Luthier Célèbre, p. 107). Charles Gand, therefore, would have understood ‘Joseph Guarnerius’ to have been 27 years of age when this violin was made. An alternative date of birth – 21 August 1698 – was proposed by the Hills in 1931 as a result of archival researches carried out in Cremona at their request; in 1710, therefore, Giuseppe would have been 12 years of age. The descriptive text raises no doubts about the label-date of this violin. In the light of the comment that the head did not have ‘the usual character’ perhaps this 1710 violin was actually made by Joseph Guarnerius filius Andreæ (1666-1740) – someone subsequently replacing the original label with a fraudulent ‘del Gesù IHS’ label in order to ‘upgrade’ the violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 47 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 47 [L] [M r Wilmotte] (année 1878) Violon Joseph Guarnerius 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1742 Fond de deux pièces très-beau, ondes remontant. Table de deux pièces, beau sapin, ayant une veine de chaque côté assez marquée.(a) Très-belles éclisses, très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré (très-bien conservé). Ex Vieuxtemps (12,000 f) Ex King-Saltar de Londres Ex Willmotte M r Küchler à Francfort le possède (1905) Acheté par M r Küchler en 1905, de Francfort. [M. Wilmotte] (1878) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1742 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the flames rising [from the centrejoint]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having a vein-line [or sapline] on each side [on each half-width] – quite noticeable.(a) Very beautiful ribs; very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red (very well conserved). ex Vieuxtemps (12,000 francs) ex King-Saltar, of London ex Wilmotte M. Küchler, from Frankfurt, owns it (1905) Bought by M. Küchler, of Frankfurt, in 1905. (a)

At this point Gand draws a small sketch of the violin’s front plate, showing three full-length lines: the centrejoint line is paralleled by a line on each side, these outer lines being positioned approximately mid-way between the centre-joint and the edge of the plate (thus bisecting the fs). These outer lines identify the ‘veins’ – lines of demarcation – which separate the outer, dark-coloured, sections of spruce wood from the central, paler section, almost as if the front plate had been made in four sections; the sketch is replicated in the JF55.2 ledger but not in EF/JF55.4. Confusingly, this 1742 Guarneri violin is not identified as ‘the’ Vieuxtemps (for which see JF55.2, p. 39 [L]). This violin was bought by Maxim Viktorov, in February 2008, through Sotheby’s of London. In a Press Release, Sotheby’s provided historical information about the violin: The violin, which was the composer Henri Vieuxtemps’ very own concert instrument for some 15 years, has remained in a private family collection for over 100 years and has not been seen or

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played in public for more than 70 years. […] Vieuxtemps died in 1881, but he had sold the violin earlier – by around 1870 it was in the possession of the Belgian collector André Wilmotte, who also owned the ‘Ysaÿe’ Guarneri of 1740 [for which see JF55.2, p. 112 [L]]. Wilmotte also owned many great Stradivaris, including the decorated ‘Sunrise’ of 1677, the celebrated ‘Betts’ of 1704, the ‘Muntz’ of 1736, and the violins of 1718 and 1734 which still bear his name. Wilmotte died in 1893 and the violin passed to the German industrialist Eduard Ferdinand Küchler, […] the violin remained in the possession of Küchler’s family […] until the private sale in 2008 […]. The violin was specified by Sotheby’s as Ex-Vieuxtemps Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù (Cremona, b.1698; d.1744) A violin, Cremona, circa 1741 Labelled Joseph Guarnerius fecit Cremone anno 1743 Length of back 13 7/8in., 35.3cm. The Sotheby text does not clarify whether the ‘s’ of ‘Joseph’ is a ‘long S’, nor whether the final ‘e’ of ‘Cremone’ has a forward-facing cedilla underneath; the Sotheby text also fails to indicate whether an ‘IHS’ monogram is present on the label. Photographs of this violin are viewable on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 50024); these confirm the rising flames on the back plate and the front plate vein-lines in each half width. No information for ‘King-Saltar’ has been located (and this name does not appear within Sotheby’s historical chronology).

***** JF55.2, p. 48 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 48 [U] (année 1870) M r Wolkoff, Moscou Alto Stradivarius, 15 pouces 2 lignes, année 1715 Beau fond de deux pièces, veines remontant, très-belles éclisses (hauteur en haut 15 lignes ½ et 16 lignes ½ en bas) belle table de 2 pièces, 2 cassures à l’âme. (Diapason des f 7 pouces 11 lignes). Très-belle tête. Diapason du manche 5 pouces 6 lignes au-dessous du sillet, sillet deux lignes fortes. Vernis rouge brun doré. (1870) M. Wolkoff, Moscow Antonio Stradivari viola, 15 pouces 2 lignes [410.5mm], year 1715 Beautiful back plate made from two pieces; the flames rising [from the centre-joint]. Very beautiful ribs (the rib-height is 15½ lignes [35mm]in the upper bout [next to the neck-foot] and 16½ lignes [37.3mm] in the lower bout [next to the tail-piece end pin]). Beautiful front plate made from two pieces, with two splits at the sound-post. The ‘body stop’ [from the edge of the front plate at the neck-foot down to the inside notch of the fs] is 7 pouces and 11 lignes [214.3mm]. Very beautiful head. The ‘neck stop’ is 5 pouces and 6 lignes [148.9mm] [measured] from below [i.e. from the front face of] the fingerboard nut; the nut itself is a full 2 lignes [4.5mm, front to back]. The varnish is golden red-brown. This viola is now part of the Russian State Collection (CzAr/Tarisio ID 44452). *****

JF55.2, p. 48 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 48 [L] [M r Wolkoff] (année 1870) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1739

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Fond d’une pièce, beau bois ondes droites, belles éclisses, traces de vers à celles du bas côté du menton. Table ayant des cassures au menton et à l’âme. Vernis presqu’enlevé dans le bas, belle tête bien caractérisée. Vernis rouge un peu gras. Ex Vieuxtemps. [M. Wolkoff] (1870) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1739 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wood, straight flames. Beautiful ribs; evidence of worms in the lower ribs next to the chin. The front plate having splits at the chin and at the sound-post. The varnish has almost disappeared from the lower bout. Beautiful head, very characteristic. The varnish is red, a little oily. ex Vieuxtemps. The CzAr/Tarisio website does not identify a 1739 Guarneri del Gesù violin as having belonged to Henri Vieuxtemps; neither do the Hills (1931).

***** JF55.2, p. 49 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 49 [U] (année 1873) M r Wolkoff, Moscou (suite) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1716 [the third numeral then overwritten to show as a 3; 1736 in EF/JF55.4; 1716 in Gand] Fond de deux pièces très-beau, ondes descendant, très-belles éclisses, table ayant des cassures à l’âme, au menton et au-dessous de l’f droite. Très-belle tête. Beau vernis rouge doré. Ex Vieuxtemps. (1873) M. Wolkoff, Moscow, (continuing) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1716/1736 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful, the flames descending [from the centrejoint]. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate having splits at the sound-post, at the chin, and below the treble f. Very beautiful head. Beautiful varnish; golden red. ex Vieuxtemps. The CzAr/Tarisio website associates only the 1744 Gregorowicz Guarneri del Gesù violin (ID 40572) with M. Wolkoff.

***** JF55.2, p. 49 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 49 [L] (année 1870) M r Wilhelmy, Wiesbaden Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1725 Fond de deux pièces, petites ondes, éclisses [empty space] table de deux pièces ayant 3 cassures au menton dont deux remontant jusqu’à l’f; beau sapin. Vernis rouge brun. [JF55.2 only] 1954 2/12/54 Mister Thomas L Fainick, Cleveland (Ohio). (1870) M. Wilhelmy, Wiesbaden Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1725 The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames. The ribs […]. The front plate is made from two pieces, having three splits at the chin, of which two extend upwards as far as the f. Beautiful spruce. The varnish is red-brown. 1954, 2/12/54, Mr Thomas L Fainick, Cleveland (Ohio). 114

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August Wilhelmj (1845-1908) was an internationally renowned violinist. This violin is listed on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40060) where the 1954 purchaser is identified as ‘Fawick’. The violin is briefly mentioned by Henley (Henley, p. 75).

***** JF55.2, p. 50 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 50 [U] (année 1870) M r Waters, New-York Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1735 Fond d’une piece très-beau, ondes très-larges, belles éclisses, table ayant deux cassures à l’âme. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge magnifique. Ex Plawden. (1870) M. Waters, New York Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1735 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful; the flames very wide. Beautiful ribs. The front plate having two splits at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is red, magnificent. ex Plawden [C H C Plowden]. From the information given on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40213) it would seem that this violin is that which is now known as the King Joseph, which has a label-date of 1737 rather than 1735; there is no obvious explanation for the difference between the dates. The website indicates that the King Joseph violin was in the possession of C H C Plowden until 1868 and was then acquired by John P Waters. Supportive historical information is to be found in Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 65, where the violin is dated 1737; in Vol. Two, p. 63, the body length is specified as 352mm.

***** JF55.2, p. 50 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 50 [L] (année 1870) M r Van Hal, Bruxelles Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1726 Fond de deux pièces ronceux, très-belles éclisses, belle table de deux pièces, ayant une veine de chaque côté faisant l’effet de joints, cassure à l’âme et une au menton allant jusqu’à l’f. Tête ondée sur bois gris, fort belle. Vernis rouge doré, le fond plus décoloré. Acheté en 1900 par Jenö Hubay, axzxz. (1870) M. van Hal, Brussels Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1726 The back plate is made from two pieces of curly-grain wood. Very beautiful ribs. The beautiful front plate is made from two pieces, having a vein-line on each side [on each half-width] giving the [visual] effect of joints; there is a split at the sound-post and one at the chin extending as far as the f. The flames of the head stand out against the drab/lacklustre wood; really beautiful. The varnish is golden red; the [varnish of the] back plate is more faded. Bought in 1900 by Jenö Hubay, axzxz. Photographs provided on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41527, the Hubay) clearly show the two longitudinal vein-lines, one on each side of the front plate, which give the appearance of joints. The website states that this violin was owned by Niccolò Paganini. For M. van Hal see also JF55.2, p. 30 [U].

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JF55.2, p. 51 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 51 [U] (année 1872) M r Abel Bonjour, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1744 Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes descendant de gauche à droite, belles éclisses, table beau sapin, ayant trois cassures du côté du menton et quelques trous de vers dans le haut du même côté, très-belle tête. Beau vernis rouge brun doré. Ex Brochant de Villiers 18 Bonjour neveu. (1872) M. Abel Bonjour, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1744 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful flames which descend from left to right. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce, having three splits at the side of the chin and some worm tracks in the upper bout on the same [bass] side. Very beautiful head. Beautiful varnish; golden red-brown. ex Brochant de Villiers 18 Bonjour nephew [Samuel Bonjour?]. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a 1744 Guarneri violin (ID 40415, the Lord Coke); the owners are listed as Abel Bonjour in 1872, and, subsequently, Gand & Bernardel Frères; there is no mention of M. (André) Brochant de Villiers (1772-1840). The violin is specified as having a ‘facsimile’ label, a non-Guarneri scroll, and a twopiece back plate with descending flames. There is also a Guarneri Rebner/Bonjour violin (ID 40432) of ‘c.1740’ but this also has a two-piece back plate. No further information about Abel Bonjour’s 1744 Guarneri violin – with its one-piece back plate and flames which descend from left to right – has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 51 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 51 [L] [M r Abel Bonjour] (année 1872) Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces 5 lignes, année 1691 Fond de 2 pièces petites ondes, voûte un peu saillante à l’endroit de l’âme, cassure dans le bas à gauche à dix lignes du joint, partant du niveau du coin et s’en éloignant en descendant. Éclisses même bois gondolées, rehaussées. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin, chanteaux dans le bas, ayant plusieurs cassures dans le milieu près du joint. Très-belle tête presqu’unie. Vernis brun doré. Ex Legros, Nancy 1887 Hollmann (vente Bonjour) 12,600 f. [M. Abel Bonjour] (1872) Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces 5 lignes [769.3mm, 30¼ inches], year 1691 The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames; the arching bulges slightly in the area of the sound-post. There is a split in the lower bout, on the left, 10 lignes [22.6mm] from the [centre-] joint, starting level with the corner [of the C] and veering away as it descends. The ribs are made from the same wood [as the back plate]; warped, raised. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce; width-inserts in the lower bout; having several splits in the middle, near the joint. Very beautiful head, [the wood] almost plain. The varnish is golden brown. ex Legros, [from] Nancy 1887 Hollmann (at the Bonjour auction) 12,600 francs. 116

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‘Legros’ may have been M. Legros de la Neuville, a music professor and member of L’Académie des BeauxArts. ‘Hollman’ would appear to be Joseph Corneille Hubert Hollman, cellist and composer (1852-1926). Abel Bonjour died in 1886. He owned three celli (which were exhibited at the 1885 Exhibition at London’s Albert Hall): a Francesco Ruggieri of 1663, a Stradivari of 1689 from the Archinto Collection, and a Stradivari of 1691. After his death, Bonjour’s instruments were auctioned in Paris, at the Hôtel Drouot, on 5 February 1887 (see Le Ménéstrel, issue of 13 February 1887); the auction was held under the auspices of MM. Gand & Bernardel. The Francesco Ruggieri cello was bought for 3,200 francs, the 1689 Stradivari cello was bought by Jules Delsart for 19,000 francs (see JF55.2, p. 42 [L]), and the 1691 cello was sold to M. Hollmann for 12,000 francs. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies a Bonjour cello (ID 40438) with which various dates have been associated: 1684, 1691, and 1692; Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 81) specifies 1692. Doring also mentions that the dimensions of the 1692 Bonjour cello ‘were reduced by Charles Rambaux, fine maker of Paris, in 1860’ (?Claude Victor Rambaux, 1806-1871). The body-length measurement established in 1872 for Abel Bonjour’s 1691 cello suggests that his cello had not been reduced in size. Large photographs of a Bonjour cello appear in Ingles (Four centuries, pp. 554-555) the photographs being the same as those appearing on the CzAr/Tarisio website; the cello’s label-date is stated to be ‘168*’.

***** JF55.2, p. 52 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 52 [U] Le Titien (année 1872) M r Baker, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1715 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes larges presque droites, nœud dans la partie haute du côté gauche, partant du bord et allant presqu’au joint. Belles éclisses. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin ayant une moire dans le haut du côté gauche, petite fente à l’âme. Belle tête bois uni. Vernis rouge doré magnifique; pièce d’âme. Ex Comte de Sauzay Vendu à M r de Ygartua à Bilbao 2 8bre 1918, haxzxz, avec reprise d’une violon Strad. 1707 devenu le Titian, vendu à John Vanamacker – puis à Warburg. Ex comte de Sauzay Vendu M r Julio de Ygartua à Bilbao 2 8bre 1918 – haxzxz, avait été acheté à Baker en 1915 pour 75,000 f; repris à Ygartua en 1921 pour haxzxz, vendu à Tunsch et Lachmann à Berlin en 1922 fèvrier – hnxzxz – qui l’ont revendu à Cymbalist de New-York; racheté par eux et vendu à M. Warburg, $40,000. The Titian (1872) M. Baker, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1715 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames wide and almost straight. There is a knot in the upper bout, on the left, from the edge almost to the [centre-] joint. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having a watery ‘ripple’ in the upper bout, on the left; there is a small split at the sound-post. Beautiful head, the wood is plain. The varnish is golden red, magnificent; a patch at the sound-post. ex Comte de Sauzay

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Sold to M. de Ygartua, of Bilbao, 2 October 1918, haxzxz, with re-acquisition of a 1707 Stradivari violin. [The 1715 violin] later known as the ‘Titian’ was sold to John Vanamacker [Wanamaker] – then to Warburg. ex Comte de Sauzay [We] sold [the violin] to M. Julio de Ygartua, of Bilbao, 2 October 1918, haxzxz, having been bought from [William] Baker in 1915 for 75,000 francs. Re-acquired the violin from Ygartua in 1921 for haxzxz; sold it to Tunsch and Lachmann of Berlin in February 1922 for hnxzxz. They then sold it to Cymbalist [Efrem Zimbalist (1889-1985)] of New York; re-bought by them and sold to M. Warburg, 40,000 dollars. Alexis Hyacinthe, Comte de Sauzay (1792-1871) ; see also JF55.2, pp. 34 [U] and 34 [L]. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies this violin (ID 41393) as the Titian/Comte de Sauzay. The website’s photograph of the back plate clearly shows the horizontal knot extending from the left edge of the upper bout towards the centre-joint. The website photograph of the front plate clearly shows the upper-left ‘ripple’, and the photograph of the scroll confirms the plain wood. Ernest Doring writes about this violin (Doring, p. 191, with photographs on p. 194); see also William Henley, p. 60.

***** JF55.2, p. 52 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 52 [L] (année 1872) M r Boissièrre, Amérique Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1711 Fond d’une pièce, ondes larges ayant 2 cassures, dont une sous l’âme, belles éclisses, dont deux rallongées, table ayant des cassures, doublure à l’âme, ½ bords, pièce sous le cordier. Tête assez belle. Vernis jaune rouge. 1906 Appartient à M me Edmond Ledoux, 10 Avenue du Maine chez M me Villaret à qui on l’a estimé axzx. réparé en 1914, offert hxzxz. (1872) M. Boissièrre, America Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1711 The back plate is made in one piece; wide flames, having two splits (of which one is under the sound-post). Beautiful ribs, of which two have been lengthened [because of shrinkage?]. The front plate has some splits and has been doubled at the sound-post; half edges; there is a patch under the tail-piece. The head is fairly beautiful. The varnish is yellow-red. 1906 Owned by Mme. Edmond Ledoux, 10 Avenue du Maine [?The violin is currently] at the house of Madame Villaret, to whom we gave an estimate [of value], axzx. Repaired in 1914, offered hxzxz. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 53 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 53 [U] (année 1872) M r le Cte de Bertier, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1683 Fond d’une pièce, ondes un peu serrées descendant à droite, éclisse du côté gauche en bas ayant des cassures et une pièce carrée. Table de 2 pièces ayant quelques cassures. Belle tête. Vernis jaune tirant sur le rouge. 118

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a passé entre les mains de Kubelik, puis Hamma, en 1909: aoxzx par nous. (1872) M. le Comte de Bertier, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1683 The back plate in in one piece; slightly tight/narrow flames descending to the right. The rib on the lower-left side having splits and a square patch. The front plate is made from two pieces, having some splits. Beautiful head. The varnish is yellow verging towards red. [This violin] passed through the hands of Kubelik, then Hamma [of Stuttgart] in 1909: aoxzx [paid?] by us. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 4200) identifies a Stradivari violin as the Kubelik/Bertier, ‘bearing its original label “Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis Faciebat Anno 1687”’; Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 60) specifies the same date, as do Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. I, p. 168) and Henley (p. 25). The physical details which are identified in the descriptive text (above) are confirmed by the photographs provided by Jost Thöne. The Tarisio.com website cites a 1948 certificate from Rudolph Wurlitzer wherein it is stated that the scroll dates from the 1670s and ‘is not original to the instrument’. In 1901 the violin was presented to Jan Kubelik (1880-1940) by Lord and Lady Palmer; for Lady Palmer see also JF55.2, p. 33 [L]. No doubts are expressed within the descriptive text (above) with respect to the label-date of 1683; nonetheless, the evidence from Doring, Thöne, and Henley seems to point towards that date being incorrect. However, in 1909, another description of this violin was written up at JF55.2, p. 176 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 176 [U] and the date is once again specified as ‘1683’:

1909: Kubelik Violon A. Stradivarius, 1683 Fond 1 pièce, ondes douces, presque droites, assez espacées; rayure à gauche, au milieu, ressemblant à une cassure, éclisses en bois presque uni; celle du bouton en une seule pièce, brisure à droite du bouton; table de 2p., sapin plutôt large; jolie tête, très-Amatisé, bois assez veiné; violon très-Amatisé; taille 355mm; vernis rouge orange, très-dépouillé; noirâtre à la table. vendu à Hamma avril 1909, aoxzx le même que celui page 53: Cte de Bertier. 1909: Kubelik Antonio Stradivari violin, 1683 The back plate is in one piece; mild flames, almost straight, quite spaced; there is a scratch on the left, in the middle, resembling a split. The wood of the ribs is almost plain; the rib at the end pin is in one piece with a split to the right of the end pin. The front plate is made from two pieces, the spruce [rings] are rather wide. Attractive head, very Amatisé, the wood is moderately veined. The violin is very Amatisé. The body length is 355mm. The varnish is redorange, very worn; blackish on the front plate. Sold to Hamma in April 1909, aoxzx The same [violin] as that which is on p. 53: Comte de Bertier. ***** JF55.2, p. 53 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 53 [L] (année 1872) M r Blain des Cormiers, Versailles Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1717

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Fond de deux pièces beau bois (vernis retouché), belle éclisses, table de deux pièces, cassures au menton (sans cassure à l’âme, mais une doublure). Belle tête. Vernis rouge brun un peu louche. Ex C te d’Armaillé Ex Robert 1883 M r Wilmotte, haxzx. (1872) M. Blain des Cormiers, Versailles Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1717 The back plate is made from two pieces of beautiful wood (the varnish re-touched). Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces with splits at the chin (without a split at the sound-post but [nonetheless] there is a doubling). Beautiful head. The varnish is red-brown, a little cloudy. ex Comte d’Armaillé ex Robert 1883 M. Wilmotte, haxzx. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of Comte D’Armaillé is associated only with a Stradivari violin of 1737. The list of Stradivari violins owned by Charles Wilmotte does not include one of 1717. No further information for ‘Robert’ or ‘Blain de Cormiers’ has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 54 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 54 [U] (année 1872) M r Bénazet, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne faible, année 1742 Fond d’une pièce, bois moiré, à contresens, éclisses même bois. Table de deux pièces, fentes le long du joint près de la barre et au menton. Belle tête. Vernis jaune doré, bien conservé. Ex Morèna Comte Eyskierricsz, 1897, ixzx douteux? (1872) M. Bénazet, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne barely [354.2mm], year 1742 The back plate is in one piece; the wood is ‘watery’, cut against the grain; the ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made from two pieces, with splits alongside the [centre] joint, near the bass-bar, and at the chin. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow, well conserved. ex Morèna Comte Eyskierricsz, 1897, ixzx doubtful? Edouard Bénazet (1801-1867) was the director of the casino in Baden-Baden. Earlier in life he had studied at the Paris Conservatoire (see JF55.2, p. 4 [L]). Since Gand’s date of 1872 post-dates Bénazet’s death it must be assumed that the then owner of the 1742 Guarneri violin was Bénazet’s son.

***** JF55.2, p. 54 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 54 [L] (année 1872) M r Dubosq-Lettré, Bordeaux Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1685 120

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Fond d’une pièce très-beau, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, sapin fin au milieu et large sur les bords. Jolie tête usée. Vernis rouge brun. Ce violon a été brisé complètement, fond, table, et éclisses, et reverni presqu’entièrement. (1872) M. Dubosq-Lettré, Bordeaux Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1685 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [rings are] thin at the middle, wide at the edges. Attractive head, but worn. The varnish is red-brown. The violin has been completely broken – back, front, and ribs – and almost entirely re-varnished. The CzAr/Tarisio website associates two violins with M. Dubosq Lettré: one by Carlo Bergonzi, dated 1725 (ID 43018), the other by Guarneri del Gesù, dated 1733 (ID 42723). No further information has been located for the 1685 Stradivari violin described above.

***** JF55.2, p. 55 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 55 [U] (année 1872) M r Dien, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1743 Fond de 2 pièces très-beau, veines larges descendant, belles éclisses, table de 2 pièces ayant une petite fente au coin gauche du bas et une au bas de l’f gauche, belle tête. Vernis jaune doré usé. acheté haxz en 1845 chez Gand légué à Madame B. Gaston par Dien Vendu à Hamma le 26 Novbre 1910, mxzxz. (1872) M. Dien, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1743 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful, with wide flames, descending [from the centre-joint]. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces having a small split at the lower-corner of the bass-side C, and one at the bottom of the bass f. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow, worn. Bought, haxz, in 1845 from Gand Bequeathed to Madame B. Gaston by Dien Sold to Hamma, 26 November 1910, mxzxz. The 1872 identity of M. Dien is uncertain. Charles Dien (1809-1870) was a book publisher and engineer; it is not known whether Charles had a son who was alive in 1872. Further information concerning Madame B Gaston has not been located. The information regarding the sale of this violin to Hamma in 1910, together with the description of the back plate, suggests a possible connection with the Guarneri Burmester violin of 1743 (CzAr/Tarisio ID 42987).

***** JF55.2, p. 55 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 55 [L] (année 1872) M r Dreux, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1687 Fond de 2 pièces, petites ondes vives, table de deux pièces ayant plusieurs cassures, pièce à l’âme, pièce carrée à la table derrière le chevalet. Vernis jaune doré. Forme un peu Amatisée. 121

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1878 M r Lebrun (cadeau) 1899 vendu à M r Dufresne à Logelbach pour rxzxz Hamma et C o Hammig 1934 Smith à Ystad, Suède, repris pour aatttt 1936 vendu par Citella, aulttt, pour nous. (1872) M. Dreux, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1687 The back plate is made from two pieces; small bright flames. The front plate is made from two pieces, having several splits. There is a patch at the sound-post and a square patch in the front plate behind the bridge. The varnish is golden yellow. The form is slightly Amatisé. 1878 M. Lebrun (gift) 1899 sold to M. Dufresne, from Logelbach [Upper Rhine, Alsace] for rxzxz Hamma & Co Hammig 1934 Smith, from Ystad, Sweden; re-acquired [by A. Caressa?] for aatttt 1936 sold by Citella, aulttt, for us [on our behalf?]. For M. Lebrun see also JF55.2, p. 100 [U] and p. 198. The name of M. Dreux is not mentioned by the Hills, by Doring, or on the CzAr/Tarisio website. The website associates two violins with Charles LeBrun: one by Vincenzo Rugeri, dated 1705, the other by Stradivari, dated 1712. The name of M. Dufresne is associated with four Stradivari violins, but not one dated 1687. Frederic Smith owned a Stradivari violin of 1728 (CzAr/Tarisio ID 41546). ‘Citella’ would seem to be Antonio Citella, a Paris violin dealer.

***** JF55.2, p. 56 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 56 [U] (année 1872) M r Dimpre, Abbeville Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1705 Fond d’une piece à contresens, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, un peu fin au milieu, ayant plusieurs cassures. Tête douteuse. Vernis jaune doré. Ex Monestier. (1872) M. Dimpre, Abbeville Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1705 The back plate is in one piece, the wood cut against the grain. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] slightly thin in the middle, having several splits. The head is [of] doubtful [authenticity]. The varnish is golden yellow. ex Monestier. The names of M. Dimpre and ‘Monestier’ are unknown to the CzAr/Tarisio website, also unknown to Ernest Doring, the Hills, and William Henley.

***** JF55.2, p. 56 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 56 [L] (année 1872) M r Desaint, Amiens Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, année 1696 (Amatisé) Fond de 2 pièces, peu veiné, table ayant quelques cassures, petite pièce d’âme, écartement des f, 16 lignes. Tête, [blank space] Vernis jaune doré Amatisé 122

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Vendu à M r Levers à Poitiers, Juin 1903, 16,500 f Repris à Levers, hixzx, et vendu à M r Pierre Elliseieff à Moscou, février 1906 – rxzxz (Zebaume – Blanc 10 et 2% Remy – 500 f) Elliseieff l’a revendu en 1922 en Elè[?] à [no further text] (en demandait 90,000 f). (1872) M. Desaint, Amiens Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [352mm], year 1696 (Amatisé) The back plate is made from two pieces; faintly flamed. The front plate having some splits, with a small patch at the sound-post. The distance [between the upper eyes] of the fs is 16 lignes [36.2mm]. The head [blank space]. The varnish is golden yellow, Amatisé. Sold to M. Levers, of Poitiers, June 1903, 16,500 francs Re-acquired from Levers, hixzx, and sold to M. Pierre Elliseieff, from Moscow, February 1906, rxzxz (Zebaume – Blanc 10 and 2% Remy – 500 francs) Elliseieff re-sold it in 1922 […?][no further text] (wanted 90,000 francs). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 35) mention a violin owned by M. Desaint but comment that the violin has had its original date ‘tampered with’; they do not indicate what was the original date or the new date. Clearly, Charles Gand, in 1872, saw no discrepancy between the label-date of 1696 and the stylistic characteristics of the violin; Gand also had no problem with understanding the date which was inked on the label. Caressa & Français (in 1903 and again in 1906) evidently saw no reason to amend Gand’s information despite the violin’s label having been ‘tampered with’ (according to the Hills in 1902). Forty years later Ernest Doring was able to read ‘1696’ on the label. Photographs of the violin are provided by Doring (Doring, p. 40), the Tarisio website (ID 40047), and by Claude Lebet (Lebet, p. 21) where the violin – part of today’s ‘Paganini’ Quartet – is dated to ‘around 1680’ notwithstanding the label-date of 1696. In Henley (p. 20) this violin – owned by Niccolò Paganini, Achille Paganini, Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, M. Desaint, M. Levers, and ‘a Russian violinist’ – is identified as The Amatese of 1668. (For the 1724 Stradivari violin which has also been identified as part of the ‘Paganini’ Quartet, see JF55.2, p. 126 [L] and this volume’s Appendix.)

***** JF55.2, p. 57 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 57 [U] (année 1872) M r Dubray, Beauvais Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1689 (Amatisé) Fond d’une pièce presque sans ondes, éclisses petites ondes, table sapin très-large du côté du sol, sans cassures. Tête bien conservée. Vernis jaune. Hill 17,000 en 1899. (1872) M. Dubray, Beauvais Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1689 (Amatisé) The back plate is in one piece, almost without flames; the ribs have small flames. The spruce [rings] of the front plate are very wide on the G-string side; [the plate is] without splits. The head is well conserved. Yellow varnish. [sold to?] Hill, 17,000 [francs] in 1899. 123

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The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40730) identifies a violin of 1667 (with the soubriquet Saville) which is indicated to have been in the possession of M. Dubray between 1852 and 1899. The website information includes the statement that the top plate (unusually) is in ‘one piece, of fairly open grain on the treble side, and quite coarse on the bass’; the associated photographs clearly reveal the extremely wide rings on the G-string side of the front plate. The website also quotes from a certificate issued by the Hills in 1908 for the Saville violin: ‘A fine and characteristic example of the maker’s early period in a very perfect state.’ In their monograph (Hill (1902), p. 35) the Hills identify the ‘vigorous build’ of the violin owned by ‘Capt. Saville’ and state that the label has had its original date ‘tampered with’; the Hills do not indicate what was the original date or the new date. A Hill certificate issued to I G Schröter (the owner of the violin in 1908) identifies an ‘original label of 1667’. The violin is briefly described in Henley (p. 19).

***** JF55.2, p. 57 [L]; E/JF55.4, p. 57 [L] (année 1872) Monsieur Dognin, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1737 Beau fond de 2 pièces, veines remontant, table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, petite cassure à l’âme, cassures à l’f droite en haut et en bas. Belle tête un peu massive. Vernis jaune brun doré. Ex Pontet 1879 Silvestre, Hart. (1872) Monsieur Dognin, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1737 Beautiful back plate, in two pieces, the flames rising [from the centre-joint]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; a small split at the sound-post, and splits above and below the treble f. Beautiful head, slightly too large. The varnish is golden yellow-brown. ex Pontet 1879, Silvestre, Hart. ‘Silvestre’ refers to Hippolye (Chrétien) Silvestre (1845-1913), a violin maker and dealer who formed a partnership with Ernest Maucotel. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies five 1737 del Gesù violins, but only one has a two-piece back plate with flames which rise from the centre-joint (ID 47249, the Paulsen) and no association between this violin and M. Dognin, or ‘Pontet’, is indicated.

***** JF55.2, p. 58 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 58 [U] (année 1872) M r Davidoff, S t Pétersbourg Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1712 Fond de deux pièces, veines presque droites, cassure dans le haut du côté gauche, bord usé dans le haut du côté droit. Belles éclisses à contresens, cassures à celle de la main, une au C du même côté. Belle table, cassure à l’amé. Belle tête. Vernis rouge brun doré. Ex Comte Wielhorsky 1898 [overwritten with] 1900; Germain [overwritten with] Gaupillat; roxzx [overwritten with] moxzx. 1900 Gaupillat, moxzx 1929 Wurlitzer. 124

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(1872) M. Davidoff, St. Petersburg Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1712 The back plate is made from two pieces, the flames almost straight; a split in the upper bout, on the left; the edge of the upper bout on the right is worn. Beautiful ribs cut against the grain; splits in the rib of the hand and a split in the C on the same [treble] side. Beautiful front plate, with a split at the sound-post. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden red-brown. ex Comte Wielhorsky 1898/1900; Germain/Gaupillat; roxzx/moxzx 1900 Gaupillat, moxzx 1929 Wurlitzer. This Davidoff cello is ID 40277 on the CzAr/Tarisio website. Ernest Doring writes extensively about this cello (Doring, pp. 166-168). The owner, in 1872, was the Russian cellist Karl Davidoff (1838-1889) – not to be confused with Count Vladimir Alexandrovitch Davidoff (1816-1886) who was a privy counsellor to the Emperor of Russia and a violinist (see JF55.2, p. 92 [U]).

***** JF55.2, p. 58 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 58 [L] (année 1872) M r Gallay, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1725 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes descendant, cheville au milieu du fond à deux lignes du joint à gauche, belles éclisses. Table beau sapin ayant plusieurs cassures du côté de l’âme. Très-belle tête ayant eu la mortaise percée à jour. Très-beau vernis jaune rouge doré. Ex Vaslin Loys Silvestre l’a acheté en Mai 1903, rixzx 1928 Sir Wilhelm van Hulsteÿn à Johannesburg, avocat du gouvernement South Africa anglais pour l’afrique du Sud [JF55.2 only] appartienait à Warburg, USA, 1931 1953 appartient à Mme Flora Stad – 4331 Ches[t]nut Street, Philadelphia 4, Penna; Telé Evergreens 1214. (1872) M. Gallay, Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1725 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames which descend [from the centrejoint]. There is a dowel in the middle of the back plate 2 lignes [4.5mm] to the left of the joint. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made of beautiful spruce, having several splits on the soundpost side. Very beautiful head having had the mortise cut through [i.e. the back of the peg-box cut away so that it is possible to look through the box, as is also the case on the 1707 Countess of Stainlein cello]. Very beautiful varnish, golden yellow-red. ex Vaslin Loys Silvestre [& Maucotel?] bought it in May 1903, rixzx 1928, Sir Willem van Hulsteyn, from Johannesburg, lawyer in the English government of South Africa Owned by Warburg, USA, 1931 1953, owned by Mme. Flora Stad, 4331 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 4, Pennsylvania; telephone Evergreens 1214. 125

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Olive-Charlier Vaslin (1794-1889) was a cellist. Jules Gallay (1822-1897) was a music historian. Flora Stad was the wife of Ben Stad (1885-1946); in 1929 the couple founded The American Society of Ancient Instruments. Their son was Maurice Ben Stad (d. 1977). This cello is ID 40285 on the CzAr/Tarisio website, the Gallay/Vaslin/La Belle Blonde, ‘c.1725’; the back-plate length is specified as 759mm. The website photograph of the back plate clearly shows the central dowel which plugs the hole which was previously drilled for a suspension strap/hook. The photographs show no evidence for the back of the peg-box having been cut open. According to the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 141) the cello – described (ibid., p. 130) as that of ‘M. Loÿs, ex Gallay and Vaslin, dated 1725’ – was purchased in 1827, from ‘Signor Fenzi’, by ‘M. Girard (a violinist of some repute […]) on behalf of his friend and and colleague, Vaslin, a violoncellist of no mean order.’ In 1869 Vaslin sold the cello to Jules Gallay and in 1880 Gallay sold it to M. Loÿs (who died in September 1901). This 1725 cello was shown at the 1872 Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments (in London) as exhibit no. 188. Both the 1872 and 1873 catalogues of the exhibition describe the cello as: 188: VIOLONCELLO by Antonius Stradivarius, 1725. A magnificent specimen. Purchased by M. Gallay for 20,000 francs (£800). There is considerable confusion between this Gallay/Vaslin/La Belle Blonde cello of 1725 and the cello known as the Vaslin Composite; see JF55.2, p. 70 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 59 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 59 [U] (année 1872) M r Hammer, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1707 Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes, belles éclisses. Table bien conservée, sauf une petite fente à l’âme. Très-belle tête. Vernis brun rouge, clair. Vendu par M me Hammer, mxzxz, à M r Bernard Sinsheimer en Septembre 1911 L’a revendu par Thibaud aux U.S.A. (1872) M. Hammer, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1707 The back plate is in one piece; small flames. Beautiful ribs. The front plate has been well conserved apart from a small split at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is light brown-red. Sold by Mme. Hammer, mxzxz, to M. Bernard Sinsheimer in September 1911. The violin was re-sold [by Sinsheimer?] through [Jacques] Thibaud in the USA. This violin is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 40643; photographs provided on the website confirm the descriptive information. Neither Henley (Henley, p. 45) nor Thöne (Thöne, Vol. II, p. 280) makes any mention of the involvement of Jacques Thibaud in this violin’s history.

***** JF55.2, p. 59 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 59 [L] (année 1872) M r Lecomte, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1725 Fond de 2 pièces, veines remontant moyennes, presque droites, cassure en travers du longueur près le joint à la hauteur du tasseau, s’allongeant en descendant du côté gauche droit et descendant presque jusqu’en bas du côté droit à 1 centimètre du joint. Belles éclisses, les deux 126

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des C à contresens. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin ayant pas mal de cassures. Tête moderne. Vernis rouge doré. Ex Du Poirier. (1872) M. Lecomte, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1725 The back plate is made from two pieces; flames climbing, medium, almost straight. A split crossing longitudinal next to the [centre-] joint, starting at the [upper?] block and descending on the left right-hand side, reaching as far as the bottom on the right-hand side, 1 centimetre from the joint. Beautiful ribs; the two C-bout ribs are cut against the grain. The front plate is made from two pieces, beautiful spruce, having quite a lot of splits. Modern head. The varnish is golden red. ex Du Poirier. M. Eugène Lecomte (1803-1883) was a French politician. A 1725 violin belonging to M. Eugène Lecomte was exhibited at the 1872 South Kensington Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments. The catalogue for the 1872 exhibition (and the revised catalogue which was published in 1873) both state, simply: 87 Violin By Stradiuarius, 1725 Lent by M. Eugène Lecomte, Paris There are six Stradivari violins of 1725 itemised on the CzAr/Tarisio website but neither Eugène Lecomte nor M. Du Poirier is associated with any of them. No information is available from within the Hills’ 1902 Stradivari monograph.

***** JF55.2, p. 60 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 60 [U] (année 1871) M r Lévêque, Dijon Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1712 [the third numeral then altered to 0; 1712 in EF/JF55.4; 1712 in Gand] Fond de 2 pièces, veines larges descendant, vernis très-usé (il n’en reste qu’aux C), belles éclisses, table revernie ayant beaucoup de cassures. Tête petites ondes. Vernis rouge brun. r [JF55.2 only] Vendu en 1912 à M Molfessis à Constantinople haxzx Acheté par CF pendant la guerre, mxzxz, et vendu en Amérique. (1871) M. Lévêque, Dijon Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1712/1702 The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames, descending. The varnish has been greatly worn (remaining only at the Cs). Beautiful ribs. The front plate has been re-varnished, having a lot of splits. The head has small flames. The varnish is red-brown. Sold in 1912 to M. Molfessis, of Constantinople, haxzx Bought by Caressa & Français during the war, [WW1] mxzxz, and sold in America. A 1720 Stradivari violin, with a one-piece back plate, is associated by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 223) with the ‘Levèque’ family from ‘Rochelle’ but, clearly, this is not the same violin as described above. William Henley (Henley, p. 68) also identifies a 1720 ‘L’Evêque’ violin, as does Thöne (Vol. III, p. 256; a one-piece back plate with flames which ascend from left to right). A 1712/1702 ‘Lévêque’ violin is not identified by these sources.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 60 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 60 [L] [M r Lévêque] (année 187 ) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1732 [the 32 then altered to 27, with an additional annotation: (date 1727); 1727 in EF/JF55.4; 1732 in Gand] (portant sur l’étiquette fatto de anni 83) Fond de deux pièces peu veiné, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, cassure dans toute la longueur sur le côté gauche de la barre, une autre au coin gauche du haut et une au menton. Belle tête unie. Vernis rouge brun. Ex Général Lamorlière Greims à New York 1916 $20,000. [M. Lévêque] (187 ) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1732/1727 (showing on the label [‘]made [when] of years 83[’]) The back plate is made from two pieces; slightly flamed. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce. There is a split for the whole length [of the body] on the left side of the bass-bar, another [split] in the upper corner of the bass-side C, and one at the chin. Beautiful head, plain. The varnish is red-brown. ex Général Lamorlière Greims [Grimes], from New York, 1916, 20,000 dollars. The identity of Général Lamorlière is uncertain but he may be Alexis Magallon de la Morlière (1707-1799), a lieutenant-général in the French Revolutionary army. ‘Grimes’ was Herbert S Grimes, an American violinist. This violin is identified by the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 81): Though forced to resign to others a greater share of the construction of his instruments, we find him [Stradivari] still clinging to his beloved calling and completing an instrument on the label of which he proudly inscribes, in his own hand-writing, “fatto de Anni 83”. In an associated footnote the Hills add: ‘The violin bearing Stradivari’s label dated 1727 with this inscription is that in the possession of M. Levêque.’ The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40533) identifies General La Morlière, C N E Gand, Colonel Levêque, and Herbert S Grimes as owners of the ‘1735’ Nestor/Leveque/Rode violin, stating: ‘Original label, with the final digits altered to read “1727”; “fatto de Anni 89”.’ The website also specifies the violin’s length to be 352.5mm (source unknown) which is far from the measurement specified in the descriptive text. The label-annotation (as initially observed during the 1870s) – if authentic – would indicate that Antonio Stradivari was born in 1649 (1732 minus 83 = 1649). At the start of the twentieth century the commonlyaccepted date for the birth of Stradivari was 1644; altering a 1732 label to read 1727 (and subtracting 83) would indicate 1644 as the year of birth. William Henley (Henley, p. 79) specifies 1727 as the violin’s label-date.

***** JF55.2, p. 61 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 61 [U] (année 1871) M me Parmentier, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1728 Fond de 2 pièces, veines très-serrées remontant légèrement. Table de 2 pièces ayant 2 cassures à l’endroit de l’âme et 1 du côté de la barre, beau sapin un peu serré dans le milieu, deux trous de vers de 4 lignes environ au menton, belle tête ayant une fente au trou du Ré et une au La du côté des têtes de chevilles. Vernis jaune doré tirant sur le brun. 128

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Ex Dragonetti Acheté en 1905 entre Hill, Silvestre, et nous, ahxzx Vendu à M r Wottmann à Londres par Hill en 1906 mxzxz. (1871) Mme. Parmentier, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1728 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are very tight/narrow, gently rising [from the centre-joint]. The front plate is made from two pieces, having two splits in the area of the sound-post and one on the bass-bar side. The [front plate] spruce is beautiful, [?the rings are] slightly tight/narrow in the middle. There are two worm tracks about 4 lignes [9mm] [in length] in the area of the chin. Beautiful head, having a split at the D-string peg-head hole, and one at the A-string peg-head hole. The varnish is golden yellow verging towards brown. ex Dragonetti Bought in 1905 between Hill, Silvestre, and us, ahxzx Sold to M. Wottmann, from London, by Hill, in 1906, mxzxz. Domenico Dragonetti (1763-1846) bequeathed this 1728 violin to the Italian virtuoso Teresa Milanollo (18271904); see also JF55.2, p. 93 [U]. Teresa married Theodore Parmentier in 1857. The violin was exhibited at the 1885 International Inventions Exhibition (Loan Collection of Musical Instruments), Albert Hall, London; it was described in the exhibition’s Guide as: ‘This was formerly the property of Dragonetti, who bequeathed it at his death in 1846 to Teresa Milanollo, now the wife of M. le General Parmentier.’ The violin is ID 40875 on CzAr/Tarisio.

***** JF55.2, p. 61 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 61 [L] (année 1871) M me la princesse de Polignac, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 4 lignes, année 1690 (l’étiquette porte 1699, mais le dernier chiffre est refait) Fond d’une pièce, belles veines larges remontant à droite, belles éclisses, celle du C gauche côté de la barre et celle du bas près du bouton côté droit ont des petites marques de trous de vers, table de 2 pièces, sapin très-serré, cassures à l’âme, dont une descendant jusqu’en bas, deux petites fentes à côté du sillet sous le menton, belle tête cassée au dessus de la cheville du La. Beau vernis rouge brun doré. acheté par Hill en 1921: ooxzx. (1871) Mme. la Princesse de Polignac, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 4 lignes [360.9mm], year 1690 (the label [now] shows 1699 but the last numeral [has been] re-made) [?by adding a lower ‘tail’ to the original ‘0’] The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wide flames rising to the right. Beautiful ribs; the rib of the left-side C, on the bass-bar side, and the rib at the bottom, at the end pin, on the treble side – both have small marks of worm tracks. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow. There are splits at the sound-post of which one descends as far as the bottom; there are two small splits at the side of the [tail-piece] saddle underneath the chin. Beautiful head, [but] broken above the A-string peg. Beautiful varnish; golden red-brown. Bought by Hill in 1921: ooxzx. This violin is ID 40125 on CzAr/Tarisio.

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Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 380) states that ‘Alfred Hill acquired this violin in 1920 from Countess de Chabanne, a daughter of the Princess de Polignac.’ In 1893 Winaretta Singer entered into an unconsummated marriage with Prince Edmond de Polignac (1834-1901). Marie Armande de Polignac (1876-1962) was the niece of Prince Edmond; she married the Comte de Chabanne la Palice thus becoming the Comtesse de Chabannes.

***** JF55.2, p. 62 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 62 [U] (année 1871) M r le Comte de S t Périer, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1709 [the entire date then crossed out and replaced with 1684; 1684 in EF/JF55.4; 1709 in Gand] Fond de 2 pièces, petites ondes presque droites, joint creusant dans le haut, éclisses gondolées bois ronceux petites ondes, belle table de deux pièces ayant pas mal de cassures. Tête en poirier. Vernis rouge brun. Ex Comte de Pluvié Ex Gallay me [JF55.2 only] Vendu à M Merton à Francfort en 1908 par Hugo Becker, pour auxzx Marks Remis une étiquette portant la date 1684 Racheté par nous à Vidoudez, rxzxz, en marchandises et vendu à Hart août 1909 pour raoxz. Hart l’a vendue à M r Serge Barjansky pour rioxz. Revendu à acheté en 1922 par M r Guersin à Bruxelles pour nhxzx et confié à Gaillard pour le jouer sa vie durant. (1871) M. le Comte de St. Périer, Paris [le Comte de Poilloüe de Saint-Périer] Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1709/1684 The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames, almost straight; the [centre-] joint has sunk in the upper bout. The ribs are warped; curly grained wood with small flames. Beautiful front plate made from two pieces, having quite a lot of splits. The head is made of pear wood. The varnish is red-brown. ex Comte de Pluvié ex Gallay Sold to Mme. Merton, of Frankfurt, in 1908, by Hugo Becker, for auxzx Marks Replaced [inserted?] a label showing the date 1684 Bought back by us from Vidoudez, rxzxz, […?], and sold to Hart in August 1909 for raoxz Hart sold it to M. Serge Barjansky for rioxz Re-sold to bought in 1922 by M. Guersin, from Brussels, for nhxzx, and entrusted to Gaillard to play for the rest of his life. Alfred and Pierre Vidoudez were violin dealers based in Geneva. Serge Alexandre Barjansky (1883-1946) was a Russian cellist. This cello is ID 41607 on the CzAr/Tarisio website. The website specifies the label as ‘original’ and with a date of ‘1684’, but an additional date of ‘1690’ is also proposed. The website information confirms the pearwood head, and the back length is specified as 760mm. It is unclear why Caressa & Français should apparently replace the 1709 label with a label which was dated 1684. Three sequential owners are identified on CzAr/Tarisio as Marquis de Pluvié, Jules Gallay, and [Jean Guy] Comte de Poilloüe de Saint Périer de Kergorlay (1843-1885). ‘Gaillard’ may be Frits Gaillard (b. 1875) who was principal cellist of the Concertgebouw orchestra in Amsterdam between 1905 and 1920. He then joined the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 1923 and retired in 1939 (see www.cello.org/heaven/bios/editors.htm). Some aspects of the historical narrative provided by Jost Thöne for this cello (Thöne, Vol. I, p. 212) sit against the

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information supplied in the JF55.2 descriptive text. Thöne states that the cello ‘bears an original label stating a date of 1684’. See JF55.2, p. 42 [L] for a ‘Gaillard’ whose home town was Marseille.

***** JF55.2, p. 62 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 62 [L] (année 1870) M r Rondonneau, Paris Violon Stradivarius 13 pouces [blank space] année [blank space] (Amatisé) Fond d’une pièce. Table assez bien conservée Tête et éclisses italiennes, mais pas de Stradivarius. Vernis jaune doré. (1870) M. Rondonneau, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [blank space] year [blank space] (Amatisé) The back plate is in one piece. The front plate is quite well conserved. The head and the ribs are Italian but not by Stradivari. The varnish is golden yellow. No information for M. Rondonneau has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 63 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 63 [U] (année 1871) M r de Sayvé, Versailles (porte étiquette ‘choisi par Lafont’ Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, 355mm, année 1699 (Amatisé) Fond d’une ayant plusieurs cassures pièce à contresens, très-beau, éclisses pareilles au bois du fond, longue cassure à celle de gauche, pièce près du manche à droite. Table de deux pièces ayant des cassures, sapin serré comme celui d’Amati. Belle tête, cassée à la chanterelle. Vernis jaune doré, rouge ambré doré. Ex Chauvin Ex de Nanteuil Wurlitzer, Mai 1915, rxzxz En 1918 appartenait au D r Sturchio à New-York. (1871) M. de Sayvé, Versailles (showing a label [on which is written] ‘chosen by Lafont’) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces, 355mm, year 1699 (Amatisé) The back plate is in one piece, having many splits, cut against the grain, very beautiful. The ribs are made from wood similar to that of the back plate; there is a long split in the left-side rib and a patch [in the rib] to the right of the neck. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow [as found on violins made by] Amati. Beautiful head, broken at the ‘singing string’ [at the E-string]. The varnish is golden yellow golden red-amber. ex Chauvin ex de Nanteuil Wurlitzer, May 1915, rxzxz In 1918 owned by Dr Sturchio, from New York. This violin is identified as ID 41274 on CzAr/Tarisio. See also JF55.2, p. 129 [U]. It is unclear whether ‘Mr de Sayvé’ is the same person as the ‘Marquis de Sayve’, for whom see JF55.2, p. 72 [L] and p. 82 [U]. A more detailed historical narrative, with photographs, is provided by Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. II, pp. 56-63).

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JF55.2, p. 63 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 63 [L] (année 1870) M lle Closet Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces [blank space] année 1724 Fond d’une pièce, presqu’uni, éclisses bois semblable, table de 2 pièces ayant été cassée du côté droit en bas. Le côté gauche en haut remplacé par nous par une partie de table italienne s’y adaptant parfaitement, l’ancienne table étant brisée et abîmée par les vers à cet endroit. Tête assez jolie. Vernis rouge brun clair. (1870) Mlle. Closet Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [blank space], year 1724 The back plate is in one piece, almost plain; the wood of the ribs is very similar. The front plate is made from two pieces, having been broken on the lower-right [treble] side. The upper-left [bass] side has been replaced by us [Gand & Bernardel] with part of an Italian front plate which matched perfectly; the original front plate had been broken and damaged by the worms [beetles] in this area. The head is quite attractive. The varnish is light red-brown. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 64 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 64 [U] (année 1873) M r Muntz, Birmingham Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces faibles, année 1736 Fond d’une pièce veines peu prononcées, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces ayant quelques cassures, pièce à l’âme. Belle tête. Vernis jaune doré rouge. Ex Riché, d’Avranches. (1873) M. Muntz, Birmingham Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces barely [351.9mm], year 1736 The back plate is in one piece, the flames slightly pronounced. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces, having some splits; a patch at the sound-post. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow-red. ex Riché, from Avranches. The Muntz/Bustabo violin (CzAr/Tarisio ID 49615) is possibly the same instrument as that described above, but the website makes no mention of ‘Riché’. The town of Avranches lies on the Normandy coast, close by Mont Saint-Michel.

***** JF55.2, p. 64 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 64 [L] [M r Muntz] (année 1874) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, année 1736, portant au bas de l’étiquette une petite annotation de la main de Stradivarius: d’anni 92. Fond de 2 pièces, beau bois veines presque droites, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, belle tête. Vernis rouge jaune orange clair doré. Taille 0,355 (Ce violon est complètement intact) Ex Cornet, d’Amiens, 1832, 2,500 f Ex Wilmotte, d’Anvers, 1862, 5,000 f Ex Ménard de Marsinvilliers, 1867, 6,000 f 132

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M r Muntz, Birmingham, 1874, 10,000 f M r Talbot, à Aix la Chapelle, 1913, par Bauer, noxzx 1937 figure à l’Exposition du bicentaire comme le Muntz, no. 81 du catalogue M r Richard Klein, New York, 1950, par Jacques, $25,000 Docteur E P Engelman, San Mateo, Californie, 1961, $39,000. [M. Muntz] (1874) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1736, showing at the bottom of the label a small annotation in Stradivari’s handwriting: ‘d’anni 92’ [‘of years 92’]. The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wood, the flames almost straight. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce. Beautiful head. The varnish is red-yellow, golden light orange. Length 355mm (The violin is completely intact) ex Cornet, from Amiens, 1832, 2,500 francs ex Wilmotte, from Antwerp, 1862, 5,000 francs ex Ménard de Marsinvilliers, 1867, 6,000 francs M. Muntz, Birmingham, 1874, 10,000 francs M. Talbot, from Aix la Chapelle, 1913, through Bauer [Robert A Bower?], noxzx 1937: shown at the Stradivari Bicentennial Exhibition in Cremona as ‘The Muntz’; number 81 in the catalogue [Sold to] M. Richard Klein, New York, 1950, by Jacques [Français], 25,000 dollars [Sold to] Doctor E P Engelman, San Mateo, California, 1961, 39,000 dollars. It is seemingly this violin which, according to the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 87) pathetically portrays the veteran’s work [Antonio Stradivari’s work]. The formation of the corners and edges is ponderous, blunt, irregular, and of square appearance. […] The modelling is heavy, full, and abrupt; […] The varnish generally shows, though not without exception, considerable deterioration. More often it is heavily laid on, wanting in softness of texture, and in perfect transparency and richness of colour. The Hills (ibid.) also state: The irregular purfling we meet with tells the same tale: the grand old man’s hand trembled so much in cutting the grooves for its insertion that his knife played sad havoc in all directions, - so much so that to have filled up the trenches it would, in places, have been necessary to use purfling of violoncello thickness. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40062) refers to a commentary written on 1 June 1816 by Il Conte Ignazio Alessandro Cozio di Salabue, a commentary which, the website implies, relates to this Muntz violin; the Count’s document is identified at the Biblioteca Statale di Cremona as BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 47, folio 28v (translation by the present author): 1816, 1 June, Milan Measurements of my violin of Antonio Stradivari, not so large a form, yellow varnish, joined back, beautiful flames, undamaged, with a label of 1736, with the annotation ‘d’anni 92’; the strongest of the ten other [violins] obtained in Cremona from the grandson of Antonio in 1775. Millimetre equivalents of Count Cozio’s Pied du Roi measurements are: Upper Bout maximum width Centre Bout minimum width Lower Bout maximum width Total length

165mm 109mm 206mm 358.7mm

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Measurements (source and methodology unknown) provided on the CzAr/Tarisio website for the Muntz violin are: Upper Bout maximum width Lower Bout maximum width Body length

162mm 203mm 356mm

If these dimensions were achieved with a flexible tape-measure then calliper equivalents (thus matching Count Cozio’s procedure – ‘prese col compasso’) would likely be 160mm, 201mm, and 354mm. The evidence indicates that the 1736 violin described and measured in 1816 by Count Cozio is not the 1736 violin described in the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 ledgers.

***** JF55.2, p. 65 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 65 [U] (année 1874) M r Desjardins, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 4 lignes, année 1710 Fond d’une pièce, beau bois ayant du côté droit dans toute la longueur 5 pores filandreux à deux lignes les uns des autres, très-belles éclisses, table de 2 pièces sapin serré ayant pas mal de cassures. Tête de Silvestre. Vernis rouge brun. 2,500 Acheté par nous par CF en 1905, axzxz Vendu à Hamma azoxz. (1874) M. Desjardins, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 4 lignes [360.9mm], year 1710 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wood having on the right-hand side, for the entire length [of the body], five fibrous pores [?rough-textured grain lines], 2 lignes [4.5mm] between each. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow, having quite a lot of splits. The head made by Silvestre. The varnish is red-brown. 2,500 Bought by us by Caressa & Français in 1905, axzxz Sold to Hamma, azoxz. No further information about this violin has been located. The body-length is identical to that of a 1716 Stradivari violin which was owned and measured by Count Cozio di Salabue (Biblioteca Statale di Cremona, BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 47, folio 13v); see also JF55.2, p. 36 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 65 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 65 [L] (année 1874) M r Vallot, Paris-Auteuil Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1722 Fond de deux pièces assez joli ayant deux cassures du côté gauche dans toute la longueur et une veine dans le bas du côté droit en regard d’une des cassures. Belles éclisses. Table de deux pièces beau sapin ayant plusieurs cassures. Vernis jaune rouge. 3,000 Ex comte de Montigny [JF55.2 only] 1937 acheté par Vatelot, tête douteuse. (1874) M. Vallot, Paris-Auteuil 134

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Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1722 The back plate is made from two pieces; fairly attractive, having two splits on the left-hand side for the entire length of the body, and a vein [-line] in the lower-right side opposite one of the splits. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having several splits. The varnish is yellow-red. 3,000 ex Comte de Montigny 1937, bought by Vatelot; the head is doubtful. Marcel Vatelot (1884-1970) was a violin dealer in Paris; Étienne Vatelot (1925-2013) was his son. A Vallot violin of 1722 is photographed by Doring (Doring, p. 242) revealing two prominent sap-lines in the lower bout of the back plate, one line in each half-width and positioned quite close to the purfling. Twin saplines also appear in the back plates of the Spanish/Partello/Cadiz and the Edler/McCormack/Healy violins of 1723 (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40529 and 41514 respectively).

***** JF55.2, p. 66 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 66 [U] (année 1875) M r de Barry, Guebwiller Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1732 Fond de 2 pièces superbes, ondes très-larges, descendant, très-belles éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin, cassure au menton. Jolies f. Très-belle tête; vernis rouge brun magnifique. Ex Ferni Ex Hell. (1875) M. de Barry, Guebwiller [Alsace] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1732 The back plate is made from two pieces; superb; the flames very wide, descending [from the centre-joint]. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with a split at the chin. Attractive fs. Very beautiful head. The varnish is red-brown; magnificent. ex Ferni ex Hell [Hel?]. This violin appears on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 47698. The website photographs support the limited descriptive detail but the list of owners does not include the name ‘Hell’ (who may be ‘M. Hel’, a violin maker and restorer who lived in Lille and is identified at JF55.2, p. 133 [U]). The website associates the 1732 Guarneri violin with Carolina Ferni ‘until 1847’; Carolina Ferni was an Italian violinist and operatic soprano who was born in 1839 and died in 1926. The website places the violin with the violinist Sasha Culbertson (1894-1944) in 1931. The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 84) identify a 1732 Guarneri violin belonging to ‘Mr. Sascha Colbertson, ex Carolina Ferni’. What is very likely the same 1732 violin re-appears at JF55.2, p. 192 [U] and EF/JF55.4, p. 192 [U]:

1912 Cubertson (achat chez Hill) Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, 1732 Vernis rouge, très-beau; vu à Stuttgart, chez Hamma en 1912; beau violon, sonnant très-bien. 1912 Cubertson [Culbertson] (purchased at the Hill shop [in London]) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1732 135

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Red varnish, very beautiful; seen in Stuttgart, at the Hamma shop, in 1912; beautiful violin, sounding very well. ***** JF55.2, p. 66 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 66 [L] (année 1875) M r Dobree, Londres Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1717 Fond de deux pièces à contresens, belles éclisses ondes larges. Table de deux pièces, beau sapin ayant des cassures à l’âme, à la barre et au bas de chaque f (la table doit être presqu’entièrement doublée), belle-tête à contresens, cassée à la naissance de la coquille. Vernis rouge jaune doré. (Chevilles ayant des perles fines entourées d’un cercle d’or). 1889 M r Holden, Bradford. (1875) M. Dobree, London Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1717 The back plate is made from two pieces, cut against the grain. Beautiful ribs with wide flames. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having splits at the sound-post, at the bass-bar, and at the bottom of each f (the front plate must [therefore] be almost entirely doubled). Beautiful head, [the wood] cut against the grain; broken at the point where the scroll begins. The varnish is golden red-yellow. (The pegs have delicate pearls surrounded by a circle of gold). 1889 M. Holden, Bradford. Bonamy Dobrée (1818-1907). Ernest Illingworth Holden, 2nd Baron Holden (1867-1937). This cello appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41476, soubriquet Bonamy Dobree/Suggia (after Guilhermina Suggia (1885-1950), a Portuguese cellist). A succinct historical narrative appears in Henley (Henley, p. 96); a more extensive narrative, with many photographs, appears in Thöne (Vol. III, pp. 204-215); notwithstanding the quality of Thöne’s photographs the reported breakage at the scroll is difficult to perceive.

***** JF55.2, p. 67 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 67 [U] (année 1875) M r le baron d’Erlanger, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1687 Fond d’une pièce à contresens, très-belles éclisses, table de 2 pièces beau sapin, petite fente à l’âme et à l’f droite, en bas du rond au filet du C. Très-belle tête. Vernis jaune doré. Violon très-frais, très-pur, vu en 1908, vaut aaoxz. (1875) M. le Baron d’Erlanger, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1687 The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, a small split at the sound-post and [another] at the treble f from the bottom of the hole [the lower hole?] to the purfling of the C. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow. The violin is very fresh, very pure; seen in 1908, worth aaoxz. Frédéric Émile, Baron d’Erlanger (1832-1911). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 38) list, as a ‘typical example’, a 1687 violin belonging to ‘Baron Erlanger’.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 67 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 67 [L] [M. le Baron d’Erlanger] (année 1875) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1731 Fond de deux pièces, veines presque droites. Veine dans toute la longueur du joint, trous de vers rebouchés par des pièces dans le haut côté gauche et dans le bas côté droit, belles éclisses, table de deux pièces ayant quelques cassures. Tête et f bien caractérisées. Vernis rouge brun, usé et retouché. Beau violon, vu en 1908; vaut aoxzx. [M. le Baron d’Erlanger] (1875) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1731 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames almost straight; there is a vein [sap-line?] for the entire length of the [centre-] joint. Worm tracks have been plugged with patches [wood inserts] in the upper-left side and in the lower-right side [of the back plate]. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces having some splits. The head and the fs are really characteristic [of the maker]. The varnish is red-brown, worn, and re-touched. Beautiful violin, seen in 1908; worth aoxzx. This Guarneri del Gesù violin has a confusing identification. The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 84) list a 1732 Guarneri del Gesù violin as belonging to ‘Baron Erlanger, ex M. de Brabandière’. The CzAr/Tarisio website also identifies a Baron d’Erlanger violin (ID 45387) and also lists ‘de Brabandiere’ as an owner. The violin is dated on the website as ‘c.1740-1741’ but the label is specified as ‘1732 IHS’. However, the associated photographs show that the violin’s back plate is in one piece; therefore the violin cannot be that which is described above. The Hills also list a 1732 del Gesù violin as ‘Baron Erlanger, ex Nothomb’ (Hill (1931), p. 101) but the Tarisio website does not identify any Guarneri instruments as having been owned by M. Nothomb (for whom see also JF55.2, p. 22 [L]). The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies another Guarneri violin (ID 44998) as the Henry Holst; the violin is stated to have a label dated ‘1742 IHS’. Owners of this violin are listed as ‘Baron Emil d’Erlanger’ and, subsequently, a son of the Baron. The website photographs show that this violin has a two-piece back plate in which the flames are almost horizontal; the photographs also reveal a ‘vein-line’ running almost the full length of the back-plate, adjacent to the centre-joint. It is very probable that this is the violin which was described in 1875 by Gand, and ‘seen in 1908’ by Caressa & Français. Someone, post-1875, ‘upgraded’ the violin’s 1731 label. According to the CzAr/Tarisio ‘Notes’ for the Henry Holst violin its history is unknown prior to 1869.

***** JF55.2, p. 68 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 68 [U] (année 1875) M r d’Egville, Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1719 Fond de 2 pièces ondes larges, belles éclisses, fente à celle du haut sous la main, table trèsmince, doublée du haut en bas, 2 petites fentes au menton et une du côté opposé. Belle tête. Vernis rouge brun. Ex Wieniawski Ex Hauer. (1875) M. d’Egville, London Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1719 The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames. Beautiful ribs; there is a split in the upper rib underneath the hand. The front plate is very thin, doubled [reinforced] in both the upper and lower bouts; there are two small splits at the chin and one on the opposite side. Beautiful head. The varnish is red-brown. 137

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ex Wieniawski ex Hauer. Louis D’Egville was a collector of violins. Henryk Wieniawski (1835-1880) was a Polish violinist and composer. It is possible that ‘Hauer’ is a mis-spelled reference to the violinist Leopold Auer (1845-1930). The CzAr/Tarisio website does not identify a 1719 Stradivari violin belonging to Louis d’Egville. The website does identify a Wieniawski Stradivari violin of 1719 (ID 41487) but the associated photographs show a backplate which is in one piece (and the body-length is specified as 354mm). A 1719 Wieniawski violin is also described and photographed by Andrew Hooker (Hooker, pp. 72-75) but, again, the back plate is shown to be in one piece, the length is specified as 354mm, and the list of owners makes no mention of ‘Hauer’. William Henley (Henley, p. 67) also specifies a one-piece back plate, as does Thöne (Thöne, Vol. III, pp. 240-247). The historical narrative provided by Thöne makes no mention of ‘Hauer’ or M. d’Egville; the violin’s length is defined as 354mm. The evidence clearly demonstrates that today’s 1719 Wieniawski violin, with a one-piece back plate and a length of 354mm, is not M. d’Egville’s 1719 violin (as described above).

***** JF55.2, p. 68 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 68 [L] [M. d’Egville] (année 1875) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces moins 1 ligne, année 1735 Fond de deux pièces, veines presque droites. Table ayant une petite fente à l’âme ne traversant pas. Très-bien fileté. Joli modèle d’f. Jolie tête ayant eu 5 trous 5 trous de vers. Cercle d’ébène au talon du fond. Vernis rouge doré. [M. d’Egville] (1875) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces minus 1 ligne [349.6mm], year 1735 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames almost straight. The front plate having a small split at the sound-post, but the split is only at the surface of the wood. The purfling is very good. Attractive type of f. Attractive head, having had five holes, five worm tracks. There is a ring of ebony at the back-plate neck-foot. The varnish is golden red. This 1735 violin is probably the violin now known as the Kubelik/Rabin (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40419); the three owners of the violin prior to Jan Kubelik are identified as H O Havemeyer, Horace Petherick and ‘Townley’. The photographs provided on the website show a two-piece back plate; the flames are almost perfectly horizontal. A photograph of the bass side of the scroll/peg-box reveals a fifth peg-hole, plugged, behind the small tip of the A-string peg.

***** JF55.2, p. 69 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 69 [U] (année 1878) M r d’Egville, Londres (suite) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1735 Fond d’une pièce magnifique, ondes larges descendant à droite, éclisses même bois, cassure sous la main.(a) Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, cassure à l’âme et au bas de l’f droite. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré magnifique. 1900 Dufresne, 45,000 r [JF55.2 only] 1962 Prof. D O. Lutz, Braunschweig – Bienroderweg 53; téléphone 32124 30,000 $ USA. par Hamma – voir plaquette Hamma.

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(1878) M. d’Egville, London (continuing) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1735 The back plate is in one piece; magnificent; wide flames descending to the right. The ribs are made from the same wood; there is a split [in the rib] under the hand.(a) The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; there is a split at the sound-post and [another] at the bottom of the treble f. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red; magnificent. 1900 Dufresne, 45,000 1962 Prof Dr O Lutz, Braunschweig – Bienroderweg 53; telephone 32124 30,000 US dollars [sold?] by Hamma – see the Hamma booklet. (a)

here Gand draws a small oblong box with, inside, a wavy line to represent the split in the upper rib on the treble side; the drawing is replicated in JF55.2 but not in EF/JF55.4. The identity of this instrument is uncertain, notwithstanding the label-date, the name of the owner in 1878, and the left-right descending flames – all of which evidence seems to point towards the Guarneri violin known as the Plowden. Photographs of this violin (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40418) reveal a one-piece back plate with slightly indistinct flames descending from left to right – not, perhaps, what might be expected from the adjective magnifique. The same less-than-vivid appearance is revealed in the full-size photographs in the Plowden poster which was produced by The Strad in July 2011. The poster-photograph of the upper-treble rib does not reveal any sign of a wavy, horizontal, split. According to Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 59 (and also the CzAr/Tarsio.com website) the Plowden violin passed from John Hart to C H C Plowden and then to Louis D’Egville whose son sold the violin to Baron Knoop in 1900 (cf. JF55.2, ‘1900, Dufresne’); in 1929 the owner was John T Roberts of Connecticut, USA. Neither Chiesa et al. nor the CzAr/Tarisio website makes any mention of Professor Lutz, and both sources place the Plowden violin with William Rosenwald between 1944 and 1987 (cf. JF55.2, ‘1962, Prof Lutz’). Neither source identifies the involvement of the firm of Hamma (the ‘Hamma booklet’ has not been located). The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 101) identify a 1735 Guarneri violin as ‘Mr. John T. Roberts, ex Plowden, ex Arbós’; they make no mention of M. Dufresne or Professor Lutz. The back-length of the violin is specified in Chiesa et al. as 350mm, and 350.5mm in the Strad poster.

***** JF55.2, p. 69 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 69 [L] [M r d’Egville] (année 1878) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces faibles, année 1735 Fond de 2 pièces, veines larges remontant, éclisses même bois. Table de deux pièces bien conservée. Très-jolie tête. Vernis rouge doré superbe. 1886 M r le duc de Camposelice. [M. d’Egville] (1878) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces barely [351.9mm], year 1735 The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames rising. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; well conserved. Very attractive head. The varnish is golden red; superb. 1886 M. le Duc de Camposelice. This is the Guarneri violin now known as the d’Egville (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40417). The website’s listing of owners includes ‘Professor Lutz, from 1960’, an ownership which is reiterated in (or sourced from) Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 53. It is possible that Professor Lutz might have owned two 1735 del Gesù violins (the first

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bought in 1960, the second in 1962) but it is more likely that the Lutz annotation in the previous descriptive entry – 69 [U] – was applied to the wrong violin. Louis d’Egville allowed a 1735 Guarneri violin to be exhibited at the 1872 Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments, in London; the descriptive text is the same in both the 1872 and the 1873 catalogues: 94 VIOLIN By Joseph Guarnerius, 1735. A superb instrument in all respects. Lent by M. Louis d’Egville, Conduit Street, London. Charles Reade, in his Fourth Letter to the Pall Mall Gazette (31 August 1872), wrote about this violin: No. 94 is a violin whose picturesque beauty I have described already; twenty-five years ago [i.e. 1847] Mr. Plowden gave £450 for it. It is now, I suppose, worth £500. According to Chiesa et al. (ibid.) the violin was bought from John Hart by C H C Plowden in 1855; the apparent historical inaccuracy of Charles Reade’s ‘twenty-five years ago’ may be unimportant. Louis d’Egville bought the violin from Plowden’s estate in 1867 and retained it until 1886 when it was bought by the Duc de Camposelice. In 1931 it was bought by Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia (for whom see also JF55.2, p. 6 [L] and 94 [U]). The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 101) identify a 1735 Guarneri violin as ‘Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, ex d’Egville’.

***** JF55.2, p. 70 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 70 [U] (année 1875) M r Horteloup, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 27 pouces 9 lignes, année 1724 Fond en peuplier élargi par le milieu, éclisses même bois. Table beau sapin élargie aussi par le milieu. Cassure à l’âme. Tête jolie modèle. Vernis brun doré. Vendue par nous par C.F. à M r G. Maas le 30 Août 1909, aoxzx Repris Maas en 8bre 1912, vendu Leefson à Amsterdam fin 8bre 1912 pour rxzxz. (1875) M. Horteloup, Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, 27 pouces 9 lignes [751.23mm], year 1724 The back plate is made from poplar, widened across the middle. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made of beautiful spruce, [the plate] also widened across the middle. There is a split at the sound-post. The head is an attractive example. The varnish is golden brown. Sold by us, by Caressa & Français, to M. G Maas, 30 August 1909, aoxzx Re-acquired from Maas in October 1912, sold to Leefson, of Amsterdam, at the end of October 1912 for rxzxz. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 408) illustrates and describes a ‘Vaslin composite’ cello of ‘c1730’: The cello was widened at the center joint from its original narrow form and the top [plate] was made by John Lott(a) in the 19th century. The original top is presumed to be on the Scholz cello.(b) According to a letter from Albert Caressa, J. B. Vuillaume acquired the cello from [Luigi] Tarisio and sold it to Professor Vaslin. After his death in 1859 (c) the instrument passed to Vaslin’s pupil M. de Horteloup;(d) then to M. Lenepveu de Lafont.’(e) It was acquired by Caressa early in the 20th century. In 1958, when the cello was in the possession of Maurice Ben Stad (f) […]. This cello is not to be confused with the well-known example of 1725 called the “Vaslin” or “Belle Blond”. (a)

John Frederick Lott (1804-1870) was a close associate of J-B Vuillaume and a copyist of violins. see JF55.2, p. 75 [L]. (c) Olive-Charlier Vaslin (1794-1889) was a cellist. (d) Horteloup’s dates of birth and death are unknown. (b)

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(e)

Doring has possibly confused Charles Lenepveu (1840-1910), a professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire, with Jules Eugène Lenepveu Boussaroque de Lafont (1819-1898) who was a painter. (f) see JF55.2, p. 58 [L]. Gand, in 1875, recorded the date of M. Horteloup’s cello as 1724 and, evidently, Caressa & Français saw no reason to amend the date in their sales ledger when they sold the cello in 1909, re-acquired it in October 1912, and then re-sold it in the same month. The photographs provided by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 408) reveal the width-insert in the back plate but are not of sufficient detail to show a width-insert in the front plate. Doring’s back-plate photograph also reveals distinctive vein-lines, on both sides of the plate, above and below the C-bout curves; these very visible features are not mentioned in the descriptive text. On CzAr/Tarisio the names of Horteloup, Maas, Vaslin, and Lenepveu are associated only with the Belle Blonde cello (ID 40285) which, according to the associated photographs, has a two-piece back plate made of maple, has descending flames, and has no sign of any additional wood inserted in the centre; see JF55.2, p. 58 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 70 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 70 [L] (année 1875) M r Pillot, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1717 Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes larges remontant un peu à droite, belles éclisses, table de 2 pièces, ayant plusieurs cassures au milieu, cassure au coin gauche du haut. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge brun. (1875) M. Pillot, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1717 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wide flames rising slightly to the right. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces, having several splits in the middle; there is [also] a split at the upper corner of the left-side [bass-side] C. Very beautiful head. The varnish is redbrown. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 71 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 71 [U] (année 1875) M r Street, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1729 Fond d’une pièce, ondes larges, éclisse du menton fendue. Table doublée sous l’estomac. Cassures sous l’âme et au menton. Belle tête. Vernis rouge orange foncé. 1885 M r Turban 8,000. (1875) M. Street, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [352mm], year 1729 The back plate is in one piece; wide flames. The rib at the chin has been cracked. The front plate has been doubled under the [central] chest. There are splits underneath the sound-post and at the chin. Beautiful head. The varnish is dark red-orange. 1885 M. Turban, 8,000. The CzAr/Tarisio website lists a 1732 Guarneri del Gesù violin (ID 43699) – with a label which is ‘not original’ – as having been owned by Louis Turban following ownership by the violinist Friedrich Wilhelm Pixis (17851842). The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 78) list a 1732 Guarneri del Gesù violin owned by ‘Mr. T. Spiering, ex Pixis’

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but make no mention of the label not being original. The Guarneri Pixis violin, dated 1729, appears in Robinson (pp. 20-21); no photograph of the label is provided, and the historical narrative makes no mention of M. Street (as is also the case on the CzAr/Tarisio website). Robinson provides a reproduction of a certificate issued on 13 July 1926 by William E. Hill & Sons to Mrs Spiering (Theodore Spiering having died in 1925) in which her violin is dated ‘1729’. It would seem that the Hills’ 1931 specification of ‘1732’ must have been a typographical error.

***** JF55.2, p. 71 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 71 [L] (année 1874) Monsieur Wimphen, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 5 lignes, année 1696 (Longuet) Fond d’une pièce à contresens, très dépouillé, belles éclisses ondées, doublées en parchemin, table ayant quelques cassures. Belle tête, petites ondes vives. Vernis rouge brun. Ex Paccard. (1874) Monsieur Wimphen, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 5 lignes [363.2mm], year 1696 (long pattern) The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain, very bare [of varnish]. Beautiful flamed ribs, reinforced [internally] with parchment. The front plate having some splits. Beautiful head with small bright flames. The varnish is red-brown. ex Paccard. No further information about this violin, or M. Paccard, has been located. The CzAr/Tarisio website associates only a 1695 Stradivari cello (ID 41449) with Monsieur Wimphen.

***** JF55.2, p. 72 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 72 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Ricardo, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1690 (forme Amatisée) Fond d’une pièce ondes moyennes très vives, remontant un peu à droite, chanteaux dans le bas de 5 lignes de large, éclisses très-belles, bois pareil au fond. Table de 2 pièces sapin très-fin au milieu; écartement des f, 17 lignes. Tête superbe, bois pareil au fond et aux éclisses. Vernis rouge doré magnifique, très-peu dépouillé. (Complètement intact). 1891 Hill. (1870) Monsieur Ricardo, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1690 (Amatisé model) The back plate is in one piece; medium flames, very bright, rising slightly to the right; there are width-inserts in the lower bout 5 lignes wide [11.3mm]. The ribs are very beautiful, the wood similar to that of the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin in the middle; the distance between the fs is 17 lignes [38.4mm; measured between the upper eyes]. The head is superb, the wood similar to the back plate and to the ribs. The varnish is golden red; magnificent; very little abrasion. (Completely intact). 1891 Hill. This is the 1690 Tuscan violin, now exhibited at the Museo Strumentale of the Accademia Nazionale di S Cecilia, Rome.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 72bis [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 72bis [U] (année 1878) Madame Boiss, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1725 [the 5 then altered to 8; 1728 in E/JF55.4; 1725 in Gand] Fond de deux pièces, petites ondes serrées droites, éclisses semblables. Table de deux pièces beau sapin, cassure à l’âme et une au-dessus du C droit. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge brun doré. Ex Alard - Lelong (Ex Massard de Beaumont) Cédé en Xbre 1903 à M r E. Dufresne à Logelbach (Ht Rhin) échangé contre l’ex Dancla, 9,500 f. (1878) Madame Boiss, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1725/1728 The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames, tight/narrow and straight. The [wood of the] ribs is very similar. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with a split at the sound-post and one above the treble-side C. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red-brown. ex Alard – Lelong (ex Massard de Beaumont) December 1903: [the violin] made over to M. E Dufresne, from Logelbach (Upper Rhine), exchanged against his ‘ex-Dancla’ violin [?with an additional payment of] 9,500 francs. For Camille Lelong see also JF55.2, p. 149 [U]. See JF55.2, p. 86 [U] for further information regarding the exchange with M. Dufresne and his Dancla violin. This violin seems to be the Artot/Alard (ID 43102 on the CzAr/Tarisio website; also in Thöne, Vol. IV, pp. 170177) but the association with Alexandre Artot (1815-1845) is unclear. On the website the violin’s ‘original’ label is specified as 1728 rather than 1725 (Thöne also indicates 1728). The website’s sequence of ownership is indicated to be Alard, Massard, Madame Boiss (‘in 1878’), Dufresne (‘from 1903’), and Charles Edler (‘in 1905’), with further owners thereafter. However, neither the Hills nor Ernest Doring have any information for a 1725 or 1728 Stradivari violin which was owned as listed.

***** JF55.2, p. 72 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 72 [L] (année 1874) M lle Vaillant, à Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1718 Fond de deux pièces, très-beau veines descendant, très-belles éclisses, cassure à celle de la main, table de 2 pièces ayant quelques cassures. Tête ayant un chevillier neuf enté en fourche. Vernis rouge doré pâle. Ex marquis de Sayve. (1874) Mlle. Vaillant, from London Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1718 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful flames descending [from the centre joint]. Very beautiful ribs, with a split in the rib of the hand. The front plate is made from two pieces, having some splits. The head having a new peg-box, grafted using tapered [joints]. The varnish is pale golden-red. ex Marquis de Sayve [Sayvé?].

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Gabrielle Vaillant was a French violinist (1853-1899). Her Stradivari violin was auctioned in London, by Puttick & Simpson, on 4 July 1902 (Lot 69, the violin ‘dated 1714’) and was bought by ‘G A Chanot’ for £365. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 177) dates the Vaillant violin to 1714, as does William Henley (Henley, p. 56). For the Marquis de Sayvé see also JF55.2, p. 63 [U] and also p. 82 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 72bis [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 72bis [L] (année 1878) M me la C sse Boutillier Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1680 (Amatisé) Fond de deux pièces, petites ondes. Vernis assez usé. Table sapin serré, cassure au menton et cassure du côté opposé du bord du bas à l’f. Tête assez belle. Vernis jaune doré. (1878) Mme. la Comtesse Boutillier Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1680 (Amatisé) The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames, the varnish is fairly worn. The frontplate spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow; a split at the chin and a split on the opposite side – at the edge below the [treble] f. The head is fairly beautiful. The varnish is golden yellow. The Comtesse Boutillier would seem to be related to the identically named Comtesse identified at JF55.2, p. 198 but the date of the above description – 1878 – sits against such an association. No further information about this 1680 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 73 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 73 [U] (année 187 ) M r Taudou, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1714 Fond de deux pièces, très-beau, veines presque droites, mais descendant un peu, très-belles éclisses, table de 2 pièces, sapin fin au milieu et s’élargissant sur les bords, cassures à l’âme et au bas de l’f droite (les bords de la table plus lourds que ceux du fond). Vernis rouge jaune doré. Jolie tête, vernis un peu plus rouge. Ex Massart Ex Cousin 1892 M r Voigt, Vienne, hroxz (M r Winkler 15,000) [JF55.2 only] 1959 19 Janvier, estimé Z Michael Rémény $10,000, le $ à 490 francs. (187 ) M. Taudou, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1714 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful, the flames almost straight but descending slightly [from the centre-joint]. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin at the middle, widening at the edges; there are splits at the sound-post and at the bottom of the treble f (the edges of the front plate are more substantial than those of the back plate). The varnish is golden red-yellow. Attractive head, the varnish slightly more red [than on the body]. ex Massart ex Cousin 1892 M. Voigt, Vienna, hroxz (M. Winkler 15,000) 1959 19 January, valued [for?] Z Michael Rémény, 10,000 dollars, one US dollar being equivalent to 490 francs. 144

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Lambert Massart (1811-1892) was a Belgian violinist. This violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 41382, the Massart.

***** JF55.2, p. 73bis [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 73bis [U] (année 1878) M r Christmann, Saverne (Alsace) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1716 Fond d’une pièce, veines douces remontant à droite, jolies éclisses rehaussées, table de deux pièces ayant pas mal de cassures et doublée. Jolie tête très-usé. Vernis rouge brun un peu louche. Ex Marquis de Lambertye Ex Labitte Vendu à M r Mez de Fribourg en Brisgau en 1895 (hexzx). (1878) M. Christmann, Saverne (Alsace) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1716 The back plate is in one piece; mild flames, rising to the right. Attractive ribs, [having been] raised. The front plate is made from two pieces, having quite a lot of splits and doublings. Attractive head, very worn. The varnish is red-brown, a little cloudy. ex Marquis de Lambertye ex Labitte Sold to M. Mez, of Freiburg im Breisgau, in 1895 (hexzx). Marquis Marie Antoine Camille Ernest de Lambertye (1788-1862). The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies the violin (ID 42277) as the Wechsberg/Mez; the associated photographs show the back-plate flames rising from left to right. The website states: ‘Original label, with the date altered to 1716’ (the original, pre-alteration, date is not specified). The website quotes from a Wurlitzer certificate of 1962: ‘… made by Antonio Stradivari circa 1730’, and also quotes from a 1961 certificate from Emil Herrmann: ‘… the violin is in my opinion a work of Antonio Stradivari of Cremona, period 1729/30 and bears a label 1716’.

***** JF55.2, p. 73 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 73 [L] (année 1876) Monsieur Consolo Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1733 Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes larges remontant un peu à droite, éclisses ondes plus serrées. Table sapin un peu serré, cassure au menton, au dessus de l’f gauche, à l’âme, et au-dessus des deux trous du bas des f. Vernis jaune pâle, l’ancien vernis a été enlevé. Jolie tête, vernis rouge doré comme devait être celui du violon. Hubermann l’a acheté chez Möckel à Berlin pour rxzxz M. en 1909. (1876) Monsieur Consolo Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1733 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wide flames, rising slightly to the right. The flames of the ribs are tighter/narrower. The spruce [rings] of the front plate are slightly tight/narrow. There is a split at the chin, [another] above the bass f, [another] at the sound-post, and [another] above the lower hole of each f. The varnish is pale yellow; the original varnish has been 145

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removed. Attractive head; the golden-red varnish [on the head] must have been the original colour of the entire violin. Huberman bought it from Möckel in Berlin for rxzxz Marks in 1909. Oswald Möckel (1843-1908) was a violin maker and dealer. Bronislaw Huberman (1882-1947) was a Polish violinist. See JF55.2, p. 195 [U] for a description of the Stradivari Gibson/Huberman violin of 1713. The 1733 violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 44397; the supplied photographs of the back plate confirm the descriptive text.

***** JF55.2, p. 73bis [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 73bis [L] (année 1878) Mad lle Lorès, Barcelonne Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1736 Fond de deux pièces veines remontant, côté droit veines régulières, côté gauche veines inégales, plus larges, belles éclisses. Table de 2 pièces, cassures à la barre et au menton, gros filets plus mal ajustés au fond. Très-gros bords. Tête cassée ayant une joue entière du côté de la chanterelle, pièce à la cheville du Ré. Manche original remis. Vernis rouge doré. M r Roussy à Paris (acheté chez Hill 25,000 f en 1897) r [JF55.2 only] M L. Gouchman, violiniste, Nice. M r Jacques FRANÇAIS, New York, en 19(64)? (1878) Mlle. Lorès, Barcelona Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1736 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames rising [from the centre-joint]; in the halfwidth on the right the flames are evenly spaced, in the half-width on the left they are uneven and wider. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; splits at the bass-bar and at the chin; thick purfling, rather badly fitted at the bottom. Very thick edges. The head [has been] broken, having a full-length cheek [added] to the E-string side of the peg-box; there is a patch at the D-string peg. The neck is original has been replaced. The varnish is golden red. M. Roussy, from Paris (bought from the Hills, 25,000 francs, in 1897). M. L Gouchman, violinist, Nice. M. Jacques Français, New York, in 19(64)? This violin is today known as the Roussy (CzAr/Tarisio ID 41573); the website photographs clearly reveal the difference between the back-plate flames on each side of the centre-joint. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 337) writes: ‘The label bears an inscription of Dom Vicenzo Ascensio, a Spanish priest who, as may be read in the Hill book, “improved” (?) many fine instruments by his repairing!’ The descriptive text makes no mention of such an inscription. Doring also states that the Hills purchased this violin ‘from Señora Clarice di Françia of Madrid, in whose family it had been held for upwards of a century’; it is unclear whether Mademoiselle Lorès (of Barcelona) was a member of the di Françia family (of Madrid). The CzAr/Tarisio website associates the 1736 violin with ‘E. L. Roussy’ in 1909 rather than in 1897.

***** JF55.2, p. 74 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 74 [U] (année 1878) M r le Vicomte de Janzé, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces [blank space] ligne, année 1722 (le Jupiter) 146

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Fond de deux pièces, veines un peu serrées, veines grises dans le bas fesant l’effet de chanteaux à droite et à gauche, belles éclisses, cassure sous la main à 8 lignes du talon. Table beau sapin. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge doré. Ex Goding. (1878) M. le Vicomte de Janzé, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [blank space] ligne, year 1722 (the Jupiter) The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames slightly tight/narrow; there are faint/dull vein-lines in the lower bout, to the right and to the left, giving the appearance of width-inserts. Beautiful ribs; a split [in the rib] under the hand 8 lignes [18mm] from the neck-foot. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce. Attractive head. The varnish is golden red. ex Goding. A definitive identification of the ‘Vicomte de Janzé’ has not been achieved, but he was not Frédéric Jacques de Janzé (1896-1933) who married Alice Silverthorne and became part of the ‘Happy Valley’ group of friends who lived in Kenya. Equally (in light of the information from the Hills regarding the 1857 auction of the Goding collection – see below) he cannot have been Frédéric Jacques’ father – Comte François Louis Léon de Janzé – who was born in 1848. A Jupiter violin is listed on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41306) but the photographs show a one-piece slab-cut back plate; the label-date is specified both as ‘Anno 17..’ and as ‘1700’. See JF55.2, p. 22 [L]. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 107) describes a Jupiter violin of 1700 as well as a Jupiter/Imperator violin of 1722 (ibid. p. 422). Doring (ibid., p. 247) identifies a sap-line in the two-piece back plate of the 1722 violin and refers to a commentary written by the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 69): […] we have seen several specimens dated 1722 with backs cut from the same part of the tree, stained by a sap mark on either side of the joint. The Hills (ibid., p. 273) relate that, in 1857, ‘at the Goding sale a violin dated 1722 was sold for £200; [… This violin] was purchased by Vuillaume on behalf of the Vicomte de Janzé, who retained it until 1886, when he sold it to the Duc de Camposelice, per the intermediary of George Withers, for 30,000 francs = £1,200.’ Elsewhere in the same publication (pp. 69-70) the Hills add: ‘The year 1722 furnishes, amongst others, [… the violin] formerly in the Goding, Janzé, and Camposelice Collections, later owned by Mr. T. W. Barnes, of New York’. The identities of these two violins – Doring’s 1722 Jupiter/Imperator and the Hills’ 1722 ex Goding – appear to be tangled together, a possibility alluded to by Doring in an Errata slip included in his 1945 volume: ‘[…] and change “Imperator” to read “Jupiter”, that being the name under which this violin was formerly recorded. It is one of several violins so named.’

***** JF55.2, p. 74 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 74 [L] [M r le Vicomte de Janzé] (année 1878) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1718 Fond de 2 pièces bois gris, veines serrées droites, éclisses même bois. Table de deux pièces ayant beaucoup souffert, pièces carrées traversant sous les pieds du chevalet. Cassures au menton et de l’autre côté. Voûte pleine; modèle d’f un peu large. Tête bois uni, pièce à la cheville du La. Vernis brun doré. Ex Kiggen Meyer, Ducommun 6,000 f, 19 Novbre 1880 Table et tête de J h fils d’André; estimé 10,000 f en 1934 Revu le violon en 35 ou 36, il est complètement faux. 147

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

[M. le Vicomte de Janzé] (1878) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1718 The back plate is made from two pieces; drab/lacklustre wood; the flames are tight/narrow and straight. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made from two pieces, having suffered much [damage]; there are square patches [full depth?] under the feet of the bridge. There are splits at the chin and on the other side [of the tail-piece?]; fulsome arching; the shaping of the fs is slightly wide. The head is made from plain wood, with a patch at the Astring peg. The varnish is golden brown. ex Kiggen Meyer, Ducommun 6,000 francs, 19 November 1880 Front plate and head made by Giuseppe [Guarneri] filius Andreæ; estimated at 10,000 francs in 1934 Reviewed the violin in 1935 or 36; it is completely false. The CzAr/Tarisio website does not identify a 1718 violin as having belonged to Vicomte de Janzé; M. Kiggen is associated only with a 1669 Jacob Stainer viola. This violin is described for a second time, at JF55.2, p. 136 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 136 [L]:

Meyer Ducommun Violon Stradivarius, année 1718, 13p. 1l. Fond de 2 pièces, bois gris, veines serrées droite, éclisses même bois, table de 2 pièces ayant beaucoup souffert voûte pleine, modèle d’f un peu large, tête bois uni, pièce à la cheville du La. (6,000 f en 1880, ici) Revu le violon en 1934; n’a de Stradivarius que le fond et les éclisses; table et tête de J h fils d’André, estimé 10,000 f. 1935-36, Revu d’instrument pour moi n’a rien de Str. Meyer Ducommun Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1718, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; drab/lacklustre wood; the flames are tight/narrow and straight. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made from two pieces, having suffered much [damage]; fulsome arching; the shaping of the fs is slightly wide. The head is made from plain wood, with a patch at the A-string peg. (6,000 francs in 1880, here) Reviewed the violin in 1934; there is nothing by Stradivari except for the back plate and the ribs; the front plate and the head are by Joseph [Giuseppe Guarneri] filius Andreæ; estimated value 10,000 francs. 1935-36, reviewed the instrument; for me [i.e. Emile Français] there is nothing by Stradivari. ***** JF55.2, p. 75 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 75 [U] (année 1878) M r de Janzé, Paris (suite) [Monsieur le Vicomte de Janzé in Gand] Alto Stradivarius, 15 pouces 3 lignes, année 1705 [the 5 then altered to 1; 1701 in EF/JF55.4; 1705 in Gand] Fond d’une pièce, beau bois veines larges, belles éclisses (16 lignes de hauteur en haut et 17 lignes en bas) très-belle table, longueur du diapason au cran des f 8 pouces moins une ligne. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. Cet instrument est parfaitement conservé sauf un trou de ver dans le haut du fond à gauche au-dessus et près du coin. 148

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Camposelice Mac-Donald Warburg, U.S.A. (1878) M. de Janzé, Paris (continuing) Antonio Stradivari viola, 15 pouces 3 lignes [412.8mm], year 1705/1701 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wood, wide flames. Beautiful ribs which are 16 lignes high [36.1mm] in the upper bout [next to the neck-foot] and 17 lignes [38.4mm] in the lower bout [next to the tail-piece end pin]. Very beautiful front plate. The length of the diapason [from the front face of the fingerboard nut] to the notches of the fs is 8 pouces minus 1 ligne [214.3mm]. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. This instrument is perfectly conserved apart from a worm track in the back plate upper bout, on the left, above and next to the [upper] corner of the C. Camposelice MacDonald Warburg, USA. This viola is that which is known today as the MacDonald (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40262). The Hills (Hill (1902), pp. 101-102) write: We now come to probably the best-known example of the violas – that named the “Macdonald”, dated 1701. It was brought to England at the end of the eighteenth century by the Marquis dalla Rosa, and was subsequently successively owned by Lord Macdonald, Mr. Goding, the Vicomte de Janzé, and the Duc de Camposelice. A record in our possession made a century ago [c.1800?] gives the date as of the year 1701, but at some later time the last two figures were clumsily altered to read 1720. So things remained until recently, when a slight repair necessitated the instrument being taken to pieces, and enabled us to critically examine the label. Pleasurable indeed was our surprise, on removing it[!], to find that the original ink had passed through the paper and clearly showed the traces of its correct date [‘correct date’ is therefore assumed to be 1701]. If the Hills were only able to establish the ‘correct’ date by removing the label and inspecting its glued face then this would seem to indicate that the original third and fourth numerals on the front face of the label – ‘01’ – were entirely obliterated by the altering ‘20’ numerals. If so, how could Charles Gand, in 1878, have seen the numerals ‘05’? The descriptive text does not mention any ‘clumsily altered’ hand-written figures on the viola’s label. The CzAr/Tarisio website dates the viola to ‘c.1719’; the website also quotes Peter Schidlof (violist in the Amadeus Quartet) relaying Charles Beare’s opinion that the viola dates from 1718. On the Ingles & Hayday website (accessed May 2016) the viola was dated as 1719. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 115) – following his personal inspection of the instrument – also dates the viola to 1701.

***** JF55.2, p. 75 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 75 [L] [M r de Janzé] Il n’y a que la table de Strad, tout le reste est de Loth (année 1878) Violoncelle. Table Stradivarius de 2 pièces, 27 pouces 7 lignes. Largeur en haut 12 pouces 1 ligne, au milieu 8 pouces 1 ligne, en bas 15 pouces 4 lignes, écartement des f 2 pouces 10 lignes, beau sapin, bien conservée. Fond de 2 pièces et éclisses bois superbe, ondes très-larges ayant du être faits par Forster, Loth.(a) Tête du même bois moins riche, veines plus serrées. Vernis de la table un peu terreux. Vernis du fond, des éclisses et de la tête d’un rouge doré superbe, onctueux et transparent. Le chiffre de l’étiquette de Stradivarius est gratté. 149

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1908 Louis Hasselmans le possède 1937 entre les mains de Maucotel et Deschamp qui en demandant 50,000 f. [M. de Janzé] Only the front plate is by Stradivari; all the rest is by Loth [John Frederick Lott] (1878) Cello. Antonio Stradivari front plate made from two pieces; 27 pouces 7 lignes in length [746.6mm]. The width of the upper bout is 12 pouces 1 ligne [327.1mm], the width of the centre bout is 8 pouces 1 ligne [218.8mm], the width of the lower bout is 15 pouces 4 lignes [415.1mm]. The distance between the [upper eyes] of the fs is 2 pouces 10 lignes [76.7mm]. Beautiful spruce, well conserved. The back plate is made from two pieces, and the ribs are made of superb wood, the flames very wide – they must have been made by Forster, Loth.(a) The head is made from the same wood – [but] less opulent – the flames being tighter/narrower. The varnish of the front plate is slightly muddy. The varnish of the back plate, the ribs, and the head, is a superb golden red, unctuous and transparent. The date on the Stradivari label is abraded [scratched off?]. 1908, owned by Louis Hasselmans 1937, in the hands of Maucotel and Deschamp who are asking 50,000 francs. (a)

in EF/JF55.4 only ‘Loth’ is written; John Frederick Lott (1804-1870).

Louis Hasselmans was a Belgian cellist who died in 1957. This undated cello is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website as the Scholz/composite of 1730 (ID 42269); see also JF55.2, p. 70 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 76 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 76 [U] (année 1878) M r Frédéric Lehmann, Londres Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1724 Fond de deux pièces, belles veines descendant, belles éclisses. Table de deux pièces, cassure au-dessus de l’f gauche et une en bas. L’f très longues et excentriques. Tête très-caractérisée. Vernis jaune. Ex Oll Bull. (1878) M. Frédéric Lehmann, London Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1724 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, descending. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; a split above the bass f and one below. The fs are very long and eccentric. The head is very characteristic. The varnish is yellow. ex Oll [Ole] Bull. Ole Bull (1810-1880) was a renowned Norwegian violinist. The Ole Bull violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 40453; the list of owners, post Bull, includes James Goding ‘until 1857’ and C H C Plowden ‘in 1866’. The violin was exhibited at the 1885 International Inventions Exhibition (Loan Collection of Musical Instruments), Albert Hall, London; the exhibition’s Guide described the violin as: LEHMANN, Mr. F. – Violin, Italian, by Joseph Guarnerius del Gesu, of Cremona. Date 1727. Brought to England by Ole Bull, afterwards in the Goding and Plowden collections. In Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 149, it is stated that ‘The “Ole Bull” is one of only two violins known to bear an authentic label of 1744 […].’ The photograph of the Ole Bull label (ibid., Vol. Two, p. 151)

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demonstrates the difficulty in interpreting the shapes of the last two (hand-written) numerals; the third numeral could easily be a ‘2’ rather than a ‘4’.

***** JF55.2, p. 76 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 76 [L] [M r Frédéric Lehmann] (année 1878) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1708 Fond de deux pièces, veines assez larges descendant un peu à droite, jolies éclisses ayant toutes des cassures. Table de deux pièces sapin très-fin. Cassures au menton, cassure au bas de l’f droite. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge chargé de vernis blanc dans toutes ses parties. [M. Frédéric Lehmann] (1878) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1708 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames quite wide, descending slightly to the right. Attractive ribs, but with splits everywhere. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin. There are splits at the chin and a split at the bottom of the treble f. Attractive head. The red varnish has been covered with transparent sealer/varnish – everywhere. Although it is unusual, violins do exist which have two-piece back plates where the wood has been arranged so that the flames descend, or rise, in continuous or near-continuous lines (as would be seen on a one-piece plate). The CzAr/Tarisio website associates ‘Dr F A Lehmann’ only with the Stradivari Bavarian violin of 1720. No further information about the 1708 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 77 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 77 [U] (année 1877) M r C. G. Meïer, Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, anéee 1710 See JF55.2, p. 45 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 77 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 77 [L] [M r C. G. Meïer] (année 1878) Violoncelle Stradivarius, année 1735, d’anni 92 Fond de 2 pièces, veines serrées droites. Cassure à l’âme (pièce intérieure très-bien ajustée), éclisses en bois semblable. Table 2 pièces, beau sapin, cassures à la barre. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge pâle tirant sur le brun. [M. C G Meïer] (1878) Antonio Stradivari cello, year 1735, ‘of years 92’ The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are tight/narrow and straight. There is a split at the sound-post ([with] an internal patch which is very well fitted). The ribs are made of very similar wood [to that of the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with splits at the bass-bar. Very beautiful head. The varnish is pale red, verging towards brown.

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The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40050) identifies this cello as the Paganini/Ladenburg; the associated photograph of the cello’s back plate shows tightly-packed narrow flames which are almost horizontal. The website provides a photograph of the cello’s label, with the date clearly and unambiguously showing as 1736 (the first numeral printed, the remainder hand-drawn). Underneath the words ‘Faciebat Anno’ is the handwritten annotation, in ink: ‘D’AN I 92’. The second ‘N’ of ‘ANNI’ has been erased in some manner, leaving a curiously wide space where the letter would have been written; the erasure has also removed part of the ‘t’ of ‘Faciebat’ and part of the ‘A’ of ‘Anno’ in the line of text above the annotation. The Hills (Hill (1902), pp. 144-145) write: The very interesting example [currently] owned by Herr Robert von Mendelssohn, dated 1736 (?), calls for special remark. It is the only example known to us made later than 1730 […] As already stated, it bears a label dated, we believe, 1736 (the last figure is unfortunately completely obscured); but as the master says on the margin “D’Anni 92” the year must have been 1735 or ’36. Whether this label – which, although tampered with, is undoubtedly original – really belongs to this violoncello we hesitate to affirm or deny; […]. The CzAr/Tarisio photograph of the Ladenburg label suggests that someone – post the Hills – replaced the ‘tampered with …original’ label (having a ‘completely obscured’ final numeral and a ‘D’Anni 92’ annotation) with the entirely unambiguous 1736 label (having a D’AN I 92’ annotation). The Hills continue their commentary: [The cello] was purchased from Vuillaume in 1840 by a distinguished German amateur, M. Lemire, for, we believe, 6000 francs, and Vuillaume stated that it came from Paganini. It subsequently passed into the hands of a violoncellist, Krumbholz by name […]. He died about 1876, when the violoncello was purchased from his heirs by Mr. C. G. Meier for 10,000 marks, and brought to London. It afterwards passed into the possession of M. Ladenburg of Frankfort, who sold it in 1895 to its present owner [Robert von Mendelssohn]. The Hills’ information is supported by a commentary which appeared in Le Guide Musical: Revue Hebdomadaire des Nouvelles musicales de la Belgique et de l’étranger, 14 January 1875 (translation by the present author): The celebrated cello of Stradivari, having been owned by Monsieur Le Mire and then by Monsieur de Ploos, has been bought for 9,000 francs by the cellist Krumholz, of Stuttgart. This instrument – with those of [Auguste-Joseph] Franchomme [label-dated 1711], [Karl] Davidoff [1712], and [Adrien-François] Servais [1701] – is the most beautiful Stradivari known; it dates from the best period of the master’ (de la meilleure période du maître). Stradivari’s ‘best period’ – his ‘Golden Period’ – does not extend as far as 1735/1736. The Ladenburg cello, dated 1736, is identified by Claude Lebet (Lebet, pp. 35-38).

***** JF55.2, p. 78 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 78 [U] (année 1878) M r Picquot, Couché-Vérac (Vienne) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces faibles, année 1732 Fond de 2 pièces, beau bois ondes presque droites, éclisses veines douces plus larges. Table de deux pièces ayant quelques cassures. Belle tête bien conservée. Vernis jaune rouge (encrassé au milieu de la table). (1878) M. Picquot, [Couhé]-Vérac (Vienne) [Poitou-Charentes] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces barely [351.9mm], year 1732 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wood, the flames almost straight. The flames of the ribs are mild, and wider [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made of two pieces, having some splits. Beautiful head, well conserved. The varnish is yellow-red (dirty in the middle of the front plate). 152

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No further information about this violin, or about M. Picquot, has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 78 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 78 [L] (année 1878) M r Siemens, Londres Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1712 Fond de 2 pièces veines douces presque droites descendant légèrement à droite, petite cassure dans le bas à droite du joint. Eclisses bois un peu plus veiné. Table de deux pièces, sapin serré ayant des cassures assez importantes à l’âme, à la barre, et au menton. Tête très lourde. Vernis rouge brun doré. (Vendu 7,500 f par Withers). (1878) M. Siemens, London Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1712 The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, almost straight, descending gently to the right; there is a small split in the lower bout to the right of the centre-joint. The wood of the ribs is slightly more flamed [than on the back]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow; there are quite significant splits at the sound-post, at the bass-bar, and at the chin. The head is very heavy. The varnish is golden red-brown. (Sold for 7,500 francs by Withers [of London]). It is assumed that the ‘M. Siemens’ identified in the above descriptive text is Werner von Siemens (see also JF55.2, p. 21 [L]). However ‘M. Siemens’ may be Werner’s younger brother, Carl (1829-1906). Carl’s name is associated on the CzAr/Tarisio website with the Baron Heath Guarneri of 1743 (ID 43582). The name ‘Siemens’ is not mentioned by the Hills (1931). If the described violin was made by Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù, and if the Hills’ definition of Giuseppe’s date of birth – 1698 – is correct (see Hill (1931), p. 67) then Giuseppe was 14 years of age when he made it.

***** JF55.2, p. 79 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 79 [U] (année 1878) M r Samal Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1722 Fond d’une pièce à contresens un peu serré ayant une doublure. Très-belles éclisses. Table de deux pièces ayant des cassures. Tête antérieure. Vernis rouge doré. (1878) M. Samal Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1722 The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain; [the flames] slightly tight/narrow, [the plate] having a doubling. Very beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits. The head is of earlier construction [i.e. earlier than 1722]. The varnish is golden red. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 79 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 79 [L] (année 1878) M r de Saveuse, Abbeville Violoncelle Stradivarius recoupé, 26 pouces 10 lignes, année 1726 153

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Fond et éclisses en peuplier. Cassures aux éclisses du bas, hauteur des éclisses 4 pouces. Table de trois pièces avec chanteaux dans le bas, deux cassures dans le bas à droite, longueur du diapason aux crans des f 14 pouces 4 lignes. Tête retouchée et revernie. Vernis rouge maron. (1878) M. de Saveuse, Abbeville Antonio Stradivari cello, re-cut [reduced in size?], 26 pouces 10 lignes [726.4mm], year 1726 The back plate and the ribs are made from poplar wood. There are splits in the lower ribs; the height of the ribs is 4 pouces [108.3mm]. The front plate is made from three pieces with widthinserts in the lower bout. There are two splits in the lower bout, to the right [i.e. treble side]. The ‘diapason’, to the [inner] notches of the fs, is 14 pouces, 4 lignes [388mm]. The head has been re-touched and re-varnished. The [body?] varnish is red/chestnut-brown. This cello is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41609) as the Comte de Saveuse; the back length is specified as 725mm.

***** JF55.2, p. 80 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 80 [U] (année 1878) M lle Tedesca Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1734 Fond de 2 pièces, très-beau bois, talon neuf, belles éclisses. Table de 2 pièces, cassures à l’âme, deux petites au menton. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. 1880 M r Wimphen, 8,000. (1878) Mlle. Tedesca Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1734 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful wood. Modified neck-foot. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; there are splits at the sound-post, and two small [splits] at the chin. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. 1880 M. Wimphen, 8,000. No further information about this 1734 Guarneri violin has been located. For M. Wimphen see also JF55.2 p. 71 [L], 103 [U], and 199 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 80 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 80 [L] (année 1878) M r de Vilainne, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1709 Fond de deux pièces très-beau, veines presque droites descendant un peu, cercle au talon, éclisses ondes un peu plus larges, celle du bas côté droit ayant une petite pièce carrée de 3 lignes dans le milieu. Table ayant quelques cassures des deux côtés, pièce d’âme. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. (Ex Artot) 1885 M r le duc de Camposelice, 15,000. (1878) M. de Vilainne, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1709 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the flames almost straight, descending slightly; there is a circle [of ebony?] around the neck-foot. The flames of the ribs are slightly wider [than on the back plate]; the rib of the lower-right side having a small square patch, 3 154

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lignes [6.7mm], in the middle. The front plate having some splits on both sides [on both halfwidths], and a patch at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. (ex Artot) 1885 M. le Duc de Camposelice, 15,000. This violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41356.

***** JF55.2, p. 81 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 81 [U] (année 1878) M r Wenigmann, Francfort Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1741 Fond de 2 pièces, veines droites douces. Eclisses du C et du bas côté du menton ayant des cassures. Table de deux pièces, sapin un peu fin, cassure à la barre et traces de trous de vers dans le haut. Tête ayant des joues. Vernis rouge doré surchargé de vernis blanc. (1878) M. Wenigmann, Frankfurt Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1741 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are straight and mild. The ribs of the Cbout, and the rib in the lower bout, at the chin, have splits. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] slightly thin. There is a split at the bass-bar and traces of worm tracks in the upper bout. The head having cheek patches. The varnish is golden red covered with transparent sealer/varnish. No further information about this violin, or about M. Wenigmann, has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 81 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 81 [L] (année 1878) M r van der Straten, Bruxelles Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1688 Fond de 2 pièces, veines inégales et douces. Eclisses ondes douces. Table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, cassure au-dessus de l’f gauche et une au coin droit. L’f Amatisées. Très-belle tête Amatisée, ayant une petite pièce carrée.(a) Vernis jaune doré coloré. (1878) M. van der Straten, Brussels Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1688 The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames of uneven width. The flames of the ribs are [also] mild. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin. There is a split above the bass f and one at the treble-side corner [upper or lower?]. The fs are Amatisé in style. Very beautiful head, [also] Amatisé, having a small square patch.(a) The varnish is a bright golden yellow. (a)

Here Charles Gand draws a small sketch of the bass side of the scroll and peg-box showing, on the uppermost curve of the scroll, the location of the square patch. The drawing is replicated in the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 ledgers. M. van der Straten is likely Edmund Sebastian Joseph van der Straeten, a cellist and author (1855-1934). The violin’s history and physical characteristics are discussed at length by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 63). The photographs provided by Doring (ibid., p. 62) include one which shows the bass side of the scroll; a faint indication of a patch on the side of the uppermost curve can be observed (similarly within the photographs provided on CzAr/Tarisio, ID 40205, where this 1688 violin is identified as the Mercury/Avery).

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JF55.2, p. 82 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 82 [U] (année 1873) M r Laurie, Glasgow (Ecosse) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1712 Fond de deux pièces, veines moyennes assez belles, belles éclisses, table de 2 pièces, beau sapin ayant une petite cassure à l’âme et une au dessous de l’f droite, deux petites gerçures au menton, très-belle tête. Vernis rouge clair doré. 5,000 Ex marquis de Sayvé. (1873) M. Laurie, Glasgow (Scotland) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1712 The back plate is made from two pieces; medium flames, fairly beautiful. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having a small split at the sound-post and [another] below the treble f; two small splits at the chin. Very beautiful head, the varnish is light golden red. 5,000 ex Marquis de Sayvé. The Marquis de Sayvé is also identified at JF55.2, p. 63 [U] and 72 [L]. No further information about this 1712 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 82 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 82 [L] [M r Laurie] (année 1876) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1707 Fond d’une pièce, ondes larges remontant à droite, éclisses bois semblable, celle du bas à droite ayant une pièce de 17 lignes. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin au milieu, plus large sur les côtés, ayant pas mal de cassures. Tête ayant été cassée. Vernis rouge doré. 1881 G et B, ioxz – 1881 – Princesse de Podenas 10,000 1892 Mathias 12,000 1918 Wurlitzer par Max Rosen $12,000. [M. Laurie] (1876) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1707 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are wide, rising to the right. The ribs are made from very similar wood; the lower-right rib having a patch of 17 lignes [38.4mm]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin in the middle [but] wider at the sides, having quite a lot of splits. The head having been broken. The varnish is golden red. 1881 G & B [Gand & Bernardel], ioxz, 1881, Princesse de Podenas, 10,000 1892 Mathias, 12,000 1918 [sold to?] Wurlitzer by [through?] Max Rosen, 12,000 dollars. This violin is identified by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 131) as the Marquis de Champeaux. No further information regarding the identity of the Marquis de Champeaux has been located. Ernest Doring indicates that Max Rosen sold the violin to Emil Herrmann in 1929. The ‘Princesse de Podenas’ may be Mrs Benjamin Francis Berry (née Marguerite du Bouzet de Roquépine de Poudenas).

*****

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JF55.2, p. 83 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 83 [U] (année 1876) M r Laurie, Glasgow, (suite) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1688 (Amatisé) Fond d’une pièce à contresens, éclisses bien ondées, table de deux pièces, beau sapin un peu fin sur les côtés, cassure au menton et une petite à l’âme, très-jolie tête. Vernis jaune doré. (1876) M. Laurie, Glasgow (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1688 (Amatisé) The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain. The ribs are nicely flamed. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; [?the rings are] slightly thin at the sides; there is a split at the chin and a small split at the sound-post. Very attractive head. The varnish is golden yellow. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies only three Stradivari violins of 1688: the Guyot, the Derenberg, and the Mercury (see above, p. 81 [L]); Ernest Doring identifies the same instruments; all three violins have two-piece back plates. In the ‘Prices of Italian Instruments’, included in David Laurie’s Reminiscences, a Stradivari violin of 1688 is listed as having been sold on 1 January 1878 for £350; the name of the purchaser is not indicated but the violin may be that which is described above.

***** JF55.2, p. 83 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 83 [L] [M r Laurie] (année 1876) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1697 Fond de 2 pièces, veines presque droites, jolies éclisses. Table de deux pièces, beau sapin trèsbien conservée. Vernis brun doré. [M. Laurie] (1876) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1697 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames almost straight. Attractive ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, very well conserved. The varnish is golden brown. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 84 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 84 [U] (année 1878) M r Laurie, Glasgow (Ecosse) (suite) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1726 Fond d’une pièce, veines très-serrées, un peu à contresens (doublé) éclisses semblables, table de deux pièces, cassures à la barre, à l’âme, et au menton. Voûtes pleines. Tête bois uni. Vernis brun doré un peu terreux. (1878) M. Laurie, Glasgow (Scotland) (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1726 The back plate is in one piece; the flames very tight/narrow, cut slightly against the grain (doubled). The ribs are very similar. The front plate is made from two pieces; with splits at the bass-bar, at the sound-post, and at the chin; the arching is fulsome. The head is made from plain wood. The varnish is golden brown, slightly muddy.

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This violin is seemingly identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 40135, the Sleeping Beauty. The associated photographs show tightly packed and horizontal flames in the back plate and a scroll made from plain wood. A photographic feature which is not mentioned in the descriptive text is that the flanks of the back plate’s lower bout have small inserts which complete the required width of the bout. The photograph of the front plate suggests that the purfling in the chin-rest area has been replaced (but this may have been a repair carried out since 1878). High-quality photographs and a substantial historical narrative for the Sleeping Beauty violin are provided by Jost Thöne (Vol. IV, pp. 112-119).

***** JF55.2, p. 84 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 84 [L] [M r Laurie] (année 1879) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1739 Fond d’une pièce très-beau bois veines descendant à droite, belles éclisses, celle du haut opposée à la main ayant deux petites cassures, table de deux pièces beau sapin, petite cassure à l’âme, belle tête un peu lourde. Vernis jaune doré un peu opaque. [M. Laurie] (1879) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1739 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful wood, the flames descending to the right. Beautiful ribs: the upper-bout rib opposite the hand having two small splits. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce with a small split at the sound-post. Beautiful head, slightly heavy. The varnish is golden yellow, slightly opaque. A 1739 Guarneri del Gesù violin appears in David Laurie’s list of sales (Reminiscences) sold on 28 August 1879 for £650; the name of the purchaser is not stated. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 85 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 85 [U] (année 1879) M r Laurie, Glasgow, (suite) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1744 Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes remontant à droite, jolies éclisses, table de deux pièces, beau sapin un peu fin au milieu, cassure au-dessus de l’f gauche à l’endroit de la barre. Tête cassée à la cheville du La, trous de la chanterelle et du La rebouchés. Vernis jaune doré. 1879 M r Gleichauff, 8,000 f. (1879) M. Laurie, Glasgow (continuing) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1744 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful flames rising to the right. Attractive ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; [?the rings are] slightly thin in the middle; there is a split above the left-side f in the area of the bass-bar. The head [has been] broken at the A-string peg; the [peg-] holes for the E-string and the A-string have been bushed. The varnish is golden yellow. 1879 M. Gleichauff, 8,000 francs. For further information see N. Sackman, John Tiplady Carrodus: a tale of seven violins (linked from the www.themessiahviolin.uk website).

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JF55.2, p. 85 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 85 [L] [M r Laurie] (année 1879) Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne faible, année 1719 Fond de deux pièces, belles ondes remontant, belles éclisses, table ayant des cassures près de la barre et au menton. Très-belle tête, vernis gras. Vernis du violon jaune doré foncé, trèsretouché, fond entièrement reverni. 1879 M r Marshall à Dondee, Ecosse, 6,000 f. [M. Laurie] (1879) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne, barely [354.2mm], year 1719 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, rising [from the centre-joint]. Beautiful ribs. The front plate having splits near the bass-bar and at the chin. Very beautiful head; the varnish is oily. The varnish of the violin is dark golden yellow, extensively retouched; the back plate has been entirely re-varnished. 1879 M. Marshall, from Dundee, Scotland, 6,000 francs. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 86 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 86 [U] (année 1870) M r Defrance, S t Etienne Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1708 Fond d’une pièce, veines droites, ayant une veine dans le haut à gauche ressemblant à une cassure, éclisses veines plus larges, table de 2 pièces ayant plusieurs cassures au menton. Trèsbelle tête. Vernis rouge un peu decoloré. 1876 M r Laurie, 5,500 f Vendu à Dancla par Germain; repris à Dancla en 1903 pour rxzxz; vendu à Dufresne, Logelbach, moxzx; repris à Dufresne et recédé à Nadaud en 1903 X bre pour rxzxz; repris à Nadaud pour moxzx et vendu Colonel Maître contre 1708 et oxzx en Mars 1912. (1870) M. Defrance, St. Etienne Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1708 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are straight, having a vein-line in the upper bout, on the left, which looks like a split. The ribs have flames which are wider. The front plate is made from two pieces having several splits at the chin. Very beautiful head. The varnish is red, slightly faded. 1876 M. Laurie, 5,500 francs Sold to [Charles] Dancla by [Emile] Germain; re-acquired [by Caressa & Français] from Dancla in 1903 for rxzxz; sold to Dufresne, Logelbach for moxzx; re-acquired from Dufresne and re-sold to [Edouard] Nadaud in December 1903 for rxzxz; re-acquired from Nadaud for moxzx and sold to Colonel Maître against his 1708 [Stradivari violin] and [an additional payment of] oxzx in March 1912. A Dancla violin dated 1708 is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 43076); the sequential owners are identified as Defrance, David Laurie, Emile Germain, Charles Dancla, Dufresne, Edouard Nadaud, and Colonel Maître. The associated photographs of the back plate clearly show a perpendicular vein line in the back plate upper bout, on the left.

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See JF55.2, p. 72bis [U] for details of a 1725/1728 Stradivari violin which, confusingly, was passsed to E Dufresne in December 1903 in exchange for his Dancla violin. The Stradivari violin owned by Colonel Maître – apparently also dated 1708 – is the violin described at JF55.2, p. 157. In addition to the 1708 Dancla violin described above there is also the 1703 Dancla violin which belongs to the German violinist Linus Roth, and the 1710 Dancla violin which is associated with the Russian violinist Nathan Milstein; for both of these violins see JF55.2, p. 45 [L]. A second description of the 1708 violin appears at JF55.2, p. 148 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 148 [U]:

[no date] Ch. Dancla, à Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius, 1708, 360mm, fond d’une pièce, ondes droites et vives, veine perpendiculaire à gauche en haut, ressemblant à une cassure, éclisses superbes, à grosses ondes droites et vives; très-belle table de deux pièces, sapin fin, régulier, pièce d’âme, deux cassures au menton, plusieurs gerçures sur les bords du haut, tête magistrale; vernis rouge brun doré, très-beau. (ex Defrance) Vendu à M r E. Dufresne le 23 7bre 1903, moxzx Cédé à Nadaud en 1904 – rxzxz. Charles Dancla, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 1708, 360mm. The back plate is in one piece; the flames are straight and bright; there is a perpendicular vein-line in the upper bout, on the left, resembling a split. The ribs are superb, having very large flames which are straight [vertical?] and bright. The very beautiful front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, regular. There is a patch at the sound-post, two splits at the chin, several splits at the edges in the upper bout. The head is magisterial. The varnish is golden red-brown, very beautiful. (ex Defrance) Sold to M. E Dufresne on 23 September 1903, moxzx Made over to Nadaud in 1904 – rxzxz. ***** JF55.2, p. 86 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 86 [L] (année 1878) M r Lecomte, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1693 (recoupé) Fond d’une pièce en érable peu ondé ayant plusieurs cassures, éclisses un peu plus ondées, celles du C côté de l’âme et du bas du côté de la barre plus modernes. Table très-beau sapin ayant quelques cassures. Belle tête érable uni très-bien conservée. Vernis brun clair (les bords du fond et de la table neufs). 5,000 Ex Bonnet Vendu en Mars 1912 mxzxz à Lennart de Freyberg [JF55.2 only] acheté ensuite par la baronne de Kaulbach de Munich par l’intermédiare de Hugo Becker, racheté en 1940 à Gerhard Schmidt luthier par Mr Yes Schaepman à Amsterdam. (1878) M. Lecomte, Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1693, (re-cut) [i.e reduced in size] The back plate is one piece of maple; slightly flamed; having several splits; the ribs are slightly more flamed. The rib of the C on the sound-post side, and the lower rib on the bass-bar side, are 160

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more modern [?not made by Stradivari]. The front plate is made from very beautiful spruce having some splits. Beautiful head of plain maple, very well conserved. The varnish is light brown (the edges of the back plate and the front plate are new). 5,000 ex Bonnet Sold in March 1912, mxzxz, to Lennart, of Freiburg Subsequently bought by the Baroness of Kaulbach (Munich) through the intermediary Hugo Becker; bought in 1940 from Gerhard Schmidt, luthier, by M. Yves Schaepman, of Amsterdam. This cello is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as the Bonnet (ID 30777); the website identifies ‘M. Lecomte’ as the owner ‘in 1878’. However, the website’s list of owners makes no mention of Lennart, or the Baroness of Kaulbach, or Gerard Schmidt, or Yves Schaepman. The associated photographs show clearly that the cello’s back plate is made from two pieces of maple rather than just one (but a single piece of maple for the back-plate width of a cello is implausible). It is difficult to reconcile the JF55.2 description of the cello’s front plate – ‘made from very beautiful spruce’ – with the evidence of the relevant CzAr/Tarisio photograph which shows a front plate having extensive abrasions, scratches, scuff marks, and chipped areas of wood; the wood around the fs appears to have suffered greatly. It is possible (though unlikely) that all this damage has taken place since 1878.

***** JF55.2, p. 87 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 87 [U] (année 1879) M r Gentil, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1699 (Amatisé) Fond de 2 pièces veines serrées presque droites descendant légèrement, éclisses bois semblables, celles du bas ayant été enfoncées, celle de la main cassée et l’autre aussi près du tasseau. Table de deux pièces ayant beaucoup de cassures, doublures. Vernis jaune doré. Tête Vuillaume, vernis plus rouge. 2,800 Ex Castel-Barco. (1879) M. Gentil, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1699 (Amatisé) The back plate is made from two pieces; tight/narrow flames, almost straight, gently descending. The ribs are made from very similar wood [as used for the back plate], the ribs of the lower bout having been pushed inwards; the rib of the hand [upper-treble side] has been broken, and the other rib [upper-bass side?] also [broken] next to the block. The front plate is made from two pieces, having a lot of splits and doublings. The varnish is golden yellow. The head was made by [Jean-Baptiste] Vuillaume, the varnish being more red [than on the rest of the instrument]. 2,800 ex Castelbarco. Cesare Pompeo Castelbarco died in 1860. On 26 June 1862 an auction of ‘The Superb Collection of Cremona Instruments of the late Count Castelbarco, of Milan’ took place at the offices of Puttick & Simpson, in London. There were 31 Lots of which 13 were bows and cases; there was also ‘An Autograph Letter of ANTONIO STRADIUARIUS, 12 Agosto 1708.’ The Castelbarco Stradivari instruments being auctioned were: Violins: label-dated 1685, 1699, 1701, 1712, and 1713 Viola: label-dated 1715 Cellos: label-dated 1687 and 1697 (for which see JF55.2, p. 216 [L])

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Reproductions of the auction catalogue, together with the auctioneer’s notes detailing successful bids, are provided in James Coover, Music at Auction, pp. 185-188 (the source documents are archived at the British Library, London). According to the auctioneer’s ledger the 1699 violin was bought by ‘Bennett’ for £56; Bennett also bought a 1740 ‘Joseph Guarnerius, son of Andrew’ violin for £19, and a 1687 Stradivari cello for £115. ‘Bennett’ is not likely to have been the collector Richard Bennett (a subsequent owner of the Le Messie violin) since he was born in 1848 and surely would not have been a buyer at a public auction when aged thirteen or fourteen. At first sight it would seem that the descriptive details – label-date of 1699, 356.4mm body length, golden yellow varnish, the varnish of the head being more red – connect positively with the description of the 1699 violin which was printed in the auction catalogue (Lot 2): 2. A Violin by ANTONIUS STRADIUARIUS, anno 1699 large pattern, fine yellowish red varnish, highly preserved. However, the reported damage to the violin – both upper ribs broken, the lower ribs pushed inwards, many splits and doublings in the front plate, a new head (presumably replacing the original which had been damaged beyond repair), the head’s varnish not matching that on the body of the violin – all these sit against the catalogue comment: ‘highly preserved’. It is possible, of course, that Puttick & Simpson greatly exaggerated the condition of the 1699 violin; an alternative possibility is that all the damage took place in the years between 1862 and 1879. On balance, the probability is that M. Gentil’s violin, while it may once have been in the possession of Count Castelbarco, is not the 1699 violin which was auctioned by Puttick & Simpson. What is certain is that M. Gentil’s violin has no connection with the 1699 Castelbarco violin which, as part of the Gertrude Clarke Whittall collection, was presented to the US Library of Congress in 1936; the LoC violin has a one-piece back plate, ‘cut on the slab’. The name ‘Gentil’ does not produce any results on the CzAr/Tarisio website.

***** JF55.2, p. 87 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 87 [L] (année 1870) M r Wittering, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1702 Fond d’une pièce, veines remontant légèrement à droite. Table de 2 pièces, joli sapin un peu serré. Très-belle tête. Vernis jaune rouge doré. Bien conservé. 1876 vente Wittering, 6,300 1877 M r Laurie, 9,000. (1870) M. Wittering, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1702 The back plate is in one piece; the flames rising gently to the right. The front plate is made from two pieces; attractive spruce, [?the rings are] slightly tight/narrow. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow-red. Well conserved. 1876 [at the (posthumous?) auction of Wittering’s instruments], 6,300 1877 M. Laurie, 9,000. This violin is identified as the Lord Newlands, currently owned by the Nippon Music Foundation. It appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 40052; ‘Wittering’ is identified as the owner ‘from 1876’.

***** JF55.2, p. 88 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 88 [U] (année 1870) Monsieur Braga Violoncelle Stradivarius, 27 pouces 6 lignes, année 1731 162

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Largeur en haut 12 pouces 1 ligne, aux C 8 pouces 1 ligne, en bas 15 pouces 7 lignes Fond de 2 pièces ondes douces presque droites, cassure dans le bas à gauche à 18 lignes du bord. Eclisses ondes un peu plus larges. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, cassures à l’âme et aux 4 coins. Vernis rouge pâle opaque. Belle tête (douteuse)(a) vernis un peu plus foncé. Acheté par l’avocat Dr Luigi Mancini, aoxzx, 12 Königsallee à Dusseldorff (à Milan, 4 Via Tamburini). (1870) Monsieur Braga Antonio Stradivari cello, 27 pouces 6 lignes [744.4mm], year 1731 The [maximum] width across the upper bout is 12 pouces 1 ligne [327.1mm]; at the C-bout the [minimum] width is 8 pouces 1 ligne [218.8mm]; in the lower bout the [maximum] width is 15 pouces 7 lignes [421.8mm]. The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, almost straight; there is a split in the lower bout, on the left, 18 lignes [40.6mm] from the edge. The flames of the ribs are slightly wider [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with splits at the sound-post and at the four corners. The varnish is pale red; opaque. Beautiful head (of doubtful origin)(a) with varnish which is slightly darker. Bought by the lawyer Dr Luigi Mancini, aoxzx, 12 Königsallee, Düsseldorf (from Milan, 4 Via Tamburini). (a)

At this point a subsequent writer has added to the JF55.2 text pas de A.S – ‘not by Antonio Stradivari’; this annotation does not appear in EF/JF55.4. This cello appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41557 – the Braga. Gaetano Braga (1829-1907) was an Italian composer and a cellist.

***** JF55.2, p. 88 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 88 [L] (année 1870) Monsieur René Baillot Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1717 Fond d’une pièce ondes inégales, nœud dans le haut à gauche et deux trous de vers rebouchés dans le milieu du bas, plus un petit en dessous.(a) Jolies éclisses ondes douces. Table de deux pièces, sapin fin au milieu et large sur les bords, les côtés ayant une teinte plus foncée que le milieu. Chevilles dans le haut côté droit. Tête joli modèle, bois uni, veines longitudinales trèsapparentes. Vernis jaune rouge doré. Complètement intact. Ex Baillot Appartient à Julien Sauzay; de Omobonus Pour moi Francesco 1937, Exposition de Crémone, no 79 du catalogue à Herrmann, est daté de 1732. (1870) Monsieur René Baillot Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1717 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are of uneven width; there is a knot in the upper bout, on the left, and two patched worm tracks in the middle of the lower bout; there is another small [worm-hole] below [these].(a) Attractive ribs with mild flames. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin at the middle and wide at the edges, the flanks having a darker colour than at the middle; there are [locating] dowels in the upper bout, on the right. The head is an attractive model, plain wood, the longitudinal flames are very distinctive. The varnish is golden yellow-red. Completely intact. 163

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ex Baillot Owned by Julien Sauzay; [made by?] Omobono Stradivari For me [Emile Français] [the violin was made by] Francesco [Stradivari] 1937, the Cremona Exhibition, no. 79 in the catalogue, from Herrmann, [the violin] is dated 1732. (a)

Gand draws a sketch of the violin’s back plate showing the upper-bout/left-side knot through which runs a diagonally-descending ‘fault line’ from the bout-edge to the centre of the plate. Gand also draws the location of the three back-plate worm holes. The drawing is replicated in JF55.2 but not in EF/JF55.4. ‘Ex Baillot’ is assumed to refer to René Baillot’s father – Pierre Marie Baillot (1771-1842). The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies this violin as ID 41563 – the Baillot/Briselli – but specifies the date appearing on the ‘original label’ as ‘1732’. The website cites a certificate issued by Charles Enel, in 1920, which ‘states that the [current] date on the label (1732) was altered from the original inscription which read 1737.’ The website also cites a note made by Emil Herrmann in which the date of the violin is specified as 1717. In the concert booklet produced for the 1937 Stradivarius Memorial Concert in Carnegie Hall the Baillot violin is listed (p. 39) with the date of 1734. Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. IV, p. 246) suggests ‘c.1732’. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 317-318) provides a historical background for this violin and also cites Enel’s certificate (which Doring suggests is part of a ‘mystery’). The Thöne photographs of the back plate clearly show the knot and the diagonal ‘fault line’; two of the worm tracks in the middle of the lower bout can also be perceived.

***** JF55.2, p. 89 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 89 [U] (année 1878) M r Dervaux-Ibled Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1703 Fond d’une pièce ondes douces descendant un peu à droite, éclisses bois plus riche, celles du haut et du bas ayant été brisées, celles des C intactes. Table de 2 pièces, joli sapin, ayant des cassures et raccords de vernis. Vernis rouge doré. Tête ancienne très maigre. 1881 Meïer, hxzxz. (1878) M. Dervaux-Ibled Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1703 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are mild, descending slightly to the right; the wood of the ribs is more vivid. The upper and lower ribs have been broken, the ribs of the Cs are intact. The front plate is made from two pieces; attractive spruce, having breaks and joints in the varnish. The varnish is golden red. The head is original, very thin. 1881 Meïer, hxzxz. The name of M. Dervaux-Ibled is unknown to Ernest Doring and to the Hills (also unknown to the CzAr/Tarisio website). The website’s list of instruments owned by C G Meïer includes a violin dated 1703 – the Allegretti (CzAr/Tarisio ID 41323) – but the back plate is in two pieces.

***** JF55.2, p. 89 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 89 [L] (année 1880) M lle Tedesca Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1741 Fond de 2 pièces ondes droites douces (douteux); jolies éclisses rehaussées d’une ½ ligne du côté du fond (authentiques); table de deux pièces cassure au bas de l’f gauche descendant 164

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jusqu’en bas, 2 petites cassures au bas de la droite et une à droite de l’âme, sapin côtes apparentes (douteux). Très-jolie tête (authentique). Vernis rouge doré tirant un peu sur le brun. Ex Comte de Cessole. (1880) Mlle. Tedesca Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1741 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are straight and mild ([the back plate] is of doubtful authenticity). Attractive ribs, raised by a half ligne [1.1mm] at the joint[?] with the back plate (authentic). The front plate is made from two pieces; with a split at the bottom of the bass f descending into the lower bout; two small splits at the bottom of the treble-side half width, and one to the right of the sound-post; the [?surface of the] spruce has noticeable ridges[?] (doubtful). Very attractive head (authentic). The varnish is golden red, verging slightly towards brown. ex Comte de Cessole. For further information about the Comte de Cessole, and his (likely) acquisition of this 1741 Guarneri del Gesù violin, see JF55.2, p. 94 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 90 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 90 [U] (année 1880) M r Stiehle, à Mulhouse Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1732 Fond de deux pièces, veines presque droites un peu larges et douces (talon, bord sous la main ainsi que les bords du bas neufs). Eclisses même bois. Table de deux pièces, sapin serré ayant quelques cassures bord au menton. Jolie tête, trous de la chanterelle et du Sol rebouchés. Vernis rouge pâle un peu usé. (1880) M. Stiehle, from Mulhouse Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1732 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames almost straight, slightly wide, and mild (the neck-foot, the edge [of the plate] under the hand, as well as the edges of the lower bout – all are new). The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow, having some splits at the edge of the chin. Attractive head; the [peg-] holes for the E-string and the G-string have been bushed. The varnish is pale red, slightly worn. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name ‘Stiehle’ is associated only with a Stradivari violin of 1698. No further information for the 1732 Guarneri violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 90 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 90 [L] (année 1880) M r de Rivals-Mazère, à Toulouse Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1709 [the 9 then altered to 8; 1709 in EF/JF55.4; 1709 in Gand] Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes à contresens avec un trou bouché par une cheville, près du C droit, trous de vers bouchés dans le bas. Eclisses bois à petites ondes au sens.(a) Table de deux pièces, ayant quelques cassures, pièce d’âme. Très-belle tête, ondes larges. Vernis rouge clair bien conservée. 165

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1885 M lle Tua, 8,000 devenue C sse Franchi-Verney, l’a légué au Musée du Conservatoire de Paris où il se trouve. (1880) M. de Rivals-Mazère, from Toulouse Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1709/1708 The back plate is made in one piece; beautiful flames, cut against the grain, with a hole plugged with a dowel near the right-hand C. Worm tracks have been plugged in the lower bout. The wood of the ribs has small flames, all slanted in the same direction.(a) The front plate is made from two pieces, having some splits; there is a patch at the sound-post. Very beautiful head, with wide flames. The varnish is light red, well conserved. 1885 Mlle. Tua, 8,000 [francs]; [subsequently] to become Comtesse Franchi-Verney; the violin was bequeathed to the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire where it is to be found. (a)

au sens written in EF/JF55.4 but then crossed out.

Teresina Tua (1866-1956) was an Italian violinist. She joined the Paris Conservatoire in 1877 as a pupil of J L Massart, and in 1880 she won First Prize for violin. In 1889 she married Count Franchi-Verney della Valetta, and, in 1935, bequeathed her violin to the Paris Conservatoire. The Tua violin, dated 1708, is now exhibited at the Musée de la Musique in Paris (collection number E.1932). The website of the Musée de la Musique (accessed December 2015) includes good-quality photographs of their 1708 Tua violin; the photograph of the back plate clearly shows a dowel plugging a worm-hole approximately two centimetres from the centre of the right-hand C; the same photograph also shows very significant wormtracks in the lower-left bout. The 1708 Tua violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 40628, with the soubriquet Tua/Marie Soldat/Rivals Mazere de Toulouse. The website’s sequence of ownership – which omits the name of Marie Soldat – is defined as ‘Fortschnig, de Rivals Mazere, Caressa, Teresina Tua, Musée de la Musique (Cité de la Musique) Paris’. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 137) writes: ‘1708 The [Stradivari] MARIE SOLDAT. Formerly in the possession of a German collector of Klagenfurt named Fortschnig, this violin is […] the instrument used by the fine artist whose name it bears’ – i.e. Marie Soldat. Almost identical text is to be found in Henley (p. 46). Doring’s text indicates that this 1708 Stradivari violin was not one which he had personally inspected and it seems possible that Marie Soldat’s name has become mistakenly intertwined with that of Teresina Tua. Marie Soldat-Roeger (1863-1955) was a violinist and close associate of Joseph Joachim. In 1897 she was presented with a 1742 Guarneri del Gesù violin which had been chosen for her by Johannes Brahms (the cost of the violin being met by the Wittgenstein family of Vienna). This Guarneri del Gesù violin is now known as the Soldat and is currently owned by Rachel Barton Pine (see CzAr/Tarisio ID 40445). In 1909 Teresina Tua was bequeathed a 1709 Stradivari violin by the chemist Ludwig Mond (1839-1909); the complex history of this violin is described in detail by William Henley (Henley, pp. 50-51). The Mond violin is now housed at the Conservatorio Statale di Musica in Turin.

***** JF55.2, p. 91 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 91 [U] (année 1880) M r Magnin Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1729 Fond uni grain de hêtre de deux pièces. Très-belle table, petite fente à l’âme, raie dans le haut ayant l’air d’une fente; ff allongées et ayant le caractère de Guarnerius. Eclisses un peu ondées. Tête lourde, bords épais et massifs. Vernis jaune doré. (Ce violon pourrait être attribué à Omobonus Stradivarius). 166

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(1880) M. Magnin Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1729 The back plate is plain, made of beech, in two pieces. Very beautiful front plate, with a small split at the sound-post and a scratch in the upper bout having the appearance of a split. The fs are elongated and have Guarneri characteristics. The ribs are slightly flamed. The head is heavy; the edges thick and massive. The varnish is golden yellow. (This violin could be attributed to Omobono Stradivari). The CzAr/Tarisio website does not identify any Omobono Stradivari violin dated 1729. The website associates the name of Emile Magnin with an Antonio Stradivari violin of 1729, soubriquet Defauw (ID 41553). This violin is described by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 399): ‘This violin is an admirable example of the master’s late work aided by his faithful sons. […] the violin was sold in February of 1865 by J. B. Vuillaume to Emile Magnin, first-prize winner [in 1859] at the Paris Conservatory.’ The colour photographs provided on the CzAr/Tarisio website confirm the plain wood used for the back plate, and the upper-bout scratch in the front plate.

***** JF55.2, p. 91 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 91 [L] (année 1880) M r Vaslin Violoncelle Stradivarius, 27 pouces 10 lignes, année 1707 Fond de 2 pièces en peuplier, ayant une cassure sous l’âme, allant en biais de haut en bas, chanteaux dans le bas de 2 pouces 2 lignes de large. Eclisses en peuplier, rehaussées d’une ligne dans le haut et allant graduellement jusqu’à 6 lignes dans le bas. Table de 2 pièces, trèsbeau sapin. Cassure à l’âme. Chanteaux dans le haut pareils à ceux du fond. Belle tête en poirier. Cet instrument à été rallongé du haut et du bas. Vernis brun doré. Vendu a M r Hegar à Francfort 1899, huxzx. (1880) M. Vaslin Antonio Stradivari cello, 27 pouces 10 lignes [753.5mm, 29½ inches], year 1707 The back plate is made from two pieces of poplar wood, having a split under the sound-post which extends obliquely above and below. There are inserts in the lower bout which are 2 pouces 2 lignes [58.6mm] in width. The ribs are made from poplar wood, raised by 1 ligne [2.26mm] in the upper bout and gradually increasing to 6 lignes [13.5mm] in the lower bout. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce. There is a split at the soundpost. The width-inserts in the upper bout are similar to those in the lower bout. Beautiful head made from pear wood. This instrument has been lengthened in the upper and lower bouts. The varnish is golden brown. Sold to M. Hegar, from Frankfurt, 1899, huxzx. This cello appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as the Boni/Hegar (ID 41449) – dated as ‘c1695’ – but the website also states ‘dated 1707’. The sequence of ownership is stated to be ‘Luigi Tarisio, J B Vuillaume, Madame de Sampigny, Professor Vaslin, Wimphen, Gustave Bernardel, Professor J Hegar (from 1900)’, etc. The website quotes from a letter written in 1938 by the Hills in which it is stated that the cello ‘was originally an instrument of large dimensions and dates from about 1690-98. It has been very skilfully reduced in size to bring it into conformity with the instruments made by the master after 1699.’ The website also quotes from a letter, dated 1900, from Albert Caressa to Professor Hegar: ‘It was brought to Paris and sold to Mr. J. B. Vuillaume by Tarisio; it was too big, it was cut by Vuillaume and sold to Madame de Sampigny […].’ If Vuillaume ‘cut’ the cello then someone, prior to 1880, evidently reversed the cut: ‘This instrument has been lengthened in the upper and lower bouts’. If the specified body length – 29½ inches – is the result of a lengthening process then this

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would suggest that the initial ‘cut’, by Vuillaume, resulted in a cello which was significantly shorter than 29½ inches. High-resolution photographs of the cello are provided in the 2016 The Strad calendar, for the month of June; the cello is there dated as 1707. The photographs confirm the diagonal split in the back plate and the upper and lower pieces of wood which extend the longitudinal dimension.

***** JF55.2, p. 92 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 92 [U] (année 1880) M r le C te Davidoff à S t Petersbourg Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1708 Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes à contresens. Eclisses ondes plus petites au sens. Table de 2 pièces, fente au menton allant jusqu’à l’f, 2 fentes de l’autre côté, fente et pièce à l’âme, trèsbelle tête ondes larges. Beau vernis rouge clair, bien conservé. Musée du Conservatoire. (1880) M. le Comte Davidoff, from St Petersburg Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1708 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful flames, [the wood] cut against the grain. The flames of the ribs are smaller, all slanted in the same direction. The front plate is made from two pieces; a split from the chin to the [bass] f. Two splits on the other side, a split and a patch at the soundpost. Very beautiful head, with wide flames. Beautiful varnish, light red, well conserved. Museum of the [Paris] Conservatoire. Vladimir Alexandrovitch Davidoff (1816-1886) was a privy counsellor to the Emperor of Russia, and a violinist. This violin is now displayed at the Musée de la Musique in Paris (collection number E.1111) having been donated in 1887 to the instrument museum of the Paris Conservatoire. According to the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40627) there are no known owners of the violin prior to V A Davidoff. The name of V A Davidoff is not to be confused with that of Karl Davidoff (1838-1889) who was a Russian cellist; see JF55.2, p. 58 [U].

*****

JF55.2, p. 92 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 92 [L] (année 1880) M r Sylvain Bloch à Elbeuf Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes (modèle longuet) année 1696 Fond de 2 pièces belles ondes larges, cassure au talon, 2 cassures partant des C aux coins du bas de chaque côté, celle du côté droit allant jusqu’en bas. Eclisses en beau bois ayant des cassures et des trous de vers côté du Sol. Table de 2 pièces sapin fin ayant des cassures en plusieurs endroits. Tête imitée. Vernis brun clair tirant sur le rouge. 2 cachets(a) gravés au fer chaud avec fleurs de lys et couronne à 5 perles de chaque côté du bouton. (1880) M. Sylvain Bloch, from Elbeuf [Haute-Normandie] Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], (long model), year 1696 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wide flames; a split at the neck-foot and two splits starting from the C-bout lower corners on each side; the split on the right-hand side extending into the lower bout. The ribs are made from beautiful wood, having splits and worm tracks on the G-string side. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] 168

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thin, having splits in several places. The head is a copy. The varnish is light brown verging towards red. Two seals,(a) burned with a branding iron – with lily flowers and a garland of five pearls – on each side of the [tail-piece] end pin. (a)

2 archets in EF/JF55.4 – surely a simple mistake in copying the JF55.2 text.

This distinctive violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as the Cabriac (ID 40789). Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 89) writes that ‘Prior to the occupation of Paris this violin was in the possession of Emile Français. […] In more modern times the violin was in possession of Doctor Bonjour of Geneva, and of the family of Count de Cabriac.’ Doring’s description of the violin continues: ‘[having] a seal affixed below the shoulder button on the back, indicating previous possession in a noble family.’ William Henley (Henley, p. 31) closely echoes Doring’s text. The Tarisio.com photographs do not indicate the presence of a seal. Doring’s ‘Count of Cabriac’ would appear to have been le Marquis Arthur de Gabriac (1867-1948) a singer of considerable fame who held private concerts at his residence in Paris. See also JF55.2. p. 14 [L]. No further information for M. Sylvain Bloch has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 93 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 93 [U] (année 1880) M r Flach, à Nancy Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1709 [the entire date then crossed out and vers 1700-1702 written above; 1709 in EF/JF55.4; 1709 in Gand] Fond de deux pièces beau bois, ondes presque droites. Eclisses un peu plus douces. Table de deux pièces ayant plusieurs cassures au menton et à l’âme. Tête très-usée avec une joue à la cheville du La. Vernis rouge marron doré. [JF55.2 only] étiquette fausse Acheté par Silvestre a l’Expion 1900, heazx Vendu a Reifenberg en 1901, amxzx lle 1936 M Pressegol, 63 rue du Ruisseau, Paris – 18e (16-11-36) lle e [EF/JF55.4 only] M Pressegol, 63 rue du Ruisseau, Paris, 18 (le 16-11-36) faux, ma [était?] pas à elle, a simplement un certificat de A-C pour le proprietaire inconnu f [JF55.2 only] 1937 Marius Casadessus, 125,000 Vendu en 1851 par M lle T Milanollo à Amédée de Pommery 1500 f qui l’achait parait-il acheté à Darche à Aix-la-Chapelle – Pommery le céde à Georges Flach, avocat à Nancy en 1880 pour 3,500 f, les hérétiers de M me V ve Flach devenue M me V ve Lombard le cédent en 1937 à Marius Casadessus. (1880) M. Flach, from Nancy Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1709/1700-1702 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wood; the flames almost straight. [The flames] of the ribs are slightly milder [i.e. less distinctive]. The front plate is made from two pieces, having several splits at the chin and at the sound-post. The head is very worn, with a cheek [patch] at the A-string peg. The varnish is golden red/chestnut-brown. False label. Bought by Silvestre at the 1900 Exposition, heazx Sold to Reifenberg in 1901, amxzx 1936 Mlle. Pressegol, 63 rue du Ruisseau – 18th arrondissement (16.11.36). Mlle. Pressegol, 63 rue du Ruisseau, Paris, 18e (16.11.36), false, but the violin was not hers; she simply wanted a certificate from AC [Albert Caressa?] to give to the unknown owner. 169

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1937 Marius Casadesus, 125,000 francs Sold in 1851 by Mlle. T. Milanollo to Amédée de Pommery for 1500 francs, [Mlle. Milanollo] having bought it, apparently, from Darche of Aix-la-Chapelle; Pommery passed the violin to Georges Flach, a lawyer from Nancy, in 1880, for 3,500 francs; the heirs of the widow Mme. Flach (subsequently widow Mme. Lombard) passed the violin to Marius Casadesus in 1937. For Teresa Milanollo (1827-1904) see also JF55.2, p. 61 [U]. Charles-Amédée Berthe de Pommery (1832-1916). Nicolas Darche (1815-1873) was a violin maker. Marius Casadesus (1892-1981) was a French violinist and composer. The truth regarding this violin’s label-date is difficult to establish. The CzAr/Tarisio website states that the violin has an ‘original label [dated] 1703, the last three digits written in manuscript’ (ID 41326, Milanollo/Hembert). The website provides reproductions of three photographs of the violin; all three photographic prints have written upon them the following text: Violon de Stradivarius 1703 Marius CASADESUS Photo pour Monsieur Alfred Hill William Henley (Henley, p. 43) identifies this violin as the Hembert and specifies its date as 1703. According to Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. II, p. 192) the violin contains an original label showing ‘1703’ but Thöne cites the opinion of Claudio Amighetti that the date is actually 1708. The reasoning which lies behind the Caressa & Français identification of a ‘false label’ is unknown. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 383) provides good-quality photographs of the ‘1703’ Milanollo violin. A higherquality portfolio of photographs is provided by Thöne (Thöne, Vol. II, pp. 194-199).

***** JF55.2, p. 93 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 93 [L] (année 1880) M r Joachim Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1707 Fond d’une pièce ondes droites et douces, le coin gauche du haut ayant été arraché et recollé. Eclisses ondes larges et plus vives. Pièce en sifflet et en biais dans le sens des ondes de la largeur du sillet en bas. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, petite fente à l’âme ainsi qu’au menton. Jolie tête, trous de chevilles très-gros. Vernis rouge tirant sur le rose. (1880) M. Joachim Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1707 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are straight and mild; the upper corner of the left-side C having been broken off and re-attached. The ribs have flames which are wide and brighter [than those on the back plate]; there is a bevelled patch, angled like the flames of the ribs, as wide as the [tail-piece] saddle. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; a small split at the sound-post as well as at the chin. Attractive head; the peg-holes are very large. The varnish is red, verging towards pink. No further information about this violin has been located. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 181-182) identifies five Stradivari violins which, at various times, belonged to Joseph Joachim: four of the violins are dated 1715, with the fifth dated 1714.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 94 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 94 [U] (année 1880) M r Le Duc, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 2 lignes, année 1745 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes très-larges descendant, éclisses très-belles, table de 2 pièces, beau sapin un peu plus serré au milieu, belles f. Tête très-caracterisée, oreilles très-prononcées. Vernis rouge doré splendide, parfaitement conservé. [JF55.2 only] pièce d’âme à la table ex Kronprinz de Prusse 1960 aux U.S.A Présé à Henryk Scheryng par Buegner à New-York, assuré pour $55,000. (1880) M. Le Duc, Paris Giuseppe Guarnerius del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1745 The back plate is made from two pieces; very wide flames, descending [from the centre-joint]. The ribs are very beautiful. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] slightly tighter/narrower in the middle; beautiful fs. The head is very characteristic, the ‘ears’ [of the scroll] very pronounced. The varnish is golden red, splendid; perfect conservation. A patch at the sound-post at the front plate ex Crown Prince of Prussia 1960, to the USA Presented to Henryk Scheryng [Szeryng] by Buegner, from New York, insured for 55,000 dollars. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40448) indicates an ever-changing line of ownership for the Leduc violin, but a line in which the Crown Prince of Prussia is not mentioned. In Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 155, it is stated that the violin was sold to Rudolph Wurlitzer of New York in 1923, and passed to J S Phipps in 1924; Phipps apparently retained possession of the violin until 1970 when it was purchased from Phipps by Henryk Szeryng. This chronology is not entirely in agreement with the information provided in JF55.2. Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù died in October 1744 and it is thought that this violin may have been finished by Guarneri’s wife, Catarina. No further information for ‘Buegner’ has been located. From the photographic evidence presented in Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 154, the descending flames of the violin’s back plate appear only faintly and intermittently. In addition, the rings of the front plate are extremely narrow at the centre, not ‘slightly narrower’.

***** JF55.2, p. 94 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 94 [L] (année 1880) M r William Croal, Edimbourg Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1716 Fond de 2 pièces magnifique, ondes remontant, éclisses du bas, même bois, celles des C et du haut ondes plus larges, table de 2 pièces, très-beau sapin, petite fente à l’âme invisible, trèsbelle tête (trous des chevilles de la chanterelle et du La rebouchés). Vernis rouge marron magnifique. Ex Artot, Ex Cessolles. (1880) M. William Croal [Croall], Edinburgh Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1716 171

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The back plate is made from two pieces; magnificent; the flames rising [from the centre-joint]. The ribs around the lower bout are made from the same wood [as used for the back plate]; the ribs of the Cs, and the ribs which go round the upper bout, have flames which are wider. The front plate is made from two pieces of very beautiful spruce; there is a small split at the soundpost, invisible. Very beautiful head (the peg holes for the E and A strings have been bushed). The varnish is red/chestnut-brown; magnificent. ex Artot, ex Cessolles [Cessole]. This violin is identified today as the Cessole (ID 41398 on CzAr/Tarisio). The commentary provided (p. 19) in the programme booklet which was produced for the Stradivarius Memorial Concert (Carnegie Hall, New York, 20 December 1937) states: The history of this violin dates back to 1841 at which time it was sold by M. Dauries, an amateur of Nancy, France, to Artot (b. 1815, d. 1845), a pupil of Kreutzer and a brilliant violinist. Artot retired to Nice [south coast of France], where he became intimate with the Comte Eugene de Cessole, an enthusiastic amateur who befriended all the musicians with whom he came into contact. After the death of Artot this Stradivari passed into the possession of Count Cessole who retained it until 1870 when he exchanged it with J. B. Vuillaume, the Paris dealer, for a violin by Guarneri del Gesu plus a round sum of money. In 1871 Vuillaume sold the violin, through the dealer David Laurie, to Mr. William Croall of Edinburgh, Scotland, for the exceptionally high price (for those days) of 500 pounds sterling. […]. Alexandre Artot was born 25 January 1815, in Brussels. He was awarded a First Prize from the Paris Conservatoire in 1828 (aged thirteen). His short performing career included membership of various orchestras as well as some concerts as a soloist. In 1843 Artot contracted a lung disease which brought about his death at Ville d’Avray (a western suburb of Paris) on 20 July 1845. There is no known evidence which demontrates that Artot ‘retired to Nice’, no evidence that Artot ‘became intimate with the Comte Eugene de Cessole’, and no evidence that Artot’s violin ‘passed into the possession of Count Cessole who retained it until 1870’. Comte Eugène de Cessole died in 1864. Comte Eugène’s older brother was Comte Hilarion Spitalieri de Cessole (1776 -1845); he held important soirées musicales at his residence in Nice (the Hotel d’York) and the Cessole family was well known for thir patronage of the arts and music. Comte Hilarion became closely involved with Niccolò Paganini during the latter’s final months of life and interceded on his (posthumous) behalf during the negotiations regarding the burial of Paganini’s mortal remains. Comte Eugène (1785-1864), took holy orders and, in 1819, founded the charitable organisation known as the Filles de la Providence which rescued poor young girls who had been abandoned and were ‘at risk’. Hilarion’s son, Henry, was born in 1810 and died in 1875. In 1870 it could only have been Comte Henry who exchanged through J-B Vuillaume a 1716 Stradivari violin (supplemented by an additional sum of money) for an unidentified Guarneri del Gesù violin. Alternatively, David Laurie reports (Reminiscences, p. 117 et seq.) that the Cessole violin ‘which is so well known that I need not describe it [Laurie does not even identify the violin’s label-date] acquired its name from having been in the possession of the Comte de Cessol’: On the death of the Comte [which Comte?] the estate was put into the hands of trustees from whom Monsieur N F Vuillaume bought several violins. M. Jansen [an accomplished Flemish violinist and cellist] accompanied him on his journey to Nice for this purpose and immediately decided on having the “Cessol” and a Bergonzi violin for himself. He paid £280 for the “Cessol” which was, as he knew, an unusual price, but the violin was unusual too and he felt that it was worth it. He brought it back to Brussels with him and was always on the alert to induce some fine artiste to come and play on it. Laurie’s narrative sits against that which is provided in the Memorial Concert brochure. Nicolas-François Vuillaume (1802-1876) was the younger brother of J-B Vuillaume; his violin-making business was based in Brussels. M. Jansen (according to David Laurie) lodged with N-F Vuillaume. Clearly, if M. Jansen

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accompanied N-F Vuillaume to Nice to buy violins from the Cessole estate, this journey must have taken place before 1876. Either the ‘estate’ was that of Comte Hilarion (d. 1845) or that of Comte Eugène (d. 1864). The CzAr/Tarisio website dates the sale of the Cessole violin to M. Jansen as having taken place in 1858; the evidence for this date is unknown. Laurie further indicates that M. Jansen’s health declined ‘a few years after M. Vieuxtemps’ death’. Since Henri Vieuxtemps died in 1881 it would seem that M. Jansen died around 1885. Laurie relates how he then bought the “Cessol” violin from M. Jansen’s heir, a nephew, for £400 – ‘an enormous price then’ – and also bought the Bergonzi violin for £140: The “Cessol” I shewed to various dealers in London, more as a treat than with any hope of selling it, for at this time – 1872-4 – it was surprising how dead the market was, particularly in London, for high priced instruments. […] I disposed of it to a well-known and great artiste who had seen it in Brussels [when it was with M. Jansen? – see above] and knew the value of this fine instrument.’ (Reminiscences, pp. 119-20) At this point Laurie’s narrative becomes problematic: how could he have been showing the “Cessol” violin to London dealers in 1872-4 when M. Jansen did not die until c.1885? In addition, Laurie’s ‘well-known and great artiste’ surely cannot have been William Croall (who, according to the Memorial Concert text, bought his 1716 violin in 1871). Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 206) attempts to resolve the historical discrepancies which surround the Cessole violin: It becomes obvious that Count [Henry?] Cessole owned two Stradivari, both handled – at different times – by N. F. Vuillaume and Laurie. In 1885 a 1716 violin was exhibited in London at the International Inventions Exhibition (Loan Collection of Musical Instruments); the entry for the violin, in the Exhibition’s Guide was: CROALL, Mr. WILLIAM. – Violin, Italian, by Antonius Stradiuarius, of Cremona. Date 1716. From the “Cessol Collection” and formerly the property of the violinist Artot. A perfect specimen of the “Grand pattern”. The term “Cessol Collection” suggests that the Cessole family owned a number of instruments. William Croall died in 1906 and his 1716 violin was purchased by the Hills of London (further owners then followed).

***** JF55.2, p. 95 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 95 [U] (année 1880) M r Altès, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 3 lignes, année 1731, le bas du 3 à été gratté pour en faire un 2, l’étiquette porte donc 1721. Fond de 2 pièces ondes douces droites, éclisses un peu plus vives, celle du haut brisée à l’endroit de la main, et celle du bas même côté ayant une usure faite par un clou d’étui. Table de 2 pièces ayant quelques cassures. Tête unie. Voûtes pleines. Vernis rouge brun. (Altès, 1844, 3,000) Ex Vassal; Cubain; Viault; David Hugo Heermann Vendu 40,000 f en 1916 à M r Mercier de Molin à Lausanne. (1880) M. Altès, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1731; the lower curl of the 3 has been scratched out in order to make a 2, the label thus showing 1721.

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The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames mild and straight. The [flames of the] ribs are slightly more vivid. The rib of the upper bout has been broken in the area of the hand, and the lower rib on the same side having a wear-mark caused by a [protruding?] nail in the violin’s case. The front plate is made from two pieces, having some splits. The head is plain. The [plate] archings are fulsome. The varnish is red-brown. (Altès, 1844, 3,000) ex Vassal; Cubain; Viault; David Hugo Heermann Sold for 40,000 francs in 1916 to M. Mercier de Molin, from Lausanne. Ernest Eugène Altès (1830-1899) was a French violinist; most likely it was his father who was the purchaser of the violin in 1844. Hugo Heermann (1844-1935) was distinguished German violinist. Jean-Jacques Mercier de Molin (1859-1932) was a Swiss businessman and philanthropist who made substantial financial donations to the University of Lausanne and to the hospital in the town of Sierre (canton of Valais). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 89) write of late-period Stradivari violins: We are also acquainted with other equally characteristic examples of this period, but are unable to give their exact dates as the labels have either been changed or their figures tampered with. The excellent instrument of that distinguished artiste, M. Heermann, of Frankfort-on-the-Main, is of one or other of these years – most probably 1731. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 237) offers the following alternative information: ‘Professor Hugo Heermann, formerly head of the Frankfort (Germany) String Quartet, who was a resident at Chicago for a time about 1907, played upon a [Stradivari] violin of 1721.’ No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 95 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 95 [L] (année 1880) M r William Croal, Edimbourg Alto Stradivarius, année 1700, 14 pouces 9 lignes, recoupé du haut et du bas Fond de 2 pièces petites ondes droites, chanteaux de 17 lignes de chaque côté dans le haut (ces chanteaux ont été faits pour rapetisser les C)(a) éclisses bois plus doux, table de deux pièces, sapin un peu fin, ayant quelques cassures, chanteaux comme au fond, bords neufs en haut et en bas au fond et à la table. Très-belle tête à laquelle on a enlevé les parties saillantes du bas en rapprochant en fourche par le milieu.(b) Vernis brun rouge doré. (1880) M. William Croall, Edinburgh Antonio Stradivari viola, year 1700, 14 pouces 9 lignes [399.2mm, 15¾ inches]; re-cut [reduced in size] in the upper and lower bouts. The back plate is made from two pieces; small straight flames; width-inserts of 17 lignes [38.4mm] on each flank of the upper bout (these inserts have been included in order to make the Cs look smaller).(a) The wood of the ribs is milder [less distinctive]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] slightly thin, having several splits; there are widthinserts as on the back plate; the edges are new in the upper and lower bouts of both the back plate and the front plate. Very beautiful head; the projecting ridges at the lower end have been brought together in a V-shape in the middle.(b) The varnish is golden brown-red. (a)

It seems that what is being described here are modifications which had been made to the viola in order to maintain the proportions of the three bouts after the upper and lower bouts had been reduced.

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(b)

At this point Gand draws a small sketch of what appears to be the curved ‘tail’ on the underside of the pegbox (below the G-string peg) showing an upside-down ‘V’ in the middle of the tail. The sketch is replicated in the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 ledgers. Neither the Hills, nor Ernest Doring, nor the CzAr/Tarisio website associates William Croall with a cut-down viola made by Stradivari in 1700. Henley (Henley, p. 89) identifies a 1700 Stradivari viola owned by ‘D E Nicholls’ in 1923.

***** JF55.2, p. 96 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 96 [U] ex-Lafont (année 1880) M r Brodsky, Moscou, Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1735 Fond de 2 pièces, magnifique érable, petites ondes vives remontant un peu. Belles éclisses ondes semblables, celle du bas côté droit ayant quelques cassures, table de 2 pièces beau sapin petite cassure à l’âme et 2 au menton. Tête lourde trous rebouchés, fendue au-dessus et audessous de la chanterelle du côté du petit bout. Vernis rouge doré. [JF55.2 only] étiquette originale 1949 Anton Maaskoff, University of Southern California, music teacher Très dépouillé, quelques restes dans les gorges et à la table sous le chevalet et les pattes f. ex Lafont (1880) M. Brodsky, Moscow Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1735 The back plate is made from two pieces; magnificent maple; small bright flames rising slightly. Beautiful ribs; the flames are very similar [to those of the back plate]; the rib of the lower right side [treble side?] having several splits. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce; a small split at the sound-post and two at the chin. The head is heavy, the [peg-] holes have been bushed; a crack above and below the ‘small tip’ of the E-string peg [i.e. on the bass side of the peg-box]. The varnish is golden red. Original label 1949, Anton Maaskoff, University of Southern California, music teacher Very bare, [a few traces of the original varnish] remaining in the flutings [of the scroll], and, on the front plate, underneath the bridge and on the wings of the fs. Charles Philippe Lafont (1781-1839) was a French violinist and composer. Adolf Brodsky (1851-1929) was a Russian violinist. This violin is ID 41035 on CzAr/Tarisio.

***** JF55.2, p. 96 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 96 [L] (année 1880) M r Cartier, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 2 lig., année 1734 Fond d’une pièce, veines très-douces, presqu’uni. Eclisses semblables. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin, petite fente à l’âme et une au menton bouchée par un flipot, par un filipeau, bord au menton faisant doublure. Voûtes très-pleines. Très-jolie tête ayant 2 petites chevilles au dessus de la cheville de la chanterelle, bouchant deux trous ayant servi à mettre une traverse, pour 175

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éviter que le La et le Ré ne portent sur le cheville de la chanterelle une traverse pour empêcher les cordes de porter. Beau vernis rouge doré un peu dépouillé au fond. 1886 M r Wilmotte 13,000. (1880) M. Cartier, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1734 The back plate is in one piece; very mild flames, almost plain. The [wood of the] ribs is very similar. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; a small split at the soundpost and one at the chin which has been closed with a covering piece of wood at the edge of the chin thus creating a doubling. The archings are very fulsome. Very attractive head having two small dowels above the E-string peg, [the dowels] closing two holes which had [previously] held a cross-piece which prevented the A and D strings from running over the E-string peg a cross-piece to prevent the strings from touching. Beautiful golden red varnish, slightly worn on the back plate. 1886 M. Wilmotte, 13,000. This violin is now identified as the Wilmotte (CzAr/Tarisio ID 41571). A subsequent owner was Gerhard Tischer. In May 1928 the Hill brothers issued a certificate for this violin: We certify that the violin submitted to us by Dr Gerhard Tischer of Cologne was made by Antonio Stradivari, whose original label dated 1734 the instrument bears. The back, in one piece, is of plain wood marked by a faint curl of medium width slanting slightly downwards to the right, that of the sides is similar, the curl of the head being smaller and more pronounced; the table, of pine of medium grain, is more open on the bass side and the varnish of an orange-brown colour. This violin, a characteristic example of the late period, is entirely original though somewhat worn. High-quality photographs and a detailed historical narrative are provided in Thöne (Vol. IV, pp. 286-293).

***** JF55.2, p. 97 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 97 [U] (année 1881) M r Dubosq-Lettré, Bordeaux Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, année 1710 Fond d’une pièce, ondes larges douces avec une raie grisâtre du haut en bas côté du Sol. Eclisses bien veinées (les deux du bas sans veines ne sont pas de l’auteur). Table ayant plusieurs cassures. Tête ancienne, pas de l’auteur. Vernis rouge brun louche, très-retouché. (1881) M. Dubosq-Lettré, Bordeaux Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1710 The back plate is in one piece; wide flames, mild, with a greyish line [scratch?] from top to bottom on the G-string side. The ribs are nicely flamed (the two lower-bout ribs are without flames and were not made by the author [Stradivari]). The front plate has several splits. The head is old [but] not made by the author. The varnish is red-brown, opaque; extensively retouched. On CzAr/Tarisio the name of M. Dubosq-Lettré is associated only with a 1733 Guarneri violin and a 1725 Bergonzi violin. No further information for the 1710 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 97 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 97 [L] (année 1881) M r Enthoven à Londres Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1741 176

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Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes pas très-vives et inégales. Eclisses ondes plus larges, table de 2 pièces sans cassures, sauf une petite fente à partir de l’f au filet côté de la chanterelle. Trèsbelle tête, fente au chevillier près de la chanterelle. Beau vernis rouge brun sur fond jaune, bien conservé. (1881) M. Enthoven, from London Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1741 The back plate is in one piece; small flames, not very bright, and uneven [in width]. The flames of the ribs are wider [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; without splits except for a small split from the f to the purfling on the E-string side. Very beautiful head; a split in the peg-box next to the E-string [peg?]. Beautiful varnish, red-brown, on a yellow base. Well conserved. This violin is now identified as the Kochánski (CzAr/Tarisio ID 42807). Historical information and photographs can be found in Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 107. It is noticeable that the descriptive text (above) makes no mention of the violin’s extremely asymmetrical fs, the treble f being much longer than the bass f and set lower down the front plate.

***** JF55.2, p. 98 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 98 [U] (année 1881) M r Gariel, Paris, 6 rue Ed. Detaille Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1717 Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes larges, inégales, douces, remontant à droite, éclisses ondes plus régulières. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, cassure à l’âme, à la barre, au menton et au coin gauche du haut. Très-belle tête. Beau vernis rouge doré. Vu en 1912 avril 29: vaut aoxzx Acheté en 1917 par nous, par C.F., vendu à M r Julio de Ygartua, à Bilbao, Mai 1917 – nxzxz Repris et revendu en Novbre 1919, hxzxzx, à Dérivaux. (1881) M. Gariel, Paris, 6 rue Edouard Detaille Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1717 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wide flames, uneven width, mild, rising to the right. The flames of the ribs are more consistent [in their width]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; with a split at the sound-post, [another] at the bass-bar, [another] at the chin, and [another] at the upper corner of the left [bass] C. Very beautiful head; beautiful golden-red varnish. Seen 29 April 1912: worth aoxzx Bought in 1917 by us, by Caressa & Français, sold to M. Julio de Ygartua, from Bilbao, May 1917 – nxzxz Re-acquired and re-sold in November 1919, hxzxzx, to Dérivaux. This violin is now known as the Gariel/Stark (CzAr/Tarisio ID 41424). Charles Marie Gariel (1841-1924) was a doctor, and, according to Henley (Henley, p. 65), President of the Academy of Science in Paris.

***** JF55.2, p. 98 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 98 [L] (année 1881) M r Herwyn, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1 ligne, année 1717 177

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Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes larges, moirées, pas très-vives. Eclisses pareilles, celle du menton ayant une pièce carrée près du C. Table ayant beaucoup de cassures, beau sapin. Table très-usée. Vernis jaune doré. Acheté à la mort de Herwyn par Hart en 1907. (1881) M. Herwyn, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1717 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wide flames, watery, not very bright. The ribs are similar, the rib of the chin having a square patch near the C-bout. The front plate having a lot of splits; beautiful spruce. The front plate is very worn. The varnish is golden yellow. Bought at the death of Herwyn by Hart [of London] in 1907. The CzAr/Tarisio website associates a ‘Professor Herwyn’ only with the Stradivari Red Diamond violin ‘labelled 1732’ (ID 41039).

***** JF55.2, p. 99 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 99 [U] (année 1881) M r de Janzé, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 2 lignes, année 1687 Fond de 2 pièces, petites ondes droites, éclisses ondes plus régulières et plus vives, celle du C du côté de l’âme ayant un ovale tracé dans le milieu,(a) celles du bas ayant des petites cassures près du bouton. Table sapin très-fin ayant plusieurs cassures au menton, à l’âme, à la barre, à l’f droite, et en haut près du tasseau, jolie tête, vernis brun doré. 82 Laurie, 8,500. (1881) M. de Janzé, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1687 The back plate is made from two pieces; small straight flames. The flames of the ribs are more regular, and brighter; the rib of the C-bout on the side of the sound-post having an oval shape traced [into the wood] in the middle.(a) The ribs at the bottom having small splits near the end pin. The front plate spruce is very thin [?the rings are very thin] having several splits at the chin, at the sound-post, at the bass-bar, at the treble f, and in the upper bout near the block. Attractive head; the varnish is golden brown. [18]82 Laurie, 8,500. (a)

At this point Gand draws a small oblong box with an oval shape drawn inside; the drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4. Ernest Doring does not identify a 1687 violin belonging to M. de Janzé, neither does the CzAr/Tarisio website; no information is available from within the Hills’ Stradivari monograph of 1902. The description and drawing of an oval-shape traced into the treble C-bout of the 1687 violin is a clear echo of the description of an oval hole, plugged, in the treble C-bout of a 1721 (or 1710) Stradivari violin (see JF55.2, p. 45 [L]). A possible explanation for these ovals appears in David Laurie’s Reminiscences (pp. 99-100) as part of a lengthy narrative describing the difficulties he faced in bringing some instruments from St. Petersburg to London: [When Laurie’s train reached the Russian-German border] the [instrument] cases were taken into the luggage room and all opened; as they were found to contain only what I had stated, it was one point in my favour shewing that I was an honest traveller. Curiously enough, I had to thank this enforced examination for giving me the solution of a problem connected with fiddles which had puzzled me greatly and also all the other fiddle folks to whom I had mentioned the matter.

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I could not understand the round holes sometimes to be found in the rims [ribs] of small violins, large altos and ’cellos, generally in the centre bout of the instrument, as well as in the under ones [i.e. the lower-bout ribs]. These holes are filled up with quite a different sort of wood from that of the instrument and it was quite evident they had been made after the fiddles had left the makers’ hands. The holes are not to be found on all instruments, indeed one might handle a great many without seeing one so marked, but I was anxious to know the cause of this marking. Now came the explanation: after all the instruments had been taken out of their cases a man with an auger stepped forward and turning a ’cello on its side stood ready to bore a hole in the rim [rib] wherever the officer might indicate. It flashed on me at once what they were going to do and I quickly stepped forward, tilted the ’cello on its head and pulled out the pin which left the string holder. The officer who had been watching my proceedings asked what I was going to do, but when I told him he could now look inside without boring a hole he complied, remarking with a laugh that it was a lesson to him and a good one, which he would remember in future and save damaging the instruments. I have no doubt whatever that this practice of boring holes had been followed by the French Custom officials on instruments coming out of Italy.

***** JF55.2, p. 99 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 99 [L] (année 1881) M r Kaufmann, Paris Violon Stradivarius, Amatisé, 13p. 1l., année 1683 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes descendant. Belles éclisses, celles du bas un peu fendues. Table sapin serré, ayant quelques cassures. Belle tête ayant un trou rebouché dans la coulisse près la cheville du Sol. Vernis jaune clair doré. 1892 – Hill, 10,000. (1881) M. Kaufmann, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, Amatisé, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1683 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames which descend [from the centrejoint]. Beautiful ribs; those around the lower bout have been slightly cracked. The front plate is made from tight/narrow spruce, having some splits. Beautiful head, having a closed-up hole in the fluting next to the G-string peg. The varnish is golden light yellow. 1892 – Hill, 10,000. Louis Kaufmann is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website but only in association with two violins by Vuillaume (1829 and 1840) and one by Guadagnini (1774). Ernest Doring has no information regarding M. Kaufmann; neither do the Hills.

***** JF55.2, p. 100 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 100 [U] (année 1882) M r du Seuil, Paris [M r du Deuil in EF/JF55.4] Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1742 [the entire date then crossed out and replaced with 1737; 1737 in EF/JF55.4; 1742 in Gand] Fond d’une pièce presqu’uni, veines très-douces remontant à droite. Eclisses petites ondes. Table de 2 pièces ayant des cassures dans toute la longueur à l’âme et à la barre, au-dessous de l’f gauche et au-dessus du coin droit en haut. Petit trou rond rebouché derrière le chevalet à côté du joint. Ecartement des f 17 lignes. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré. 6,000 f, Ex Lerifait M r Lebrun, 9 rue de l’Echelle, acheté à du Seuil en 1894 – 12,000 f. 179

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(1882) M. du Seuil, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1742/1737 The back plate is in one piece, almost plain; the flames are very mild, rising to the right. The ribs have small flames. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits for the entire length [of the body] at the sound-post and at the bass-bar; [there are further splits] below the bass f and above the upper corner of the treble-side C. There is a small round hole – closed up – behind the bridge at the side of the centre-joint. The distance [between the upper eyes of the fs] is 17 lignes [38.4mm]. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. 6,000 francs, ex Lerifait M. Lebrun, 9 rue de l’Echelle, bought [the violin] from du Seuil in 1894 – 12,000 francs. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies M. du Seuil but only in connection with a Stradivari violin of 1734 (ID 40725) the Nadaud/Kuhlenkampff (see JF55.2, p. 12 [U]). The website also identifies Charles LeBrun but only in connection with a Stradivari violin of 1712 (see JF55.2, p. 198) and a Rugeri violin of 1705. No further information about this 1742/1737 Guarneri violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 100 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 100 [L] (année 1882) M r Laidlay Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1712 Fond de 2 pièces, veines douces presque droites. Eclisses ondes larges, très-belles. Table de 2 pièces ayant pas mal de cassures, coup au-dessous de l’f droite.(a) Très-belle tête, beau vernis rouge doré. (1882) M. Laidlay Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1712 The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, almost straight. The flames of the ribs are wide, very beautiful. The front plate is made from two pieces, having quite a lot of splits; there is a cut below the treble f.(a) Very beautiful head, beautiful varnish, golden red. (a)

At this point Gand draws a small sketch of the lower eye of the treble f showing a square cut made immediately below. The sketch is replicated in JF55.2 and in EF/JF55.4. No further information for M. Laidlay, or his 1712 violin, has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 101 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 101 [U] (année 1882) M r Hermann, Francfort Violon Stradivarius, longuet, 13p. 4 lignes, année 1699 Fond d’une pièce beau bois, ondes larges, éclisses même bois, table sapin très-serré, cassure à l’âme, fente au menton près du cordier. Belle tête, petite fente au dessous de la cheville du La. Vernis rouge doré. (1882) M. Hermann, Frankfurt Antonio Stradivari violin, long pattern, 13 pouces 4 lignes [360.9mm], year 1699 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wood; wide flames. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow, with a split at the sound-post and a split at the chin next to the tail-piece. Beautiful head, with a small split below the A-string peg. The varnish is golden red. 180

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No further information about this 1699 violin has been located. The name of ‘Hermann’, and his location in Frankfurt, suggests that the owner may have been Hugo Heermann who was the leader of the Frankfurt String Quartet (also known as the Heermann Quartet); see also JF55.2, p. 95 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 101 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 101 [L] (année 1881) M r le baron Frank Seillière, Paris Violon Stradivarius, Amatisé, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1672; type très pur Fond d’une pièce, un peu à contresens, éclisses ondes plus vives. Table de 2 pièces, sapin superbe, petite cassure à l’âme et une au-dessous de l’f droite. Très-belle tête bien caractérisée. Vernis jaune doré. 10,000 f (ex Carolina Ferni) 97 Ber - Germain 18,000 98 Lyner 25,000 1912 C & F repris pour axzxz, repris pour 20,000, échangé à Hamma est à Vienne depuis 1913 à Häumerlee 1937 Exposition de Crémone, no 55, faussement daté de 1680. (1881) M. le Baron Frank Seillière, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, Amatisé, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], 1672; a very pure example. The back plate is in one piece, cut slightly against the grain. The flames of the ribs are brighter. The front plate is made from two pieces; superb spruce; with a small split at the sound-post and one below the treble f. Very beautiful head; really characteristic. The varnish is golden yellow. 10,000 francs (ex Carolina Ferni) [18]97 [?from Gustave] Ber[nardel?] to [Emile] Germain, 18,000 [18]98 Lyner, 25,000 1912 re-acquired by Caressa & Français for axzxz, re-acquired for 20,000, exchanged with Hamma. [the violin has been] in Vienna since 1913, with Häumerlee [Hämmerle?]. 1937 Cremona Exhibition, no. 55, falsely dated as 1680. This violin was exhibited at the 1885 International Inventions Exhibition (Loan Collection of Musical Instruments), Albert Hall, London, where it was described, in the Guide, as ‘ … formerly in the possession of Paganini and afterwards of Mdlle. Carolina Ferni’. The violin is ID 40734 on the CzAr/Tarisio website. The website quotes (apparently) from the catalogue of the 1937 Cremona Exhibition: '"Repaired" by Vincensio Ascensio in Madrid. The original date on the label was probably 1672 but was later modified to 1692’ (evidently post-1881). For Vicente Assensio see also JF55.2, p. 73bis [L]. The violin is briefly mentioned in Henley (p. 20).

***** JF55.2, p. 102 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 102 [U] (1881) M r le duc de Camposelice, Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1731 Fond de 2 pièces, veines régulières presque droites mais descendant un peu, cassure au dessous du talon, avec une cheville de chaque côté du joint, cassure dans le bas à droite, belles éclisses, celle de la main ayant une cassure. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, ayant pas mal de cassures. Tête caractérisée bien faite beau bois. Vernis jaune-orange. 7,500 f. 181

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(1881) M. le Duc de Camposelice, Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1731 The back plate is made from two pieces; regular flames, almost straight but slightly descending; there is a split below the neck-foot, with a [locating] pin on each side of the centre-joint; there is a split in the lower bout, to the right. Beautiful ribs; the rib of the hand having a split. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; having quite a lot of splits. The head is characteristic, well made, beautiful wood. The varnish is yellow-orange. 7,500 francs. A 1731 del Gesù violin belonging to the Duc de Camposelice is not identified by the Hills (1931), nor is such a violin identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website.

***** JF55.2, p. 102 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p.102 [L] [M. le Duc de Camposelice] (1882) Alto Stradivarius, Amatisé, 15 pouces 3l., année 1696 [1695 in EF/JF55.4; 1696 in Gand] Fond d’une pièce, ondes moyennes, descendant un peu à droite. Eclisses (hauteur 16 et 17 lignes) ondes plus vives, avec rinceaux peints en noir. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin avec deux côtes visibles dans toute la longueur de chaque côté. Diapason du cran des f au bord, 8 pouces 2 lignes. Doubles filet à la table et au fond. Très-belle tête. Vernis jaune doré. Très-bien conservé. Ex Adams, 30,000 f. [M. le Duc de Camposelice] (1882) Antonio Stradivari viola, Amatisé, 15 pouces 3 lignes [412.8mm], year 1696/1695 The back plate is in one piece; medium [-width] flames, descending slightly to the right. The height of the ribs is 16 and 17 lignes [36.1mm (at the neck foot?) and 38.4mm (at the tail-piece end pin?)]; the [rib] flames are brighter [than on the back plate], with floral designs painted in black. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin, with two [darker-coloured] ‘strips’ visible along the full length of each half-width. The diapason [from the inner notch of the f to the upper edge of the plate] is 8 pouces 2 lignes [221mm]. Double purfling on the front and back plates. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow. Very well conserved. ex Adams [John Adam], 30,000 francs. This is the Spanish Court decorated viola (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40261) currently exhibited at the Royal Palace in Madrid. Ernest Doring describes this viola (Doring, p. 88). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 269) write: A viola dated 1696, purchased by Mr. F. V. Rivaz in 1819 from [Jean Gabriel] Koliker, of Paris, passed in 1825 into the hands of Sir William Curtis for £120. In 1876 this instrument was purchased by Mr. John Adam; and at the dispersal of his fine collection in 1881 it was sold to the Duc de Camposelice for £800. We purchased it in 1891 for £900. The collector, John Adam, of 15 Morden Road, Blackheath, London, experienced financial difficulties in 188182 which necessitated his selling some of his instruments to David Laurie; precisely which instruments were sold is not known. In 1882 Adam also consigned a collection of 20 paintings to the auction house of Christie, Manson, and Woods. A further (posthumous) auction took place at the offices of Puttick & Simpson, in London, on 17 June 1908: ‘A very fine collection of violins, violas, etc., including the collection formed by the late Adam’. The Adam items were mostly bows, together with two violins made by Edward Withers and two ‘Italian’ violas.

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JF55.2, p. 103 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 103 [U] (1845) M r Sasserno, Nice Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 1 ligne, année 1717 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes larges descendant, petite pièce au bord du bas côté droit. Eclisses pareilles. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin, cassure à l’âme et au menton. Très-belle tête, beau vernis rouge doré. 1845 3,700 f 1884 M r Laurie 20,000 f 1884 M r Wimphen 25,000 f [JF55.2 only] 1888 Meïer de Londres, 25,000 pour Hill 1938 entre les mains de Carl Flesh pour le jouer – estimation A. Caressa £4,000 acheté par son propriétaire £1,500 en 1904 ou 5. (1845) M. Sasserno, Nice Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1717 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wide flames, descending [from the centrejoint]; there is a small patch at the edge of the lower bout, on the right. The wood of the ribs is similar [to the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce, with a split at the sound-post and another at the chin. Very beautiful head. Beautiful varnish, golden red. 1845 3,700 francs 1884 M. Laurie, 20,000 francs 1884 M. Wimphen, 25,000 francs 1888 Meïer, of London, 25,000 for[?] Hill 1938 in the hands of Carl Flesch, for his [concert] use – valuation Albert Caressa £4,000 Bought by its owner for £1,500 in 1904 or 1905. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 271) write: 1845 The “Sasserno” violin, dated 1717, was sold by the elder Gand for 3,700 francs = £148. In 1884 it was purchased from M. Sasserno for 20,000 francs = £800, by Mr. David Laurie, who immediately sold it for 25,000 francs = £1,000 [to M. Wimphen?]. It again changed hands in 1887 at the price of £1,000 [to C G Meïer in 1888?], and was brought to England by Mr. David Johnson (an amateur player), who parted with it in 1894 [to Otto Peiniger? – see below] at an increase in price. The Sasserno violin is currently owned by the Nippon Music Foundation; their website information states: The name of this violin was taken from Comte de Sasserno, a French owner in 1845. In 1894, it was acquired by a violinist Otto Peiniger, who in turn sold it to Pickering Phipps, owner of a wellknown brewery in England. In 1906, this violin was passed into the hands of an English industrialist John Summers and was well-preserved in his family over 90 years [until 1996?]. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 213) comments: ‘[the violin] was brought to England in 1887 by David Johnson. […] Johnson retained the “Sasserno” until 1894. Passing later to Hill, the violin was sold to an English lady in whose possession it remains.’ William Henley (Henley, p. 64) states that the violin is ‘named after a celebrated Italian violinist of this name, who bought it for £150 from Gand of Paris.’ The name ‘Comte Sasserno’ appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website in connection with a Pietro Guarneri violin of 1721 (ID 43273). There are more than a few uncertainties regarding the history of this violin, uncertainties which are intensified by a lack of photographic reproductions of the violin. The Nippon Music Foundation website shows only an

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image of the violin’s front plate and therefore the description of the two-piece back plate, its descending flames, and its small lower-right patch, cannot be confirmed.

***** JF55.2, p. 103 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 103 [L] (1883) M r C. G. Meïer, Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 3l., année 1732 Beau fond d’une piêce à contresens, ayant une partie de bord sous la main remise par nous. Eclisses ondes douces. Très-belle table beau sapin. Très-jolie tête. Beau vernis rouge. Trèsbien conservé. Ex Séméladis (surnommé l’Hercule) Nothomb(a) l’avait acheté à C. G. Meïer Hugo Heermann Ysaÿe l’a acquis à Nothomb pour 25,000 f on le lui a volé en Russie en X bre 1907. (1883) M. C G Meïer, London Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1732 Beautiful one-piece back plate, cut against the grain, having a part at the edge, under the hand, which was re-made by us. The ribs have mild flames. Very beautiful front plate; beautiful spruce. Very attractive head; beautiful red varnish. Very well conserved. ex Séméladis (soubriquet Hercules) Nothomb(a) bought it from C G Meïer Hugo Heermann Ysaÿe acquired it from Nothomb for 25,000 francs; it was stolen from him [Ysaÿe] in Russia in December 1907. (a)

It is unclear which member of the extensive Nothomb family is here being identified.

Eugène Ysaÿe (1858-1931) was a Belgian violinist. This violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41564) as the 1734 Hercules/Ysaÿe/Szeryng/Kinor David/Semel violin, the body length specified as 360mm. The stolen violin was apparently recovered, in Paris, in 1925. A subsequent owner was the violinist Henryk Szeryng who, in 1972, donated the violin to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.

***** JF55.2, p. 104 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 104 [U] (année 1881) M r C. G. Meïer, Londres Violon Stradivarius, Amatisé, 13p. 2l., année 1685 Fond d’une pièce à contresens. Eclisses du haut et des C bois pareil, celles du bas bois uni. Table de 2 pièces très-beau sapin un peu plus serré au milieu, petite cassure à l’âme, une petite au-dessus de l’f droite et une petite au-dessous du rond du haut de l’f gauche. Tête bois uni ayant un éclat recollé dans le haut.(a) Trous des chevilles rebouchés. Joli vernis jaune doré. (1881) M. C G Meïer, London Antonio Stradivari violin, Amatisé, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1685 The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain. The ribs of the upper bout and those of the C-bouts are made from similar wood; the ribs of the lower bout are made from plain wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the spruce [?rings are] slightly tighter/narrower in the middle. There is a small split at the sound-post, [another] small split above the treble f, and [another] small split below the upper ‘eye’ of the bass f. The wood of the 184

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head is plain, having a ‘splinter’ re-glued in the upper part [of the scroll].(a) The peg-holes have been bushed. Attractive golden-yellow varnish. (a)

At this point Gand draws a small sketch of the top of the scroll (bass side) showing an inserted piece of wood at the top-most curve of the wood. The drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4. No further information about this violin has been located, other than (possibly) the following comment made by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 51): ‘Presuming […] that it remains in existence, a Stradivari of 1685, described as a “yellow Strad”, sold at auction in London, in 1931, is included in this tabulation.’

***** JF55.2, p. 104 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 104 [L] (1884) M r Tom Taylor, Paris Violon Stradivarius (dernière époque) 13p. 2l., marqué année 1712 Fond d’une pièce, ondes très-douces, presqu’uni, bords massifs. Eclisses presqu’unies ayant peu de vernis. Table ayant des cassures à l’âme et à la barre. Belle tête. Beau vernis rouge marron opaque. (1884) M. Tom Taylor, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin ([from the] last period), 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], [but] the label states 1712. The back plate is in one piece; the flames very mild, [the wood] almost plain; massive [plate] edges. The ribs are almost plain, having little varnish. The front plate having splits at the soundpost and at the bass-bar. Beautiful head. Beautiful varnish, red/chestnut-brown, opaque. This violin is dated 1732 by the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 89), by Doring (Doring, p. 315), by Henley (Henley, p. 83) and by the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40541); it is assumed that this is a dating based on a stylistic evaluation of the violin’s construction.

***** JF55.2, p. 105 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 105 [U] (année 188 ) M r Wilmotte, Anvers Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1714 Fond d’une pièce, ondes moirées, larges à contresens. Eclisses ondes très-larges. Table de 2 pièces très-beau sapin, cassure le long de la barre et au bas côté du menton, petite cassure au coin gauche. Très-belle tête ayant des cassures au La et au Sol. Très-beau vernis rouge orange bien conservé. (188 ) M. Wilmotte, Antwerp Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne, year 1714 The back plate is in one piece, with wide ‘watery’ flames, [the wood] cut against the grain. The flames of the ribs are very wide. The front plate is made from two pieces of very beautiful spruce. There is a split along the bass-bar, and [another split?] at the bottom, at the side of the chin; there is a small split at the left-side corner [?upper or lower corner of the bass-side C]. Very beautiful head, having splits at the A- and G-string [pegs]. Very beautiful varnish, redorange. Well conserved. No further information about this violin has been located.

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JF55.2, p. 105 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 105 [L] (année 1872) M r Quantinet, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 2l., année 1705 Fond d’une pièce, veines douces remontant à droite, cassures en biais dans le bas.(a) Eclisses ondes plus vives, cassures à celles du bas, à droite du bouton, pièce carrée à celle du haut à gauche du manche en régardant la table. Table de 2 pièces remplie de cassures, jolie tête, trous rebouchés et pièces. Vernis rouge brun retouché. 1883 M r Houette 1913 – 5 – Avril appartient à René Court, 16 rue Théodule Ribot, offert hxzxz en dépôt. (1872) M. Quantinet, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1705 The back plate is in one piece; mild flames rising to the right; oblique splits in the lower bout.(a) The flames of the ribs are brighter; there are splits in the bottom ribs to the right of the end pin; there is a square patch in the upper rib to the left of the neck (‘to the left’ when looking at the front plate of the violin). The front plate is made from two pieces; full of splits. Attractive head, the [peg holes] bushed and patched. The varnish is red-brown, re-touched. 1883, M. Houette 1913, 5 April, owned by René Court, 16 rue Théodule Ribot, offered hxzxz, on deposit. (a)

At this point Gand draws a small but quite detailed sketch of the violin’s back plate, showing a zig-zag crack starting at the lower-left of the lower bout and heading towards the lower corner of the C-bout on the opposite side of the plate. The zig-zag crack finishes at a longitudinal crack which runs downwards to the lower-right bottom edge of the plate. The drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4. On CzAr/Tarisio (ID 41321) the names of M. Quantinet, M. Houette, and René Court are associated with a violin now known as the Montbel; the website quotes from a Hill certificate of 1955: We have examined the Stradivari violin submitted bearing the date 1703, which we consider a thoroughly authentic example and typical of the period 1700, though we ourselves would attribute it to a few years earlier, 1697-98. The CzAr/Tarisio website states that the violin contains an ‘original label … 1703’; the website also quotes information provided by the current owners of the violin, the Landeskreditbank Baden-Württemberg, Karlsruhe: Despite the original label listing 1703 as the date, most experts believe the real year of construction was 1697/98 based on the narrow model used. The CzAr/Tarisio photograph of the Montbel back plate is not ideal but there is no sign of a diagonal zig-zag crack in the lower part of the back plate. A high-resolution colour photograph of the Montbel back plate is provided by Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. I, p. 331). This photograph does not reveal any sign of a diagonal zig-zag crack but does reveal a group of unattractive black sap marks on the right of the back plate’s lower bout, ‘providing the instrument with a distinguishing mark’ according to the associated commentary; the black sap marks are not mentioned in the descriptive text (above). The Thöne commentary also describes the varnish on the Montbel violin as ‘golden yellow’ (cf. ‘red-brown’). The Thöne photographs do not reveal any splits ‘in the bottom ribs to the right of the end pin’ nor ‘a square patch in the upper rib to the left of the neck’. The 1705 violin owned sequentially by M. Quantinet, M. Houette and (following the Caressa & Français annotation of April 1913) by M. Court possibly has no connection with the violin known today as the Montbel and label-dated 1703.

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JF55.2, p. 106 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 106 [U] (année 1882) M r William Leslie, Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 3l., année 1715 Fond d’une pièce magnifique, ondes larges descendant à droite. Eclisses pareilles. Table de 2 pièces, sapin un peu fin, ayant quelques cassures. Tête magnifique. Vernis rouge doré. (1882) M. William Leslie, London Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1715 The back plate is in one piece; magnificent; with wide flames which descend to the right. [The wood of the] ribs is similar [to that of the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] slightly thin, having some splits. The head is magnificent. The varnish is golden red. This Leslie violin (also known as the Tate) is consistently dated 1710 in twentieth-century sources; the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41362) simply states ‘original label’. Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. III, p. 28) reports: ‘The violin was crafted in 1710, as confirmed by the original label that it still bears.’ There is no explanation why, in 1882, the label-date should have been alternatively identified as 1715. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 154) writes extensively about the Leslie violin: ‘A magnificent violin built on full proportions, regarded, in the words of the late Alfred Hill, as “a fine and characteristic example of that masculine type of instrument made by Stradivari from the year 1708 onwards”.’ William Henley (Henley, p. 52) describes the violin as: ‘Full proportioned, ‘masculine’ type, richly marked maple for sides, back and head.’

***** JF55.2, p. 106 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 106 [L] (année 1882) M r le Vicomte Greffulhe, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 3l., année 1709 Fond d’une pièce, veines presque droites, pas très-larges, inclinant un peu à droite. Eclisses veines plus larges, avec incrustations en noir. Griffons, biches, et daims. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin, ayant des cassures à l’âme, au menton, sous l’f droite et dans le haut à gauche de la touche. Incrustations de ronds et lozanges d’ivoire sur fond noir, dans un double filet en bordure au fond et à la table. Très-belle tête avec rinceaux incrustés en noir. Vernis rouge orange. 23,000 f Ex John Blowe: Révérend: violiniste amateur, puis collection J. Adam: Laurie: Gand & Bel: Greffulhe: C.F. Cédé à Hamma à Stuttgart en 1910: muxzx, qui l’a vendu à M r Walter de Vienne en 1910 pour 75,000 Kronen Racheté par la maison Hug de Zurich en 1923 pour [no further text] Mars 1932, appartient à M me Charles Loeser à Florence, pianiste, qui l’a confié à Lehner pour le jouer. Renseignement Hahnloser 18/3/32, exact en 1934. (1882) M. le Vicomte Greffulhe, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1709 The back plate is in one piece; the flames almost straight, not very wide, inclined slightly to the right. The flames of the ribs are wider, with inlaid decorations in black; griffins, and deer (male and female). The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin, having splits at the sound-post, at the chin, under the treble f, and in the upper bout to the left of the fingerboard. Inlaid decorations of ivory discs and lozenges on a black base, within a double 187

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purfling at the edges of both back and front plates. Very beautiful head with floral designs inlaid in black. The varnish is red-orange. 23,000 francs ex John Blowe, Reverend [Rev. John Blow], amateur violinist, then in the collections of John Adam, David Laurie, Gand & Bernardel, Greffulhe, and Caressa & Français. Made over to Hamma, from Stuttgart, in 1910, muxzx, who sold it to M. Walter of Vienna in 1910 for 75,000 Kronen. Bought back by the firm of Hug, of Zurich, in 1923, for [no further text]. March 1932, owned by Mme. Charles Loeser, from Florence, pianist, who entrusted it to Lehner for his use. This information from Hahnloser, 18 March 1932, correct in 1934. Henry Greffulhe (1848-1932) married Elizabeth de Caraman-Chimay (1860-1952) in 1878. Charles Loeser (1864-1928), an American art-collector, settled in Florence in 1890 and married the pianist Olga Kaufmann. Jenö Lehner (1894-1948) was a violinist and the leader of the Quartet which carried his name (Léner). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 54 and p. 80) date this Greffulhe violin as 1709; Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 146) does likewise, as does Jost Thöne (Vol. III, p. 4); the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40207) states ‘Original label … 1709’. However, Jacques Francais, in his publication The Dr. Herbert Axelrod Stradivari Quartet (p. 6) states: Unfortunately, this [1709] label has been altered in the course of the life of the instrument, and the original date has been cut out very carefully and replaced by a new cut-out, most likely to make it fit with the one of 1709 of the two violins of the Concerto in Madrid, with these dates having themselves been altered by Paolo Stradivari most likely. As you will see later, we would place the correct date as 1698. Francais (ibid., p. 14) writes further about the violin’s label: ‘[…] the last three digits were cut out and a small inset inserted in its place with the date 1709.’ The existence of this insert has been confirmed to the present author by the Smithsonian Institution (Washington DC, USA) the current owners of the Greffulhe violin. Many of the historical annotations at the end of the descriptive text for this violin are supported by a letter, dated 14 November 1960, sent by William E. Hill & Sons to the firm of Hug & Co. of Zurich, Switzerland: Dear Sirs, The history of the Stradivari violin dated 1709, known as the “Greffuhle”, is, as far as it is known to us, as follows. The particulars given are from the notes made by the late Mr. Alfred Hill, who had known the instrument since boyhood days. This violin bears the original label dated 1709. The earliest record we have of it is when in the possession of Dr. Camidge, organist at York Cathedral ca. 1830-40. From him it passed to the Reverend Blow of Layer Breton, Essex. He was an amateur players of distinction and also possessed a fine Nicolo Amati. He was a frequent visitor to the business premises of the late William Ebsworth Hill and it was thus that the late Mr. Alfred became well acquainted with the instrument, ca. 1870. Owing to declining health the Reverend Blow sold the violin to Mr. John Adam, a well-known collector who had owned many famous violins. On the sale of the Adam collection [1881] it passed to David Laurie, also a well-known collector of his time. About 1880 Laurie took the instrument to Paris and sold it through the intermediary of Gand to the Viscomte de Greffuhle in 1882. It was sold by the Viscomte to Caressa in 1910 and later passed into the possession of the firm of Hamma & Co. of Stuttgart. The firm of Hamma in turn sold it to Herr Walter of Bohemia, and in later years he sold it to your firm. […]. This letter is reproduced by Jacques Francais (ibid., p. 42). The CzAr/Tarisio website locates the Greffulhe violin with Hug & Co. between 1923 and 1962.

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JF55.2, p. 107 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 107 [U] (année 1878) M r le Marquis de Queux S t Hilaire, Paris Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces 5 lignes, année 1699 (Longuet) Fond de 2 pièces, veines douces descendant. Belles éclisses bien ondées. Table de 2 pièces ayant des cassures à l’âme, au menton, et aux f. Tête ondes très serrées, bois gris. Vernis rouge brun usé, il en reste très-peu au fond. Musée Conservatoire. (1878) M. le Marquis de Queux St. Hilaire, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 5 lignes [363.2mm], year 1699 (long pattern) The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, descending. Beautiful ribs, nicely flamed. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits at the sound-post, at the chin, and at the fs. The flames of the head are very tight/narrow; the wood is drab/lacklustre. The varnish is redbrown, worn; very little [varnish] remains on the back plate. [Presented to] the Museum of the [Paris] Conservatoire. The label-date of 1699 has been questioned by some commentators: the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40629) offers ‘1692’; the Musée de la Musique in Paris (E.1375) ‘around 1692’. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 48) report the date as ‘1699’ as does Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 102) and Henley (Henley, p. 34). Antoine Vidal (La Lutherie et les Luthiers, p. 104) mentions the longuet type of violin and provides a footnote: The Marquis de Saint-Hilaire, a distinguished Parisian music-lover, posseses a violin of this type, remarkable for its beauty and its sonority. It contains an original label, dated 1699. Vidal then directs the reader to his Plate II (between his p. 22 and p. 23) for an image of the violin and its 1699 label. The Musée de la Musique defines the violin’s body-length as ‘364mm’, a measurement which confirms that which was specified in 1878.

***** JF55.2, p. 107 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 107 [L] (année 1882) M r de Morny, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius fils (Franciscus), 28 pouces, année 1742 Fond et éclisses en peuplier. Belle table beau sapin, pièce d’âme. Très-belle tête sans ondes attribuée à Ant. Stradivarius. Vernis jaune doré. Vendu en 1900 à M r Jullien, uxzx [JF55.2 only] Marc Laberte 1967 Alexander Moskovsky. (1882) M. de Morny, Paris Cello: Antonio Stradivari son (Francesco), 28 pouces [758mm], year 1742 The back plate and the ribs are made with poplar wood. Beautiful front plate, beautiful spruce, a patch at the sound-post. Very beautiful head, without flames, attributed to Antonio Stradivari. The varnish is golden yellow. Sold in 1900 to M. Jullien, uxzx Marc Laberte 1967 Alexander Moskovsky. M. de Morny is associated only with a 1773 Guadagnini violin (see CzAr/Tarisio, ID 42644). Marc Laberte is associated only with the Stradivari Sunrise violin. No information for Alexander Moskovsky (other than his being a cello teacher) has been located.

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JF55.2, p. 108 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 108 [U] (année 1882) M r le duc de Camposelice, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1713 Fond de 2 pièces, veines douces descendant. Eclisses bois plus vif. Table de 2 pièces, très-beau sapin un peu large sur les côtés. Cassures à l’âme et aux quatre coins, marques d’usure faites par les archets. Tête splendide. Vernis rouge vif. Ex Adams, 25,000 M r Singer, 78 Avenue du Bois; racheté vente Camposelice, 30,000 f. (1882) M. le Duc de Camposelice, Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1713 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are mild, descending. The ribs are made with brighter wood [i.e. the flames are more distinctive]. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] slightly wide at the sides. There are splits at the sound-post and at the four [C-bout] corners; there are wear-marks caused by the bows. Splendid head. The varnish is bright red. ex Adams [John Adam], 25,000 M. Singer, 78 Avenue du Bois [Paris]; bought back at the [posthumous] Camposelice auction, 30,000 francs. The Duc de Camposelice died in September 1887. This cello, apparently, is that which is now known as the Bass of Spain (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40278). An account of this cello, together with many photographs, appears in Beare et al. (2013), pp. 146-153. Charles Reade (in the second of his four Letters to the Pall Mall Gazette, 24 August 1872, written and published while the Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments, at South Kensington, London, was in progress) relates how Luigi Tarisio acquired this cello in Spain (on an unknown date) and, surviving a violent storm at sea in the Bay of Biscay, safely brought the cello back to Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, in Paris. Charles Reade’s reliability as a witness is questionable: he states, at the end of his second Letter, that ‘[he] saw the Spanish bass in Paris twenty-two years ago [i.e. 1850] and you can see it any day this month you like: for it is the identical violoncello now on show at Kensington, numbered 188.’ Exhibit 188 at the Special Exhibition (as listed in both the 1872 and 1873 catalogues) was: No. 188. VIOLONCELLO by Antonius Stradivarius, 1725. A magnificent specimen. Purchased by M. [Jules] Gallay for 20,000 francs (800l [£800]). Lent by M. Gallay, Paris. This was the 1725 Vaslin cello which Jules Gallay bought in 1869; see JF55.2, p. 58 [L]. The South Kensington catalogue of 1872 lists further Stradivari cellos, dated 1711 (exhibit no. 186) and 1730 (no. 187); the revised catalogue of 1873 does not list the 1711 cello, identifying only the 1730 cello and Gallay’s 1725 Vaslin cello. Neither the 1872 nor the 1873 catalogue mentions a Stradivari cello of 1713. After repairing Tarisio’s Spanish cello Vuillaume sold it to an unidentified Russian nobleman (see Hill (1902), p. 135); after the Russian’s death the cello was acquired by David Laurie who brought it to England in 1876 and sold it to the collector John Adam. In his Reminiscences (Chapter XIII) Laurie relates a journey to St Petersburg and the acquisition of three Stradivari cellos: In the spring of [18]76 I received a letter from a lady in St. Petersburg, saying that her late husband had left a collection of high priced stringed instruments, and that several of her friends had advised her to write to me and see if I would buy them. […] On looking over the receipts I found that nearly all the instruments had been purchased either through J. B. Vuillaume or Gand Frères, Paris, and as they were duly guaranteed by these firms, there could be little doubt of their authenticity. […] They had, with a few exceptions, been bought many years before, and their value had greatly increased. […] [On arrival at the lady’s residence in St Petersburg] we

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adjourned to the music room, where the collection was. This I found to consist of three Strad. ’cellos, several violins, and a tenor [viola]. The king of the collection was one of the ’cellos, which was of Strad’s best period 1712, the other two being of the early period. [See JF55.2, p. 99 [U] for a further extract from this narrative.] The only known Stradivari cello of 1712 is the Davidoff which, between 1870 and 1900, was in the hands of Karl Davidoff (d. 1889) or his family; see JF55.2, p. 58 [U]. It is possible that a typographical error in Laurie’s narrative has resulted in a 1713 cello being incorrectly represented as one of 1712. On 30 September 1877 Laurie sold a 1713 Stradivari cello for £437 – the buyer is not identified but was possibly John Adam. Using the usual late-nineteenth-century conversion rate of 1:25 between GB Pounds and French Francs produces 10,925 francs as the equivalent amount; the annotations to the JF55.2 descriptive text suggest that John Adam sold his 1713 cello to the Duc de Camposelice for the enormously inflated price of 25,000 francs. According to the Caressa & Français annotations (see above) the 1713 cello was ‘bought back’ by M. Singer at the Camposelice auction. However, the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 134) state that the cello ‘passed into our hands, and was sold to the present owner’ whom they identify as ‘Mr. Franklin Singer’ (ibid., p. 129). Franklin Merritt Morse Singer (b. 1870) was one of six children born to Isabelle Eugénie Boyer and Isaac Singer (founder of the Singer Sewing Machine company). The second husband of Isabelle Boyer was Victor Reubsaet, subsequently the Duc de Camposelice.

***** JF55.2, p. 108 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 108 [L] (année 1882) M r Muir Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1704 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes descendant un peu mais presque droites. Eclisses ondes aussi larges, cassures à celle du menton et au C au-dessus. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin ayant beaucoup de cassures. Jolie tête, beau bois usée derrière et ayant des joues à la cheville du La et du Ré de chaque côté. Beau vernis rouge brun doré, très-usé à la tête. (1882) M. Muir Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1704 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, descending slightly but almost straight. The flames of the ribs are equally wide. There are splits in the rib of the chin and in the C-bout rib above. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin, having a lot of splits. Attractive head, beautiful wood, worn at the rear and having cheek patches at the A-string and D-string pegs on each side [of the peg-box]. Beautiful varnish, golden red-brown, very worn on the head. This violin is identified today as the 1704 Viotti violin. According to Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 126) the violin was ‘said to have been owned by the famous Giovanni Battista Viotti’ (1755-1824) and then by the ‘Oliphant’ family. Doring continues by referring to a book written by Peter Davidson (The Violin: A concise exposition of the general principles of construction theoretically and practically treated, published in 1871). Davidson writes (p. 132): Mr. Muir of Leith, possesses a violin made by this illustrious artist [Antonio Stradivari], which was formerly the esteemed instrument of the celebrated violinist Viotti; it contains the following inscription, “Antonius Stradiuarius, Cremonensis Faciebat, 1704.” Davidson does not provide a description of the violin and makes no mention of the Oliphant family. William Henley (Henley, p. 44) dates Viotti’s acquisition of this violin to 1820 and identifies a subsequent owner as ‘B. Muir’.

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JF55.2, p. 109 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 109 [U] (année 1882) M r Luce, à Grasse Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 2l., année 1703 Fond de 2 pièces, jolies ondes larges remontant. Eclisses ondes larges. Table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, ayant beaucoup de cassures et entièrement doublée, très-jolie tête. Vernis jaune brun doré. (1882) M. Luce, from Grasse Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1703 The back plate is made from two pieces; attractive flames, wide and rising [from the centrejoint]. The flames of the ribs are [also] wide. The front plate is made from two pieces, the spruce [?rings are] thin, having a lot of splits, and entirely doubled. Very attractive head. The varnish is golden yellow-brown. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 109 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 109 [L] (année 1881) M r Laurie, Glasgow Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces moins 1 ligne, année 1684 Fond d’une pièce, veines très-douces remontant à droite. Eclisses ondes un peu plus vives. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, petite cassure et pièce à l’âme. Jolie tête, trous rebouchés. Vernis rouge doré. Un peu Amatisé. 188 M r Wilmotte 1886 M r [no further text]. (1881) M. Laurie, Glasgow Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces minus 1 ligne [349.6mm], year 1684 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are very mild, rising to the right. The ribs have flames which are slightly brighter [slightly more vivid]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, with a small split and a patch at the sound-post. Attractive head, the [peg] holes bushed. The varnish is golden red. Slightly Amatisé. 188 M. Wilmotte 1886 M. [no further text]. This small violin has been identified as the Pressardi, sold by Vuillaume to David Laurie with a certificate (dated 21 June 1873) stating that the violin had belonged to Giacomo Pressardi. Pressardi’s name does not appear in the first edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1878) nor in the first edition of Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (1900) nor in Karel Jalovec’s Italian Violin Makers. The Pressardi violin appears on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 40746, and is mentioned, very briefly, in Henley (p. 23). Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 48) indicates that this Pressardi violin is identified by David Laurie in his Reminiscences but Doring does not provide a page reference; a search of Laurie’s text has failed to locate the name.

***** JF55.2, p. 110 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 110 [U] (année 1882) M r Laurie, Glasgow Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1 ligne, année 1709

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Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes, ayant quatre cassures. Eclisses petites ondes vives, celle du bas refaite, côté de la chanterelle. Table ayant plusieurs cassures, doublée sous l’estomac, ½ bord au menton. Très-belle tête. Vernis jaune rouge doré. Voûtes un peu amatisées. (1882) M. Laurie, Glasgow Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1709 The back plate is in one piece; small flames, having four splits. The ribs have small bright flames; the rib of the lower bout, on the E-string side, has been re-made. The front plate having several splits, doubled under the chest, and with half-edges at the chin. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow-red. The arching [of the plates] is slightly Amati-like. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 110 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 110 [L] [M. Laurie] (année 1882) Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1736 Fond de 2 pièces uni, bords larges, cassure à droite du joint partant du bas et finissant à la hauteur du coin du haut, cassure en biais sur le tasseau du bas. Cercle au talon. Eclisses veines serrées, celle du bas côté du menton plus moderne. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin ayant pas mal de cassures. Belle tête unie, coquille chanfreins un peu épais. Vernis jaune rouge doré. Ex de Jouy. [M. Laurie] (1882) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1736 The back plate is made from two pieces of plain wood; the plate edges [on the outside of the purfling] are wide; there is a split to the right of the centre-joint starting at the bottom and finishing level with the [C-bout] upper corner; there is an oblique split at the bottom block. An [ebony?] crown has been fitted around the neck-foot. The ribs have tight/narrow flames; the bottom rib, at the side of the chin, is more modern [i.e. not made by Stradivari]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, having quite a lot of splits. Beautiful head, plain wood; the chamfer of the scroll is slightly thick. The varnish is golden yellow-red. ex de Jouy. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 111 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 111 [U] (année 1882) M r Laurie, Glasgow (suite) Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 2l., année 1714 Fond d’une pièce très-beau à contresens. Eclisses très-belles ondes larges. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin un peu fin au milieu. Cassure au-dessus de l’f gauche, une petite au coin gauche et au bas de l’f même côté. Très belle tête. Vernis jaune rouge doré. (1882) M. Laurie, Glasgow (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1714 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful; [the wood] cut against the grain. The ribs are very beautiful, with wide flames. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] slightly thin at the middle. There is a split above the left [bass] f, a small [split] 193

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at the left-side corner [upper or lower corner of the bass-side C?] and [another split] at the bottom of the f on the same side. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow-red. No further information about this violin been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 111 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 111 [L] [M. Laurie] (année 1883) Violon Stradivarius, année 1711, 13p. 3l., Fond de 2 pièces, petites ondes (revernis). Eclisses petites ondes comme le fond. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin un peu fin au milieu, quatre cassures à différentes places, rien sous l’âme. Tête bien conservée. Vernis jaune doré. Modèle longuet. [M. Laurie] (1883) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1711 The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames (re-varnished). The flames of the ribs are small, like those on the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] slightly thin in the middle; there are four splits at different places [but] none under the sound-post. The head is well conserved. The varnish is golden yellow. Long model. No further information about this violin been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 112 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 112 [U] (année 1886) [1882 in Gand] M r Hans Becker, à Leipzig Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1732 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes presque droites, descendant un peu, le haut du côté droit uni, éclisses pareilles, table bien conservée, ayant une doublure au milieu. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge brun doré. Vendu à M me Philipp, à Leipzig, par lui, en 1908, pour 25,000 M. le tenait de son père Jean Becker. (1886/1882) M. Hans Becker, from Leipzig Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1732 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames almost straight, descending slightly; the upper bout, on the right, is plain. The ribs are similar. The front plate is well conserved, having a doubling in the middle. Attractive head. The varnish is golden red-brown. Sold to Mme. Philipp, from Leipzig, by him [Hans Becker?] in 1908, for 25,000 Marks. Obtained from his father, Jean Becker. This violin, with its distinctive area of plain wood on the right of the back plate’s upper bout, is that which is shown on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 43270) as the Jean Becker, dated ‘c.1732’. The associated photographs show the back-plate flames descending from the centre joint at a more acute angle than might be anticipated from ‘almost straight, descending slightly’; the same photographs show plain ribs on the bass side.

***** JF55.2, p. 112 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 112 [L] (année 1882) M r Laurie, Glasgow (ex Adam) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13p. 1l., année 1740 354mm, étiquette originale 194

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Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes remontant un peu à droite, petite fente à côté du C droit. Belles éclisses. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin, petite cassure à côté de l’âme. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge, très-beau, celui de la table un peu galeux. ex Comte de Baldeschi Ex Adams 1885 M r Wilmotte, 22,000 1889 M lle Mess, 24,500 1896 Ysaÿe l’a acheté à M me Mess, 25,000 1937 Charles Munch: ultttt f, repris L. Guadagnini, altttt Munch l’a revendu à Emile Hermann $20,000 – l’a revendu à [no further text] racheté par Wurlitzer, revendu à Ysaac Stern ½ bords table, estomac, table Au milieu du fond étiquette manuscrite par E. Ysaÿe “Ce del Jésus a été le fidèle compagnon de ma carrières. Ysaÿe 1928” écrite à l’encre rouge. Ce violon a appartenu au Comte de Baldeschi, à Adam – Laurie – Wilmotte – Gand et Bel. Mlle Mess devenue Mme Theo Ysaÿe et vendu par elle à son beau-frère Eugène Ysaÿe en 1896 qui l’a gardé jusqu’à sa mort en 1931 – il est cité et reproduit dans le livre de Hill. 1937 vendu à Charles Munch ultttt, soit lttttt espèces, repris altttt un L. Guadagnini. (1882) M. Laurie, Glasgow (ex Adam) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1740 354mm, original label The back plate is in one piece; beautiful flames rising slightly to the right; there is a small split at the side of the right-hand C [viewed from the rear?]. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce; a small split at the side of the sound-post. Very beautiful head. Red varnish, very beautiful; [the varnish] of the front plate is slightly ‘scabby’. ex Comte de Baldeschi. ex Adam. 1885 M. Wilmotte, 22,000. 1889 Mlle. Mess, 24,500. 1896 Ysaÿe bought the violin from Mme. Mess, 25,000. 1937 [bought by] Charles Munch, ultttt francs; part-exchange with a L. Guadagnini [violin], altttt. Munch re-sold the violin to Emil Herrmann, 20,000 dollars – it was re-sold to […?]. Bought back by Wurlitzer, re-sold to Isaac Stern. Half-edges on the front plate, ‘chest’ area, front plate In the middle of the back plate there is a label hand-written by E. Ysaÿe: “This del Gesù has been the fiddle-companion of my career. Ysaÿe, 1928”, written in red ink. This violin belonged to Comte de Baldeschi, [then passed] to [John] Adam – Laurie – Wilmotte – Gand & Bernardel. Mlle. Mess became Mme. [Théophile] Ysaÿe and [the violin was] sold by her to [Théophile’s elder] brother Eugène Ysaÿe in 1896; Eugène looked after the violin until his death in 1931. The violin is cited and illustrated in the Hill book [Guarneri family, 1931]. 1937, sold to Charles Munch, ultttt: lttttt in cash together with a L. Guadagnini [violin worth] altttt. The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 88) identify a 1740 Guarneri del Gesù violin as owned by ‘M. Eugene Ysaÿe, ex Adam, ex Willemotte’. In the same volume they subsequently identify the violin as ‘M. Eugène Ysaÿe, ex Cte Baldeschi, ex Adam’ (p. 102). The violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40064) as the Ysaÿe.

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JF55.2, p. 113 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 113 [U] (année 1882) M r Laurie, Glasgow (suite) Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13p. année 1732 [the 2 then altered to 8; 1738 in EF/JF55.4; 1738 in Gand] Fond de 2 pièces, veines assez vives remontant. Eclisses bois pareil. Table de 2 pièces rélargie au milieu par une bande de 2 lignes. Cassure à l’âme, au coin gauche, et une petite au menton à côté du cordier, petite pièce dans le bas de la table près du filet, côté du menton.(a) Belle tête de la famille des Guarnerius. Vernis rouge doré. Ex Sainton (1882) M. Laurie, Glasgow (continuing) Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1732/1738 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames fairly bright, rising [from the centre-joint]. The ribs are made from similar wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; widened in the middle by a strip of wood, 2 lignes [4.5mm] [wide]. There is a split at the sound-post, [another] at the bass-side corner [upper or lower?], and a small [split] at the chin to the side of the tailpiece. There is a small patch at the bottom of the front plate next to the purfling at the side of the chin.(a) Beautiful head of Guarneri-family type. The varnish is golden red. ex Sainton. (a)

At this point Gand includes a drawing of a small triangular patch, immediately to the left of the tail-piece, the triangle pointing up the front plate towards the bass f. The drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4. No further information for the 1732/1738 Guarneri violin has been located. For Prosper Sainton’s 1734 Guarneri violin see JF55.2, p. 36 [U]).

***** JF55.2, p. 113 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 113 [L] (année 1884) M r Johnson Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 2l., année 1721 Fond de 2 pièces belles ondes descendant, belles éclisses, celles du haut ayant des trous de vers près du manche ainsi que celle du bas, côté opposé au menton. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin, ayant quelques cassures dont une à côté de l’âme, belle tête. Vernis retouché de chaque côté de la coquille. (1884) M. Johnson Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1721 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, descending. Beautiful ribs; the ribs of the upper bout having worm tracks close to the neck; [worm holes also in] the rib of the lower bout on the side opposite the chin. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce, having some splits, of which one is at the side of the sound-post. Beautiful head. The varnish has been re-touched on each side of the scroll. The name ‘Thurston Johnson’ appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website but only in connection with a 1761 Gagliano violin (ID 40948) and a 1730 ‘composite’ Stradivari violin (ID 49637). The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 271) identify a ‘Mr. David Johnson (an amateur player)’ as a one-time owner of the 1717 Sasserno violin (see JF55.2, p. 103 [U]). David Johnson is also identified (Hill (1902), p. 273) as a onetime owner of a 1730 Stradivari cello which Mr Johnson ‘bought in 1882 from MM. Gand & Bernardel frères for £600 […] and brought back to England, to be once again purchased by our firm in 1885 for £650.’

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It is probable that ‘M. Johnson’ was the father of Miss M E Johnson whose 1721 Stradivari violin was exhibited at the 1885 International Inventions Exhibition (Loan Collection of Musical Instruments), Albert Hall, London. A ‘Miss E Johnson’ (assumed to be the same person) exhibited a 1698 Stradivari violin at the same exhibition.

***** JF55.2, p. 114 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 114 [U] (année 1886) M r le duc de Camposelice Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13p., année 1742 Fond de 2 pièces, veines douces presque droites, descendant, talon neuf, éclisses unies, table de 2 pièces bien conservée. Tête ancienne très-usée dans le haut côté du La. Vernis rouge doré usé, plus brun sur certaines parties de la table. (1886) M. le Duc de Camposelice Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1742 The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, almost straight, descending. A modified neck-foot. The ribs are plain. The front plate is made from two pieces; well conserved. The head is original, very worn on the side above the A-string peg. The varnish is golden red, worn; the varnish is more brown in some areas of the front plate. The identity of this del Gesù violin is likely the Duc de Camposelice (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40548, ‘c. 1741’). Good photographs appear in L B Robinson (pp. 26-27). The same source reproduces a certificate from the Hills (23 August 1904) in which the violin is dated to ‘about 1740-1743’. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies Dwight J Partello as the owner of the violin between 1904 and 1920. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 75-78) discusses the Partello collection of instruments and lists those that were bequeathed to the US National Museum at Washington DC; only one ‘Joseph Guarnerius’ violin is listed, dated 1742.

***** JF55.2, p. 114 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 114 [L] [M. le Duc de Camposelice] (année 1886) Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 p. faibles, année 1719 Fond de 2 pièces, très-belles ondes descendant. Cassure de 7 pouces de long à côté du C droit. Belles éclisses bois pareil, cassées près du manche. Très-beau vernis rouge brun doré. Table de 2 pièces (moderne). Vernis craquelé plus rouge. Très-belle tête Amatisée, un peu forte pour l’instrument. Trous rebouchés en carrés. [M. le Duc de Camposelice] (1886) Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces barely [758mm], year 1719 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful flames, descending [from the centrejoint]. There is a split 7 pouces in length [189mm] at the side of the right-hand C. Beautiful ribs, the wood is similar [to the back plate], broken next to the neck. Very beautiful varnish: golden red-brown. The front plate is made from two pieces (modern); the crackled varnish is of a deeper red. Very beautiful head – Amatisé – slightly too ‘strong’ in relation to the rest of the instrument. The peg-holes have been bushed with square [inserts]. This is the Becker/Duke of Marlborough cello, briefly mentioned by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 221) and by the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 129 and p. 137); see also CzAr/Tarisio ID 40282. Further information is provided by L B Robinson (Robinson, pp. 34-35). See also the information between p. 147 [L] and p. 148 [U] of JF55.4.

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JF55.2, p. 115 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 115 [U] (année 1886) M r le Duc de Camposelice (suite) Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1710 Fond de 2 pièces, très-belles ondes larges presque droites, descendant légèrement, éclisses bois pareil, table de 2 pièces, cassure à l’âme et une du côté de la barre au dessus de l’f. Très-belle tête. Vernis rouge doré, très-beau. Ex de Tauzia, de Tonnens (1886) M. le Duc de Camposelice (continuing) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1710 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful flames, wide, almost straight, gently descending. The wood of the ribs is similar [to the back]. The front plate is made from two pieces; with a split at the sound-post and one at the side of the bass-bar above the f. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red, very beautiful. ex de Tauzia, de Tonnens. No further information for ‘de Tauzia’ or for ‘de Tonnens’ has been located. This violin is possibly that which appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41289.

***** JF55.2, p. 115 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 115 [L] (année 1886) M r Laurie, Glasgow Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13p. 1l., année 1739 (la queue du 9 effacée) [1739 in EF/JF55.4; 1730 in Gand] Fond d’une pièce jolies veines descendant légèrement à droite (talon neuf), éclisses veines un peu plus larges. Table de 2 pièces, cassure au bas de l’f gauche, une à l’âme et une à chaque f au-dessus du trou du bas jusqu’au filet. Tête un peu lourde. Vernis rouge brun doré, très-gras. (1886) M. Laurie, Glasgow Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1739 (the tail of the 9 has been erased) The back plate is in one piece; attractive flames descending gently to the right (a modified neck-foot). The flames of the ribs are slightly wider [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; with a split at the bottom of the bass f, another split at the sound-post, and one at each f from above the lower hole to the purfling. The head is slightly heavy. The varnish is golden red-brown, very oily. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies six del Gesù violins dated 1739; of these, only two have one-piece back plates with flames which descend slightly from left to right – the Bower/Druian (ID 44345) and the Beare/Steinhardt (ID 49617). The associated photographs of the Bower/Druian violin appear to show rib flames which are wider than those on the back plate.

***** JF55.2, p. 116 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 116 [U] (année 1886) M r Franchomme, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 pouces, année 1711 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes descendant légèrement, belles éclisses, hauteur 4p. 5l., fortes en haut et en bas, table de 2 pièces, sapin très-large sur les côtés, petite cassure à l’âme à droite 198

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du pied du chevalet, bords très-usés. Largeur dans le haut 12 pouces 10 lignes, largeur dans le bas 16p. 5l., diapason 15p. au bord. Très-belle tête. Beau vernis rouge brun, un peu opaque. 22,000 f Hill. (1886) M. Franchomme, Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1711 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, gently descending. Beautiful ribs; their height is 4 pouces and 5 lignes full [119.6mm] in both the upper and lower bouts. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very wide at the sides; there is a small split at the sound-post – to the right of the foot of the bridge; the edges are very worn. The [maximum] width of the upper bout is 12 pouces and 10 lignes [347.4mm], the lower bout 16 pouces 5 lignes [444.4mm]; the ‘stop’ length is 15 pouces [406mm] to the edge [of the upper plate adjacent to the neck]. Very beautiful head. Beautiful varnish, red-brown, slightly opaque. 22,000 francs Hill. The cello is named after Jean-Louis Duport (1749-1819); at his death the cello was transferred to his son. According to Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 161-162) Auguste-Joseph Franchomme (b. 1808) bought this cello ‘about 1842, paying the enhanced price of 22,000 francs.’ A-J Franchomme died in 1884; perhaps the ‘M. Franchomme’ identified at the start of the 1886 descriptive text was the son of Auguste-Joseph. The 1711 cello was acquired by the Hills in 1892.

***** JF55.2, p. 116 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 116 [L] (année 1886) M r Haussmann Violoncelle Stradivarius, 28 p., année 1724 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes, presque droites descendant légèrement. Le joint pas au milieu,(a) 6p. 2l., à gauche, 6p. 6l. à droite, largeur 12p. 8l., très-belles éclisses, ondes plus larges que le fond (chanteaux de 4 lignes de chaque côté dans le bas du fond); hauteur des éclisses 4p. 5l., dans le haut, et 4p. 7l., dans le bas. Table beau sapin ayant quelques cassures et 2 chanteaux comme au fond, jolie tête. Vernis rouge orange. [JF55.2 only] 1948 Edmond Kurtz acheté chez Wurlitzer en 194 $ utttt. (1886) M. Haussmann Antonio Stradivari cello, 28 pouces [758mm], year 1724 The back plate is in two pieces; beautiful flames, almost straight, gently descending. The centre-joint is not in the middle(a) – it is 6 pouces and 2 lignes [167mm] from the left [edge of the plate], 6 pouces 6 lignes [176mm] from the right; the width of the upper bout is 12 pouces and 8 lignes [343mm]. Very beautiful ribs; the flames are wider than those of the back plate (there are width-inserts of 4 lignes [9mm] on each side of the back-plate’s lower bout); the height of the ribs is 4 pouces 5 lignes [119.6mm] in the upper bout, and 4 pouces 7 lignes [124mm] in the lower bout. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce, having some splits and two width-inserts as in the back plate. Attractive head. The varnish is red-orange. 1948 Edmond Kurtz bought [the cello] from Wurlitzer in 194[?], utttt dollars. (a)

At this point Gand draws an outline of the upper part of the cello’s back plate, showing the offset centre-joint, with the measurement of ‘6.2’ to the left of the joint and ‘6.6’ to the right; the drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4.

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This cello is now known as the Hausmann (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40284). The history of the cello is described by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 257 and p. 259) and in Thöne (Vol. IV, pp. 60-71). Comparative measurements provided by Thöne are: back plate upper-bout width 340.2mm; body length 758mm.

***** JF55.2, p. 117 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 117 [U] (année 1886) M r de S t Senoch, Paris Violoncelle Stradivarius, 27 pouces, année 1696 Fond de 2 pièces, petites ondes droites, cassure à gauche du joint dans la partie du milieu à 1 pouce. Eclisses du bas côté de l’Ut ayant quelques cassures, hauteur des éclisses en haut 4p. 5l., en bas 4p. 6l.. Table de 2 pièces, cassure à l’âme et au bas de l’f gauche. Très-belle tête. Vernis jaune doré. Ex Wilmotte 6,000 f, Ex Kittel 7,000 M r Damien 11,000 f 1908: Bonjour contre un violon de J h del Gesù, evalué roxzx. (1886) M. de St. Senoch, Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, 27 pouces [730.8mm], year 1696 The back plate is made from two pieces; small straight flames; there is a split to the left of the centre-joint, in the middle, 1 pouce [27mm] [from the joint]. The lower rib on the C-string side having some splits. The height of the ribs in the upper bout is 4 pouces 5 lignes [119.5mm], in the lower bout 4 pouces 6 lignes [121.8mm]. The front plate is made from two pieces; a split at the sound-post and at the bottom of the bass f. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden yellow. ex Wilmotte, 6,000 francs; ex Kittel, 7,000 M. Damien, 11,000 francs 1908: Bonjour, against a Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin valued at roxzx. Nikolai Kittel (1805-1868) was a Russian bow-maker (of Austrian origin). The ‘Bonjour’ of 1908 would appear to be Samuel Bonjour, the nephew of the cellist Abel Bonjour. This cello was put up for auction in May 1886 following the death, in November 1885, of Edouard-Marie de Saint-Senoch. According to the report in le Ménestrel (23 May 1886) the purchaser of ‘the superb cello of 1696’ was ‘M. Dammien d’Aytré’ who paid 10,200 francs. Aytré is a town on the western coast of France, just south of La Rochelle. The St. Senoch/Damien cello is listed on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 41456) but dated 1698. The website’s list of subsequent owners does not include ‘Bonjour’ in 1908. Instead, it is indicated that M. Damien sold the cello in 1890 to Captain H S Murray, and, according to Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 99), the 1698 cello was still in Murray’s possession at the time of his death in 1925 or ’26; the cello then passed to Wurlitzer. The photographs of the 1698 St Senoch cello provided by Ernest Doring (p. 98), and on the CzAr/Tarisio website, reveal a back plate in which the tightly-packed narrow flames are almost exactly horizontal.

***** JF55.2, p. 117 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 117 [L] (année 1886) M r Laurie, Glasgow Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1737 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes larges descendant. Eclisses ondes un peu plus serrées, mais vives. Table de 2 pièces, joli sapin ayant de chaque côté une partie plus serrée et d’une teinte 200

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plus foncée.(a) Petite pièce de 2 pouces de long de la largeur du pore du sapin, au menton. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge doré gras et très-dépouillé. (1886) M. Laurie, Glasgow Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1737 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wide flames, descending. The flames of the ribs are slightly tighter/narrower, but bright. The front plate is made from two pieces; attractive spruce, having on each side a section with tighter/narrower [rings] and of a darker colour.(a) There is a small patch, 2 pouces in length [54.1mm] and as wide as one spruce growth-ring, at the chin. Attractive head. The varnish is golden red, oily, and very worn. (a)

Gand draws a small sketch of the violin’s front plate, showing the two longitudinal strips which have narrower rings and a darker colour; the sketch is not replicated in JF55.2 nor in EF/JF55.4. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 118 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 118 [U] (année 1886) M r Joachim (Arbos) Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 3l., année 1723 Fond de 2 pièces veines larges douces, descendant, taches brunes dans le milieu. Eclisses ondes plus serrées. Table beau sapin un peu large, ayant quelques cassures (doublures). Belle tête. Vernis rouge brun. Vendu à J. Wanamacker en 1925, amlttt. (1886) M. Joachim (Arbos) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1723 The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames, mild, descending [from the centre-joint]; brown blemishes in the middle. The flames of the ribs are tighter/narrower. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] slightly wide, having some splits (doublings). Beautiful head. The varnish is red-brown. Sold to J. Wanamaker in 1925, amlttt. This violin – loaned to Enrique Fernández Arbós by his teacher, Joseph Joachim – is extensively described by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 251). Doring indicates that, having acquired another Stradivari violin (of 1730) Arbos returned his 1723 violin to ‘the custody of Hills in London, about 1896’. Doring confirms the 1925 sale of the violin, through Albert Caressa, to the Wanamaker collection in America.

***** JF55.2, p. 118 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 118 [L] (année 1886) M r Dionizio Fernandez, à Madrid Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1697 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes serrées droites. Eclisses pareilles. Table de 2 pièces ayant des cassures au menton et du côté droit, petites pièces carrées dans le haut près du filet pour remplacer des trous de chevilles qui étaient mal ajustées et très-visibles. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge doré. Acheté par nous, par C.F., hhxzx, en 1911 Vendu à M lle Kinnel de Londres, aaoxz, en 1912 Le même que page 175. 201

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(1886) M. Dionizio Fernandez, from Madrid Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1697 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are tight/narrow and straight. The ribs are similar. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits at the chin and on the treble side. There are small square patches in the upper bout near the purfling to cover up the [original?] holes for the [locating] pins which were badly fitted and very noticeable. Attractive head. The varnish is golden red. Bought by us, by Caressa & Français, hhxzx, in 1911 Sold to Mlle. Kinnel, of London, aaoxz, in 1912 The same [violin] as on page 175. In 1909 a more detailed description of this 1697 violin was written up in the ledgers at JF55.2, p. 175 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 175 [L]:

1909 V e Fernandez, Calle Majorqua à Barcelone Violon A. Stradivarius 1697, longuet, fond 2p., toutes petites ondes douces; petite pièce carrée en haut;(a) 2 petites chevilles en bas; à droite et à gauche; éclisses pareilles au fond; au bouton petite pièce;(b) table de 2 p., sapin assez fin; 2 grandes cassures à gauche; meurtrissures à l’âme; très-jolie tête; vernis qui fût rouge, presque entièrement refait; taille 355mm, faibles; grande doublure, mal mise; vaut exzx. Acheté en 1911, hhoxz Vendu à Miss Kinnel à Londres avril 1912 aaoxz (Ten Have) 1909 The widow Fernandez, Calle Majorqua, Barcelona Antonio Stradivari violin, 1697, long model. The back plate is made from two pieces; extremely small and mild flames. There is a small square patch in the upper bout,(a) two small dowels [locating pins?] in the lower bout, to the right and to the left [of the centre-joint?]. The ribs are made from similar wood as on the back plate. There is a small patch at the end pin.(b) The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] quite thin; two large splits on the left; bruises at the sound-post. Very attractive head. The varnish, which was [originally] red, [now] almost entirely replaced. The body-length is 355mm, barely. Extensive doubling, badly carried out. Worth exzx. Bought [by Caressa & Français?] in 1911, hhoxz Sold to Miss Kinnel, from London, April 1912, aaoxz [?through Willem] Ten Have. (a)

At this point the JF55.2 copyist draws a small sketch of the violin’s back plate at the neck, showing an oblong patch positioned across the centre-joint; the sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4. (b)

At this point the JF55.2 copyist draws a small sketch of the tail-piece area of the violin, showing a patch in the area of the saddle; the sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 92-93) identifies with certainty only one violin of 1697, the Prince Uchtomsky (aka The Russian Strad). The CzAr/Tarisio website lists three violins of 1697 – the Russian, the Montbel (see JF55.2, p. 105 [L]), and the Haddock/Cater/Rostal – but these violins do not match the descriptive text. For ‘Ten Have’ (Willem Ten Have (1831-1924), violinist) see also JF55.2, p. 159. No further information about the 1697 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 119 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 119 [U] (année 1887) M r le Comte Andrea Sola Cabiati, Milan Violon Stradivarius, 13p., année 1707 202

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Fond de 2 pièces ondes larges descendant un peu, trous de vers, doublé, éclisses ondes un peu plus larges. Table de 2 pièces ayant des cassures. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge brun, assez dépouillé. (1887) M. le Comte Andrea Sola Cabiati, Milan Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1707 The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames which slightly descend; there are worm tracks [?and the plate has therefore been] doubled. The flames of the ribs are slightly wider [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits. Attractive head. The varnish is red-brown, fairly worn. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 119 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 119 [L] [M. le Comte Andrea Sola Cabiati] (année 1887) Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 2l., année 1724 Fond de 2 pièces ondes droites très-douces, veines dans la longueur, ayant l’apparence de côtes de sapin. Eclisses ondes plus larges. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin, complètement attaqué par les vers, et entièrement doublée ainsi qu’une partie des éclisses. Tous les tasseaux changés pour la même raison. Jolie tête, vernis rouge doré. [M. le Comte Andrea Sola Cabiati] (1887) Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1724 The back plate is made from two pieces; straight flames, very mild; longitudinal vein-lines giving the appearance of ‘sections’ within the spruce. The flames of the ribs are wider. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce, completely attacked by worms [beetles], and entirely doubled, as is a part of the ribs. All the blocks have been changed, for the same reason. Attractive head. The varnish is golden red. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 120 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 120 [U] année 1885 M r Wilmotte, Anvers Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1709 Fond de 2 pièces ondes superbes presque droites, descendant un peu, éclisses pareilles. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin un peu fin, sans cassure à l’âme, une au bas de l’f droite et une petite au bas de l’f gauche de 15 lignes. Très-belle tête, beau vernis rouge brun. 14,000 1880 Ex Pastré, hxzxz Kaufmann, Berlin [JF55.2 only] 1938 En réparation chez Hill et Sons, Londres. 1885 M. Wilmotte, Antwerp Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1709 The back plate is made from two pieces; superb flames, almost straight, descending slightly; the ribs are similar. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] slightly thin; without a split at the sound-post [but with a split] at the bottom of the treble f and 203

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a small [split] at the bottom of the bass f, 15 lignes in length [34mm]. Very beautiful head. Beautiful varnish, red-brown. 14,000 1880 ex Pastré, hxzxz Kaufmann, Berlin. 1938 being restored/repaired at Hill & Sons, London. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 120 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 120 [L] année [blank space]: M r le D r Longchamp, à Eu; 33, rue Jeanne d’Arc Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 2l., année 1712 Fond d’une pièce, bois gris, ondes droites très-serrés, cercle érable au talon. Eclisses bois pareil, celle du menton ayant une petite fente dans le milieu à 2 pouces du coin. Table de 2 pièces joli sapin ayant une nuance brune au menton de 17 lignes à partir du joint, petit flipot, filipeau, de 8 lignes depuis le filet et à 28 lignes du joint, cassure à l’âme et 2 en bas de l’f droite. Jolie tête ondes larges douces. Vernis rouge magnifique, paraissant plus brun sur le fond et les éclisses. Ex Leduc; vendu 4,600 f en Mai 1861 Madame Le Meignan, à Eu, 33 rue Jeanne d’Arc à Nice, l’hiver, 10 rue Pujet 13-2-20 – offert Strad nxzxz et attt archet Tourte jeune argent avec archet Voirin, Simon – aurait un alto Guadagnini et un Ruggeri à Eu. 1-20-1938 vu par mon beau-père, bois gris, vernis marron rouge, offert bltttt en dépôt. No date: M. Dr. Longchamp, from Eu [northern France]; 33 rue Jeanne d’Arc Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1712 The back plate is in one piece; drab/lacklustre wood; the flames are straight and very tight/narrow; a circle of maple [has been fitted] around the neck-foot. The ribs are made from similar wood; the rib at the chin having a small split in the middle 2 pouces [54mm] from the [lower] corner [of the bass-side C]. The front plate is made from two pieces of attractive spruce having a brown colouring at the chin, 17 lignes [38.4mm] from the [centre] joint. There is a small covering piece of wood, 8 lignes [18mm] from the purfling to 28 lignes [63.3mm] from the joint. There is a split at the sound-post and two splits at the bottom of the treble f. Attractive head, the flames wide and mild. The varnish is red; magnificent; seeming to be browner on the back plate and on the ribs. ex Leduc; sold for 4,600 francs in May 1861 Madame Le Meignan, from Eu, 33, rue Jeanne d’Arc at Nice in the winter, 10 rue Pujet 13 February 1920: offered [?to buy] a Stradivari [?violin], nxzxz, and [?offered] attt for a Tourte bow, silver-mounted, with a Simon Voirin bow – there is a Guadagnini viola and a Ruggeri [?violin] at Eu. 20 January 1938, [the Stradivari violin] seen by my father-in-law [Albert Caressa]; drab/lacklustre wood; the varnish is chestnut-brown/red; offered bltttt, on deposit. In EF/JF55.4 there is a small piece of notepaper inserted into the ledger after p. 121:

D r Longchamp Strad ex Leduc 204

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M me Lemeignan au Bouscat Landes Sa fille M me Masselet, 8 rue Huysmans, Paris 6e renseigt [renseignement] 13 Juin 1938. Dr Longchamps; his Stradivari ex Leduc [violin] Mme. Lemeignan, from Bouscat Landes [south-west France] Her daughter, Mme. Masselet, 8 rue Huysmans, Paris 6e Information received 13 June 1938. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 121 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 121 [U] année [blank space]: M r Fau, à Castres Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 3l., année 1716 Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes descendant, cercle au talon. Eclisses bois pareil. Table de 2 pièces, sapin fin au milieu, s’élargissant jusqu’aux bords, ayant des cassures au-dessus de l’f gauche, à la barre, au menton, à l’âme, à la main et au bas de l’f droite. Belle tête ayant le trou de la cheville de la chanterelle rebouché, ayant le trou du Mi rebouché, beau vernis rouge. 1937 – appartient à sa fille M me Coulon, 19 Av ue de Versailles à Paris [JF55.2 only] Fond doublé et la table. No date: M. Fau, from Castres [southern France] Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1716 The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, descending; a crown around the neck-foot. The ribs are made from similar wood [as used for the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin at the middle, widening towards the edges, having splits above the bass f, at the bass-bar, at the chin, at the sound-post, at the hand, and at the bottom of the treble f. Beautiful head; the hole for the peg of the ‘singing string’ has been bushed, having the hole for the E-string [peg] bushed. Beautiful red varnish. 1937 – owned by his [Fau’s?] daughter, Mme. Coulon, 19 Avenue de Versailles, Paris. The back plate has been doubled, [likewise?] the front plate. The original descriptive text, written by Charles Gand, must date from before 1892 (when Gand died). This 1716 Fau violin is ID 41414 on CzAr/Tarisio where it is indicated that the violin was in Eugène Fau’s possession in 1885. Henley (Henley, p. 64) states that the violin was sold by J-B Vuillaume to M. Fau in ‘18668’. See also JF55.2, p. 216 [L] where Eugène’s son, Pierre, is identified as the owner of a Stradivari cello.

***** JF55.2, p. 121 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 121 [L] [M. Fau] Violon Joseph Guarnerius, 13 pouces, année 1734 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes douces presque droites, éclisses ondes un peu plus vives, celle du menton ayant 2 cassures au milieu près du fond. Table sapin fin au milieu et plus large sur les côtés, les côtés ondulant légèrement. Vernis rouge doré. Tête probable de Vuillaume. Vernis rouge plus vif. Acheté par Hill en 1910: roxzx. 205

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

[M. Fau] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1734 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are mild, almost straight. The flames of the ribs are slightly brighter; the rib of the chin having two splits in the middle near the back plate. The front-plate spruce [?rings are] thin in the middle and wider at the sides; the sides ripple slightly. The varnish is golden red. The head is probably by Vuillaume [and its] varnish is a brighter red. Bought by Hill in 1910: roxzx. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 122 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 122 [U] (année [blank space]) M r Mendelssohn, Berlin, banquier Violoncelle Stradivarius, année 1696 [1696 in EF/JF55.4; 1696 in Gand but the 9 then altered to 8] 28 p. 4 l., raccourci du haut et du bas. Diapason 14 p. 10 l. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin serré au milieu et plus large sur les bords, cassures au milieu, doublure, cassure au bas de l’f gauche. Fond de 2 pièces très-belles ondes presque droites, descendant légèrement. Eclisses pareilles, celle de la main ayant une pièce, celle du bas à gauche du bouton, pièce de 17 lignes [7 lignes in Gand]. Tête un peu mignonne (Amati) pour l’instrument. Vernis jaune doré. No date: M. Mendelssohn, Berlin, banker Antonio Stradivari cello, year 1696/1686 28 pouces, 4 lignes [767mm; 303/16 inches], reduced in length in both the upper and lower bouts. The ‘stop’ length is 14 pouces 10 lignes [401.5mm]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow at the middle and wider at the edges; splits in the middle; doubled; a split at the bottom of the bass f. The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the flames are almost straight, descending gently. The ribs are similar [to the back plate]; the rib of the hand having a patch; the rib at the bottom – to the left of the end pin – having a patch of 17/7 lignes [38.4/15.8mm]. The head is slightly undersized[?] (Amati-like) for the instrument. The varnish is golden yellow. This cello is possibly that which is known today as the Marquis de Cholmondeley (CzAr/Tarisio ID 41455). The website photographs appear to confirm most of the descriptive detail but the varnish is specified as ‘golden brown’ rather than ‘golden yellow’; in addition, the website specifies the cello’s label-date as 1698 and its back length as 740mm. The cello is described by Doring (Doring, p. 97) and also dated 1698. Neither the website nor Doring makes any mention of the cello having been reduced in length at both top and bottom. According to Doring, Robert von Mendelssohn (1857-1917) acquired his cello after 1895, but the descriptive text (above) was copied from Charles Gand and Gand had died three years earlier, in 1892.

***** JF55.2, p. 122 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 122 [L] (année 1891) M r Jenkinson, Londres Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, année 1692 206

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Fond d’une pièce à contresens. Eclisses belles ondes un peu serrées. Vernis rouge brun. Table d’une époque antérieure ayant beaucoup de cassures. Vernis jaune. Tête de Rugger. Vernis rouge brun. (1891) M. Jenkinson, London Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1692 The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain. The ribs have beautiful flames, slightly tight/narrow. The varnish is red-brown. The front plate dates from an earlier period, having a lot of splits; the varnish is yellow. The head was made by Ruger; its varnish is red-brown. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 123 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 123 [U] (année [blank space]) Chapelle Royale de Madrid Violoncelle Stradivarius, année 1700; 28p. 5 lignes Diapason 15p. 4l., fond de 2 pièces, très-belles ondes remontant. Eclisses pareilles, hauteur en haut 4p. 1l., en bas 4p. 3l., Ecart des f 3p. 8l. ½. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin, ayant des tournants, plusieurs cassures du côté de l’âme et en bas à gauche. Très-belle tête, trou de la cheville de la chanterelle rebouché. Vernis rouge doré, très-beau.(a) No date: Chapel Royal, of Madrid Antonio Stradivari cello, year 1700; 28 pouces 5 lignes [769.3mm] The ‘stop’ length is 15 pouces 4 lignes [415.1mm]. The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful flames rising [from the centre-joint]. The ribs are similar; the height of the rib at the upper bout is 4 pouces 1 ligne [110.5mm], at the lower bout 4 pouces 3 lignes [115.1mm]. The distance between the upper eyes of the fs is 3 pouces 8½ lignes [100.4mm]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce; with changes of direction [?the rings are not straight]; several splits on the side of the sound-post and in the lower-left [bass] side. Very beautiful head; the hole for the peg of the ‘singing’ string [the A-string] has been bushed. The varnish is golden red, very beautiful.(a) (a)

At the end of his descriptive text Gand provides three ink drawings: the first shows the ‘hen’s tail’ at the bottom of the scroll where, in the centre, Gand has drawn a small circle, apparently to indicate a dowel (or a plugged worm-hole). The second drawing is of the bass side of the peg-box; there are six black-ink dots distributed around the peg-holes – apparently dowels or plugs. The third drawing is of the treble side of the pegbox, with five black dots. All three drawings are replicated in JF55.2 and in EF/JF55.4. According to the Hills (Hill (1902), pp. 120-121): The other [cello, of 1700] is the property of the Spanish Court, and is preserved in the Chapel of the Royal Palace in Madrid, where it is played upon by Señor Victor de Mirecki, an excellent artiste, who, after repeated solicitations, prevailed upon the Court authorities to allow the instrument to be sent to Paris in 1889 [evidently to Gand & Bernardel] for sorely needed restoration. We have been unsuccessful in obtaining any information concerning the early history of this violoncello; it does not figure among the Court instruments recorded by [Vicenzo] Ascensio in his account book as having been entrusted to him for necessary repairs […]. The dimensions of these two instruments [the 1700 Cristiani and the 1700 Chapelle Royale] are practically the same (see Appendix) […]. The Hills (Hill (1902), Appendix V, p. 298) specify the measurements (their imperial dimensions converted to millimetres by the present author):

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Cristiani upper bout centre bout lower bout body length lower rib height upper rib height stop

Chapelle Royale 358.7mm -----460.3mm 774.7mm 120.6mm 117.4mm 412.75mm

355.6mm -----457.2mm 768.3mm 114.3mm 111.1mm 412.75mm

[Gand: 769.3mm] [Gand: 115.1mm] [Gand: 110.5mm] [Gand: 415.1mm]

***** JF55.2, p. 123 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 123 [L] (année [blank space]) M r d’Alcantara Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 3l., année 1713 ou 19, le dernier chiffre douteux. Fond d’une de 2 pièces belles ondes descendant légèrement. Talon neuf, éclisses ondes plus vives et plus serrées. Table de 2 pièces sapin fin ayant des cassures à l’âme, au bas de l’f droite et au menton. Jolie tête. Vernis rouge doré, fond dépouillé du haut et du bas. Table revernis, rebordée, refiletée; réparée en 1890 ici; Violon qui vaut de hoxzx à hexzx; l’avons vu en 1907. No date: M. d’Alcantara Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm], year 1713 or 1719, the last numeral is unclear. The back plate is made from one two pieces; beautiful flames, descending gently. A modified neck-foot. The flames of the ribs are brighter and tighter/narrower. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, having splits at the sound-post, at the bottom of the treble f, and at the chin. Attractive head. The varnish is golden red. The back plate is bare [of varnish] in both the upper and lower bouts. The front plate re-varnished, rebuilt at the edges, with new purfling; repaired in 1890 here [Gand & Bernardel]; this violin is worth between hoxzx and hexzx; we saw it [again?] in 1907. This violin has no connection with that which is known today as the Duke of Alcantara (CzAr/Tarisio ID 41405) which has a one-piece back plate. No further information for this 1713/1719 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 124 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 124 [U] (année 18 ) M r de Partello, Consul des Etats-Unis d’Amerique à Dusseldorf Violon Stradivarius, 13 pouces, année 1724 Fond de 2 pièces uni, grain de hêtre, tâche noire à droite du joint au niveau du C. Eclisses ondes larges douces, deux filets à l’endroit du bouton.(a) Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin, 2 petites cassures à l’âme, 2 au menton et une au coin gauche. Très-belle tête, bois gris uni. Vernis rouge brun doré, très-beau. Toute la collection Partello a été achetée par Lyon et Healy de Chicago. (18 ) M. de Partello, Consul for the United States of America, at Dusseldorf Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces [351.9mm], year 1724 The back plate is made from two plain pieces of beech-wood; a black blemish to the right of the centre-joint, level with the C. The flames of the ribs are wide and mild; two [vertical] pieces of purfling in the area of the end pin.(a) The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, 208

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with two small splits at the sound-post, two at the chin, and one at the left corner [upper or lower?]. Very beautiful head; drab/lacklustre wood; plain. The varnish is golden red-brown, very beautiful. The entire Partello collection has been bought by Lyon & Healy of Chicago. (a)

At this point Gand draws the end pin, with, on either side, a vertical piece of purfling inserted into the rib. The drawing is replicated in JF55.2 and in EF/JF55.4. This violin is identified as the Ludwig (see CzAr/Tarisio ID 40716, and Thöne, Vol. IV, pp. 36-43). The website’s (rather small) colour photograph of the violin’s back plate does not show a black stain to the right of the centre-joint, level with the C; the higher quality life-size Thöne photograph (p. 41) also does not show a black stain. The website identifies the violin as having become the property of D J Partello in 1893 (and retained until 1920). The date of 1893 is problematic since the descriptive text originated with Charles Gand, and Gand died in 1892. Dwight J Partello was the USA consul between 1885 and 1892. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 75-78) provides a lengthy account of the Partello collection of instruments.

***** JF55.2, p. 124 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 124 [L] (année 1889) M r le baron de Poyferré, Mont de Marsan Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1723 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes étroites, droites descendant légèrement, 2 veines noires à 15 lignes du bord de chaque côté, prenant du C et descendant jusqu’en bas.(a) Eclisses bois pareil. Table de 2 pièces beau sapin large, serré sur le côté gauche à 15 lignes du bord, cassure au menton jusqu’à l’f. Cassures à l’âme et au-dessus de l’f droite. Jolie tête, gorge un peu creusée ayant un morceau d’ivoire pour soutenir le La entre la cheville du Ré et de la chanterelle, et le Mi. Vernis rouge doré, très-chaud. Cercle en érable, couronne en érable au talon, et 2 petites chevilles au talon. (1889) M. le Baron de Poyferré, Mont de Marsan [south-west France] Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], year 1723 The back plate is made from two pieces; narrow flames, straight, gently descending; two black vein-lines 15 lignes [34mm] from the edge on each side, starting at the C and descending to the bottom.(a) The ribs are made from similar wood. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful wide spruce; [?the rings are] tight/narrow on the bass side 15 lignes [34mm] from the edge. There is a split from the chin to the f [above]. There are splits at the sound-post and above the treble f. Attractive head; the throat is slightly hollowed out, having a small piece of ivory to support the A [string] between the D-string peg and the [peg of the] ‘singing’ string, and the Estring. The varnish is golden red, very intense. There is a maple-wood circle, a crown of maple at the neck-foot, and two small dowels at the neck-foot. (a)

At this point Gand draws a sketch of the violin’s lower back plate showing the position of these two black veins – starting from just inside the C-bout lower corner on each side and extending to the bottom of the back plate. The drawing is not replicated in JF55.2 nor in EF/JF55.4 (probably through lack of space). An ancestor of Baron de Poyferré may have been Baron Jean-Marie Poyferré de Cère, born at Mont de Marsan 1 July 1768, died 9 January 1858; perhaps the person identified in 1889 was a grandson. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 251-252) describes the Spanish, ex Partello violin of 1723 and provides photographs (ibid., p. 252) which clearly show two black sap lines in the exact same position as described. Doring states that the violin has an inscription above the label which ‘states that in the 1880s [the violin] was owned by the Governor General of Cadiz. Brought to England the violin was acquired by the Duke of Cambridge and after his

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collection was sold passed eventually to Hills, who in 1895 sold it to the late Dwight J Partello […].’ The JF55.2 descriptive text makes no mention of an inscription written next to the violin’s label. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40529) lists the pre-Partello owners of this 1723 violin as the Governor General of Cadiz, the Duke of Cambridge, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the firm of W. E. Hill & Sons; there is no mention of Baron Poyferré. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 77) identifies four Stradivari violins as having been owned by Dwight Partello; their label-dates are specified as 1690, 1721, 1723, and 1724 (for which see the previous entry: 124 [U]).

***** JF55.2, p. 125 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 125 [U] (année 1870) M r le Comte Molitor Violon Stradivarius, 13p. 1l., année 1697 Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes à contresens, belles éclisses, ondes régulières, cassure à l’éclisse du côté de l’âme et une petite à celle de la main à 6 lignes du manche du côté du fond. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin au milieu et plus large sur les bords. Cassures à l’âme et au menton. Usure faite par l’archet au dessous de l’f gauche. Très-jolie tête, bien caractérisée. Vernis jaune doré. Vendu Mazeran, février 1919, oxzxz Racheté par M et D en 1923. (1870) M. le Comte Molitor Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm], 1697 The back plate is in one piece; small flames, cut against the grain. Beautiful ribs, regular flames; a split in the rib at the side of the sound-post and a small [split] in the rib of the hand 6 lignes [13.5mm] from the neck near the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin in the middle and wider at the edges. Splits at the sound-post and at the chin. Wear and tear caused by the bow below the bass[?] f. Very attractive head, very characteristic. The varnish is golden yellow. Sold [to?] Mazeran in February 1919, oxzxz Bought back by Maucotel & Deschamp in 1923. A 1697 Stradivari violin, known as the Molitor, was sold at a CzAr/Tarisio auction, in 2010, for 3.6 million dollars. According to the Tarisio documentation ‘this beautifully preserved violin is thought to have been owned by Napoleon Bonaparte.’ The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 22161) indicates the following sequence of ownership: until 1804 from 1804 until 1917 from 1917 from 1923 etc.

Madame Récamier Count Gabriel-Jean-Joseph Molitor [1770-1849] Caressa & Français J. Mazeran Maucotel & Deschamp

The names of Juliette Récamier and Count Molitor also appear in connection with a 1717 Stradivari violin which, in 1804, apparently passed from the former to the latter (this information provided by the annotations at JF55.2, p. 28 [U]). It is not plausible that Juliette Récamier should own two Stradivari violins, one of 1697, the other of 1717, and pass both violins to Count Molitor in the same year (1804). According to the CzAr/Tarisio website two certificates for the 1697 violin have been written; one by Silvestre & Maucotel in 1923 and one by Charles Enel in 1929; it seems that both certificates are now lost.

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The comment about wear-marks on the 1697 violin ‘below the bass f’, these marks apparently being caused by the bow, is not confirmed by high-resolution photographs (CzAr/Tarisio) of the front plate of the 1697 Molitor violin (although a few tiny brown specks are visible at the edge of the lower bout below each f). Since a violinist’s bow, when in use, never goes anywhere near the bass-side lower bout of the front plate perhaps what is being indicated in the descriptive text are marks caused by the frog of the bow scraping against the violin’s front-plate lower bout when both were placed inside a carrying case and the lid closed.

***** JF55.2, p. 125 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 125 [L] M r Van Oordt, à La Haye Violon Stradivarius, année 1721 See JF55.2, p. 18 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 126 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 126 [U] (année 1894) M r Turrettini, à Genève Violon Stradivarius, 1664 [the second 6 then overwritten to show 9; 1694 in EF/JF55.4] 13 pouces 4 l.½. Fond une pièce beau bois petites ondes droites, éclisses même bois, bien conservés, table sapin très serré ayant plusieurs fractures, une de chaque côté de l’f au bas jusqu’au bord. 2 fractures à l’âme, une à la barre, très belle tête, beau vernis rouge brun au fond assez dépouillé. Acheté par le maison et vendu à Friedmann, 14 rue de Milan, haoxzx, en 1923 – l’a revendu [no further text] (1894) M. Turrettini, from Geneva Antonio Stradivari violin, 1664/1694, 13 pouces 41/2 lignes [362mm] The back plate is in one piece; beautiful wood, small straight flames. The ribs are made from the same wood; well conserved. The front-plate spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow, having several splits, one on each side of the f from the bottom of the hole to the edge. Two splits at the sound-post and one at the bass-bar. Very beautiful head. Beautiful red-brown varnish on the back plate; fairly worn. Bought by the firm and sold to Friedmann, 14 rue de Milan, haoxzx, in 1923 – [the violin was] re-sold [no further text]. The name of ‘Turrettini’, on CzAr/Tarisio, is associated only with a Guarneri del Gesù violin of ‘c.1731’ (ID 47740); see JF55.2, p. 172 for a description which may be of that violin. With respect to the Stradivari violin (above) it seems likely that the writer of the descriptive text simply made a mistake in initially writing 1664 rather than 1694. A more detailed description of the same violin appears in the ledgers, JF55.2, p. 173; EF/JF55.4, p. 173, under the date of 1908:

1908: Turrettini, à Genève Violon A. Stradivarius, longuet, 362mm, étiquette de 169... (probablement 1694)(97) Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes vives, serrés, droites; toute petite gerçure, au coin du haut, à gauche, partant du C, talon original, couronne érable; vernis rouge brun, sur fond jaune doré, foncé. Eclisses pareilles, au fond; celles du bouton, au joint, ayant 2 petites pièces, aux places de l’ancien sillet; petits morceaux d’éclisses, de chaque côté du manche qui a été arraché; vernis pareil au fond, plus depouillé à gauche, en regardant le fond. 211

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Table en 2 pièces, sapin très-fin, genre Amati, coin de droite, en bas, salement mis, mal mis; plusieurs cassures: coin du bas à gauche, bas de l’f gauche, le long du cordier, bas de l’f droite, 2 à l’âme, petite en haut, à droite, formant chanteau; à droite et à gauche de la touche; table raccordée à la gomme laque, formant laque partout; a un estomac. Tête à jolies ondes vives; trous du Mi et du Sol rebouchés; cassure à la cheville du La; chanfreins effacés. Beau vernis rouge brun. Violon élégant, fileté finement, élégamment, vaut hxzxz. Même violon que celui page 126. 1923 En dépôt chez C.F. pour …. à vendre haoxzx. 1908: Turrettini, from Geneva Antonio Stradivari violin, long pattern, 362mm, label of 169… (probably 1694) (97) The back plate is in one piece; small bright flames, tight/narrow, straight; an extremely small split in the upper-left corner starting from the C; original neck-foot, crowned with maple; the varnish is red-brown, on a golden-yellow ‘undercoat’, dark. The ribs are made of similar wood as used for the back plate; the ribs at the end pin, at the joint, having two small patches where the original [tail-piece] saddle was situated. On the ribs there are small areas on either side of the neck which have been broken off; the varnish is similar to that on the back plate, more worn on the left (‘left’ when looking at the back plate). The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin, Amati style; the treble-side lower corner has been badly made. There are several splits: at the bass-side lower corner; below the bass f; alongside the tail-piece; below the treble f; two at the sound-post; a small split in the upper bout, on the right, looking like a width-insert; [splits] to the right and to the left of the fingerboard. The front plate has been touched-up with gum lacquer [shellac?]; lacquer everywhere; has a stomach [patch?]. The head has bright attractive flames; the peg-holes for the E- and G-string pegs have been bushed; there is a split at the A-string peg; the chamfers have been worn down; beautiful redbrown varnish. An elegant violin, beautifully purfled, worth hxzxz. The same violin as on p. 126. 1923, on deposit at Caressa & Français [Albert Caressa?] for …. for sale, haoxzx. It is curious that the business name of ‘Caressa & Français’ was still being used in 1923.

***** JF55.2, p. 126 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 126 [L] 1894: M r Nicolini, à Ystradgynlais Violon Stradivarius, année 1727, 13p. 3l., Fond de 2 pièces, ondes douces descendant, belles éclisses pareilles, table de 2 pièces, trèsbeau sapin; petite cassure à l’f droite, et 2 petits trous de ver au fond; beau vernis rouge doré bien conservé; très-belle tête. Ex Paganini Ex Comte de Vireille 30,000 francs 1894: M. Nicolini, from Ystradgynlais Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1727, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm] 212

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The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, descending [from the centre-joint]. The beautiful ribs are similar [the wood used for the ribs is similar to that used for the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce. There is a small split at the treble f and two small worm tracks at the bottom. Beautiful varnish, golden red, well conserved. Very beautiful head. ex Paganini ex Comte de Vireille 30,000 francs. See this volume’s Appendix for a detailed and extensive examination of this violin’s identity and history.

***** JF55.2, p. 127 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 127 [U] 1893: M r Auriol, à Lavergne par Boisezon Boiseron Violon Stradivarius, année 1704, 13p. 3l., Fond de 2p., petites ondes douces et droites, bois grain de hêtre, talon et pièce avec armoiries, couronne comtale; barré d’azur sur champ d’or 2 lévriers, éclisses bois pareil, celle de droite en bas avec quelques fentes. Table de 2 pièces, bon sapin plus large sur les bords, avec quelques fractures, dont une à l’âme avec pièce et une au menton; vernis fortement rechargé à la table; beau vernis rouge brun, bien conservé du fond et aux éclisses; jolie tête de Lupot vernis rouge, ayant une petite pièce à la joue gauche (Omobonus) Ex M r de Guinaumont 6,000 f 1928 appartient à sa fille, Mme. Kruger, 93 Avenue de Lodève à Montpellier [written in the left margin of JF55.2; part of the main-body text of EF/JF55.4]

Revu le violon en 1929 en août, ce n’est pas un Stradivarius, mais un pauvre violon italien reverni et cassé, à laisser de côté (AC). [JF55.2: written diagonally across the entire descriptive entry; large lettering]

N’est pas de Stradivarius, à ne pas acheté. [EF/JF55.4: written in red crayon; large lettering]

N’est pas de Stradivarius. 1893: M. Auriol, from Lavergne by Boisezon, Boiseron Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1704, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; small flames, mild and straight; beech-wood. The neck-foot has a patch added to it, with an armorial crest – a ducal crown, azur stripes on a field of gold, with two greyhounds. The ribs are made from similar wood [as the back plate], the rib of the lower-right [bout] having some splits. The front plate is made from two pieces; good spruce; [?the rings are] wider at the edges, with some splits, of which one is at the sound-post, with a patch, and another at the chin. Extensively re-varnished on the front plate; beautiful redbrown varnish, well conserved on the back plate and on the ribs. Attractive head made by [Nicolas] Lupot, red varnish, having a small patch on the bass-side cheek [peg-box wall] (Ombonus). ex M. de Guinaumont 6,000 francs 1928, owned by his daughter, Mme. Kruger, 93 Avenue de Lodève, Montpellier. 213

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Inspected the violin in August 1929; it is not a Stradivarius but a poor Italian violin, revarnished and broken, a reject, AC [Albert Caressa]. Not a Stradivarius; not to be bought. It is not a Stradivarius. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 127 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 127 [L] 1896: M r Hart, à Londres Violon de A. Stradivarius, année 1692 Fond de 2p., petites ondes vives presque droites éclisses pareilles avec petites gerces à la main, au menton et au C gauche; table d’une pièce, sapin moyen fin, fente au menton et petite gerçure à l’âme, petite pièce d’âme, bord du C droit usé, belle tête, vernis rouge clair doré, assez dépouillé. 16,500 f Ex M me Albretch Ex Comte Wilhorsky 1896: M. Hart, from London Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1692 The back plate is made from two pieces; small bright flames, almost straight. The ribs are similar, with small ‘chapped’ areas in the rib at the hand, the [rib of the] chin, and [the rib of] the bass-side C. The front plate is in one piece; the spruce [?rings are] medium-thin; a split at the chin and a small split at the sound-post; a small patch at the sound-post; the edge of the treble-side C is worn. Beautiful head; the varnish is golden light red, fairly worn. 16,500 francs ex Mme. Albretch [Albrecht] ex Comte Wilhorsky [Wielhorsky]. This violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 41601) as the Czar of Russia/Albrecht/Avery Fisher. In a lengthy article about this violin (The Strad, May 1976) it is stated by Robert Lewin that the violin was ‘given by the Czar of Russia to his court violinist, Eugene Maria Albrecht, a pupil of Ferdinand David, a distinguished solo violinist also a noted musicologist’. Lewin makes no mention of the violin’s front plate (unusually) being in one piece. The colour photographs of the violin provided by L B Robinson (Robinson, p. 17) are not detailed enough to confirm the one-piece construction.

***** JF55.2, p. 128 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 128 [U] 1896: M r du Seuil, à Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius, dernière époque, marqué année 1725 [the 2 then altered to show as 3; 1735 in EF/JF55.4]; 13p. 2l., Fond de 2p., bois uni, grain de hêtre, avec nœud transversal, à gauche, en bas; éclisses pareilles; table de 2p., sapin moyen ondulé et chenillé, fentes au menton et à l’f droite, pièce d’âme; jolie tête fendue au-dessus du avec chevillé; neuf ajusté en biais, vernis assez [unreadable word], brun doré; (filetage grossier fait sans doute par le fils) Ex Comte d’Armaillé 214

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(M r Brun l’a acheté chez Germain, hoxzx, en 1896 Cédé à Levers par nous, par C.F., en 1903, hooxz récédé à Lasserré par Levers en 1903, hooxz. 1896: M. du Seuil, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, last period, the label marked 1725/1735; 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm]. The back plate is made from two pieces; plain wood, beech, with a transverse knot in the lowerleft. The ribs are similar. The front plate is made from two pieces; medium spruce with wavy tracks; there are splits at the chin and at the treble f; a patch at the sound-post. The attractive head has been cracked above, with [reinforcement?] dowelling; [the head] newly fitted, obliquely [?the scroll/peg-box re-attached with tapered –‘scarf’ – joints]. The varnish is fairly [?], golden brown (the purfling is crude; made, no doubt, by the son). ex Comte d’Armaillé M. Brun bought it from Emile Germain, hoxzx, in 1896 Made over to Levers by us, by Caressa & Français, in 1903, hooxz Passed on to Lasseré by Levers in 1903, hooxz. The Comte d’Armaillé is likely to have been Comte (subsequently Marquis) Joseph René Charles d’Armaillé (1822-1872). Pierre Alfred Brun (1864-1935) was a violinist. Jules-Bernard Lasseré (1838-1906); Camille Saint-Saëns dedicated some of his compositions to M. Lasseré. A ‘Comte d’Armaille’ violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 41575) but dated 1737. The associated photographs reveal a knot in the lower bout of the plain back plate, on the left, and what appears to be a dowel inserted into the rear of the scroll. The photographs are not of high enough resolution to reveal the ‘crude’ condition of the purfling nor the ‘wavy’ front-plate rings. The website makes no mention of Messrs. du Seuil, Brun, Levers, or Lasseré. Ernest Doring describes the violin (Doring, pp. 341-342) based on a personal inspection; he specifies the date as 1737.

***** JF55.2, p. 128 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 128 [L] M r Albert Caune, à Marseille Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1699; 13p. 5 lignes (longuet) Fond de 2p., beau bois, ondes vives, moyennes et droites; deux fractures du côté de l’âme; les éclisses en bois avec veines plus larges; table de 2p., sapin très-fin, grande et petite fractures sous l’âme, pièce d’âme; belle tête, ondes vives; vernis rouge orange en grande quantité, trèsbien conservé. L’f droite abîmée par une pointe aux âmes. M. Albert Caune, from Marseilles Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1699, 13 pouces 5 lignes [363.2mm], (long pattern) The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wood, bright flames, medium [width] and straight. There are two splits at the side of the sound-post. The ribs are made from wood with wider flames [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin; large and small splits under the sound-post; a patch at the sound-post. Beautiful head, bright flames. The varnish is red-orange, very generously applied; very well conserved. The treble f damaged by a soundpost setter. No further information about this violin has been located.

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JF55.2, p. 129 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 129 [U] 1895: M r Lecoq, 110 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius, année 1698 (étiquette manuscrite: ‘choisi par Lafont’), 13p. 3l. Fond de 2p., ondes droites, fendu dans le bas à gauche, table en sapin fin serré, 7 fractures dans le haut et le bas, éclisse fracturé dans le C gauche, ainsi qu’au menton; éclisse du bas à droite, douteuse. Jolie tête, trou de la chanterelle trou du Mi rebouché, couronne au talon; vernis marron clair, fortement dépouillé. 1895: M. Lecoq, 110 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1698 (with a hand-written [additional] label: ‘chosen by Lafont’), 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; straight flames; [the plate] broken in the lower bout, on the left. The front plate is made from spruce [?with rings which are] tight/narrow; seven splits in the upper and lower bouts. The rib of the bass-side C has been split, as has [the rib] of the chin; the lower rib on the treble side is of doubtful [authenticity]. Attractive head; the peghole of the ‘singing’ string, the E-string has been bushed; the neck-foot has been crowned. The varnish is light chestnut-brown, extensively worn. According to Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 100-101) two of the Stradivari violins which were owned by Charles Philippe Lafont were dated 1699; on one of these violins ‘beneath the original label a small ticket has been affixed inscribed “Choisi par Lafont”.’ Both of these 1699 violins have one-piece back plates; see CzAr/Tarisio ID 41274 and JF55.2, p. 63 [U], and CzAr/Tarisio ID 41275 the Lady Tennant. No further information for the 1698 violin owned by M. Lecoq – with a two-piece back plate and a handwritten label-annotation referencing ‘Lafont’ – has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 129 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 129 [L] M r le Baron d’Erlanger, à Paris Violon de Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù Fond de 13p., d’une pièce, ondes douces, petite pièce carrée de 20 millimètres sur 8 dans de bas du fond à droite,(a) vernis dépouillé haut et bas, table de 2 p., sapin fin ayant plusieurs cassures du côté de la barre, doit être doublée en partie, l’f droite abîmée par la pointe aux âmes; vernis de la poitrine maquillé, éclisses petites ondes; jolie tête caracterisée, oreille gauche mutilée; en général quantité de beau vernis rouge brun vif; très-beau violon, vu en 1908, vaut rxzxz. M. le Baron d’Erlanger, from Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin The one-piece back plate measures 13 pouces [351.9mm], mild flames; a small square piece, 20mm by 8mm, in the lower bout of the back plate, on the right;(a) the varnish worn away in both upper and lower bouts. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, having several splits on the side of the bass-bar; [the front plate] must be partly doubled; the treble f damaged by the soundpost setter; the varnish on the chest renewed. The ribs have small flames. Attractive, characteristic, head; the left ‘ear’ of the scroll has been mutilated. [The violin is] mostly covered with beautiful, bright, red-brown varnish. A very beautiful violin; seen in 1908, worth rxzxz. (a)

At this point the writer of the JF55.2 descriptive text includes a drawing of the violin’s lower back plate, showing a square piece of wood inserted into the bottom edge of the plate, just to the right of an imaginary centre line. The drawing is replicated in EF/JF55.4.

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Rodolphe François, Baron d’Erlanger (1872-1932), was a painter and musicologist. The CzAr/Tarisio website associates two Guarneri del Gesù violins with Baron d’Erlanger: the Henry Holst violin (ID 44998) and the Baron d’Erlanger violin (ID 45387); both have two-piece back plates (see JF55.2, p. 67 [L]).

***** JF55.2, p. 130; EF/JF55.4, p. 130 1896: M r Guillouiard, Le Raincy Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1703, 13p. 1l. Fond de 2p., très-beau, ondes presque droites, remontant un peu, belles et larges; l’éclisses pareilles; table de 2 pièces, très-belle, sapin fin et très-serré; cassures à l’âme, et 3 cassures à l’f droite allant vers le bas; cassures à la barre, et à l’f gauche allant jusqu’au bord du bas, et une jusqu’au bord du haut; cassure à droite pareille à un chanteau; menton dépouillé des deux côtés; belle tête ondée, trous ayant été déjà rebouchés; vernis blond doré, un peu plus rouge sur les éclisses et sur les côtés du fond; un peu retouché à droite du fond. Ex Luce, de Douai M r Guillouiard, Janvier 1890, noxz Vaut aoxz en 1907. 1896: M. Guillouiard, Le Raincy [east of Paris] Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1703, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the flames almost straight, rising slightly, beautiful and wide. The ribs are similar. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful, the spruce [?rings are] thin and very tight/narrow; there are splits at the sound-post, and three splits at the treble f, extending towards the bottom [of the plate]; splits at the bass-bar and at the bass f extending to the bottom edge; another [split] to the upper-bout edge; a split on the right giving the appearance of a width-insert; the chin [area] worn down on both sides [of the tail-piece?]. Beautiful flamed head; the [peg-] holes having already been bushed. The varnish is golden blonde, slightly more red on the ribs and at the sides of the back plate; [the varnish] touched up, slightly, on the right-hand side of the back plate. ex Luce, of Douai M. Guillouiard, January 1890, noxz Worth aoxz in 1907. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 131 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 131 [U] M r de Blangy, à Juvigny Violon de Stradivarius, 13p. 2l., année 1697, Amatisé Fond de 2p., petites ondes droites assez douces, éclisses plus vives, table de 2p., très-beau sapin moyen; une cassure en haut à droite, cassures à la barre, à l’âme, et des deux côtés du bas de la table, écartement des f 15 lignes; très-belle tête; vernis rouge brun bien conservé; violon coquet ayant une apparence très-flatteuse. 1867 11 Septembre, 4,500 f 1924 en dépôt pour rxzxz 217

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Acheté 30,000 f, vendu par Friedmann à Hamma comme Rugger, revendu à MD qui l’ont revendu comme Strad avec un certificat de Hill Ce violon est un Francesco Rugger, très beau. M. de Blangy, from Juvigny [Marne, north-eastern France] Antonio Stradivari violin, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], year 1697, Amatisé The back plate is made from two pieces; small straight flames, fairly mild. The [flames of the] ribs are brighter. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce [with mediumwidth rings?]; there is a split in the treble side of the upper bout; splits at the bass-bar, at the sound-post, and on both sides of the lower bout of the front plate. The gap between the upper eyes of the fs measures 15 lignes [34mm]. Very beautiful head. The varnish is red-brown, well conserved. A pretty violin, having a very attractive appearance. 1867, 11 September, 4,500 francs 1924, on deposit for rxzxz Bought for 30,000 francs, sold by Friedmann to Hamma [?the violin identified] as a Rugger; resold to Maucotel & Deschamp who re-sold it as a Stradivari with a Hill certificate. The violin is a Francesco Rugger, very beautiful. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 131 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 131 [L] M r le Comte Pillet-Will, à Paris Violon de J h Guarnerius, 13p. moins 1l., année 1735 Fond d’une pièce, bois sur couches, à ondes droites, ronceux dans le bas; éclisses, belles ondes vives, l’éclisse du menton à deux cassures, une perpendiculaire, l’autre en long. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin moyen, cassure à l’âme, coin à gauche remis;(a) meutrissure dans le bois, longue d’un pouce, à droite du cordier, vernis rouge doré, admirable au fond et aux éclisses; plus brun à la table, dans le bas surtout. Tête de Lupot, tête très-belle, vernis rouge plus gras et plus terreux. ex Viotti, ex Baillot, Hamma. M. le Comte Pillet-Will, from Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 13 pouces minus 1 ligne [349.6mm], year 1735 The back plate is in one piece; the wood has a ‘layered’ appearance, having straight flames, with a curly-grain appearance in the lower bout. The ribs have beautiful bright flames; the rib of the chin has two splits; one is perpendicular, the other horizontal. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, medium [-width rings?]; there is a split at the sound-post. A corner of the bass-side C has been replaced.(a) Bruises in the wood, 1 pouce in length [27mm], to the right of the tail-piece. The varnish is golden red, particularly fine on the back plate and on the ribs; browner on the front plate, especially at the bottom. The head made by Lupot, the head is very beautiful, its varnish is red, more oily, more muddy. ex Viotti, ex Baillot, Hamma. (a)

At this point the writer of the JF55.2 ledger has drawn a rough sketch of the front-plate’s bass-side C, apparently indicating that it is the lower corner which has been replaced; the sketch is not replicated in EF/JF55.4. Hyacinthe-Louis-Alexis-Constantin Pillet-Will (1805-1871) was a French financier.

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This Guarneri violin is identified today as the Parlow/Viotti (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40420) the violin being owned by the Pillet-Will family between 1830 and 1899. The website indicates that the violin has ‘double rows of purfling’ on the back plate, a distinctive feature which is not mentioned in the descriptive text. The website’s photographic evidence has limited clarity and a double row of purfling on the back plate cannot be confirmed.

***** JF55.2, p. 132 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 132 [U] M r Labouret, 3, rue de Buci, Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius, année 1663 (le 6 du 63 a été surchargé pour faire un 8),(a) 13p. 2l. Fond d’une pièce, bois à contresens avec veines vives, droites, plus ronceux dans le haut; éclisses à ondes droites, intactes, bois régulier, très-beau. Table de 2p., sapin fin, assez régulier, écartement des f 17l.; 2 cassures de l’f gauche au bord du bas, une du haut de l’f gauche irrégulière allant dans le haut; quelques petites cassures à l’f droite, et quelques-unes aux bords; jolie tête amatisée, délicate, un peu usée sur le derrière, trou de la cheville du Mi rebouché. Vernis blond doré, très-beau et très-bien conservé. (Ex Tattegrain). M. Labouret, 3 rue de Buci, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1663 (the 6 of 63 has been altered to make an 8);(a) 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm] The back plate is made from one piece; the wood cut against the grain, with bright straight flames; curly-grain wood in the upper bout. The ribs have straight [vertical?] flames, undamaged, uniform wood, very beautiful. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, fairly uniform; the upper-eye gap between the fs is 17 lignes [38.4mm]; two splits from the bass f to the lower edge, and one above the bass f which extends irregularly into the upper bout; some small splits at the treble f and some more at the sides [of the plate]. Attractive head, Amatisé, delicate, slightly worn on the rear; the hole for the E-string peg has been bushed. The varnish is golden blonde, very beautiful and very well conserved. (ex Tattegrain). (a)

Close inspection of the JF55.2 ledger indicates that the date which was initially written was 1663; the 3 was then altered by the writer to show as a 5. Curiously, the subsequent text – le 6 du 63 – was not updated by changing the 3 to a 5. In the EF/JF55.4 ledger the label-date is unambiguously written as 1665. This ex Tattegrain violin is very likely the same as that which is described at JF55.2, p. 38 [U] where it is dated 1685.

***** JF55.2, p. 132 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 132 [L] M r Gambaro, à Rio-Janeiro Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1707, 13p. 1l., Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes droites, irrégulières, bois plus gris vers le fond; éclisses ondes plus larges et plus vives, droites; pièce carré au bouton; table de 2 pièces, sapin régulier et serré; petites cassures à l’âme (pièce d’âme) à la barre et à la patte de l’f gauche; jolie tête, ondée, bien conservée; vernis rouge vif au fond sur les bords, aux éclisses, à la tête; plus orangé à la table ou il a été retouché partout. M r Gve Bernardel, 1897, azxz (vendu par Silvestre à Shorg en 97, 18,000 f) Repris par nous par C.F. en 1909 pour aixzx 219

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Revendu à J L Courvoisier en 1910, ooxzx Repris et vendu à Mazeran en 1918 noxzx Racheté à Mazeran en 1923 et revendu à Münsch profr à Strasbourg Conservatoire qui l’a cédé aoxzx à Maucotel pour un del Gesù. M. Gambaro, from Rio de Janeiro Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1707, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is in one piece; small straight flames; irregular; the wood becomes drab/lacklustre towards the bottom. The flames of the ribs are wider and brighter [than on the back plate]; straight [vertical]. A square patch at the end pin. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] uniform and tight/narrow; small splits at the sound-post (there is a patch), at the bass-bar, and at the ‘tab’ [wing] of the bass f. Attractive head, flamed, well conserved. The varnish is bright red at the edges of the back plate, on the ribs, and on the head; [the varnish is] more orange on the front plate where it has been extensively re-touched. M. Gustave Bernardel, 1897, azxz (sold by Silvestre to Schorg in [18]97, 18,000 francs) Re-acquired by us, by Caressa & Français, in 1909 for aixzx Re-sold to J L Courvoisier in 1910, ooxzx Re-acquired and sold to Mazeran in 1918, noxzx Bought back [by Albert Caressa?] from Mazeran in 1923 and re-sold to Münsch, professor at the Strasbourg Conservatoire [Alsace], who made it over to Maucotel – with [?an additional payment of] aoxzx – for a Guarneri del Gesù. The 1707 violin belonging to M. Gambaro reappears at JF55.2, 138 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 138 [L]:

[Emile Germain, from Paris](a) 1897: Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1707, 13p. 1l., Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes droites, irrégulières, un peu gris vers le bas; éclisses bois plus beau, veines plus larges et droites; table de 2 pièces, joli sapin, bien égal, petites cassures à l’âme (pièce d’âme) à la barre et à la patte de l’f gauche; belle tête; vernis rouge vif au fond, à la tête, et aux éclisses, orange à la table où il a été retouché partout. ex de Villeneuve, ex Gambaro, Schorg (double emploi) avec celui f o 132 Mazeran – Munsch – M et D 1923 (b) 1897: Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1707, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is in one piece; with small straight flames, irregular, [the wood is] slightly drab/lacklustre towards the bottom. The wood of the ribs is more beautiful, the flames wider, and straight [vertical]. The front plate is made from two pieces; attractive spruce, nicely consistent [ring-widths?]; small splits at the sound-post (there is a patch); [splits] at the bass-bar and at the wing of the bass f. Beautiful head. The varnish is bright red on the back plate, on the head, and on the ribs; [the varnish is] orange on the front plate where it has been extensively retouched. ex de Villeneuve, ex Gambaro, Schorg (double entry) with that of p. 132 Mazeran – Munsch – Maucotel & Deschamp 1923.(b) (a)

It is unclear why three dealers – Gustave Bernardel, Hippolyte Silvestre, and Emile Germain – should all, in 1897, be involved with this 1707 violin. (b)

Hippolyte Silvestre died in 1913; it is unclear in which year the successor firm of Maucotel & Deschamp was established.

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The 1707 violin which belonged to M. Gambaro is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 41463 and as the Dushkin/Bellarosa. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 131) briefly mentions this violin, commenting that it ‘is said to bear a strong resemblance to the “Rivaz” ex Gutman’ violin of 1707. The JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 details of the sale to M. Mazeran, and then to M. Münsch from the Strasbourg Conservatoire, followed by the exchange of the 1707 violin through Maucotel & Deschamp for a del Gesù violin (with an extra cash payment) – almost all of these details are subsequently repeated at JF55.2, p. 167 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 167 [U] with respect to a Stradivari violin which is label-dated 1699 and has a two-piece back plate:

1907: M elle Ilse Pescatore, à Bruxelles Violon A. Stradivarius, un peu longuet, année 1699; taille 355mm Fond en érable de 2 pièces, très joli; ondes moyennes et vives, plus vives au milieu. Eclisses superbes, ondes plus serrées, plus vives que sur le fond. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin; cassure du bas de l’f gauche au bord du bas; une à l’âme. Tête dont il ne reste que le bout de la volute, cheviller entièrement remis. Vernis rouge doré ambré, très beau (très frotté, EF) (roxzx par nous par C.F. en 1907 à Schörg) ensuite Mazeran, Münsch Strasbourg haoxzx qui change à S.M. contre un del Gesù et aoxzx. 1907: Mlle. Ilse Pescatore, from Brussels Antonio Stradivari violin, slightly ‘long pattern’, 1699; length 355mm The maple-wood back plate is made from two pieces; very attractive; the flames are medium and bright – brighter in the middle. The ribs are superb, the flames are tighter/narrower and brighter than on the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces, the spruce [?rings are] very thin; there is a split from below the bass f to the bottom edge; there is a split at the sound-post. Nothing of the original head remains apart from the tip of the volute; the peg-box has been entirely replaced. The varnish is golden red-amber, very beautiful (very abraded, E[mile] F[rançais]) (roxzx [paid?] by us, by Caressa & Français, in 1907, to [buy it from] Schörg); then to Mazeran, Münsch Strasbourg, haoxzx, who exchanged it at S[ilvestre &] M[aucotel] against a del Gesù and aoxzx. The extensive repetition of the identities of owners – repetitions which are far beyond the level of mere coincidence – suggest that, at the least, two histories have become tangled together. No further information has been located for Ilse Pescatore and her 1699 Stradivari violin. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of Franz Schörg is associated only with a Stradivari violin of 1698, the Marie Schumann (ID 40472).

***** JF55.2, p. 133 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 133 [U] M r Hel, à Lille Violon de A. Stradivarius, année 1733, 13p. 2l., Fond de 2p., bois gris, uni, cassure dans le haut, verticale à 1 pouce du joint, arrivant en face le coin du haut, à droite; éclisses ondées bois un peu ronceux, cassures irrégulières à celle du menton; table de sapin, 2 pièces; cassures à l’âme; au menton un petit nœud qui ressemble à 1 pièce mise pour boucher une rainure du bois; cassure à l’f droite du haut allant au bord; bords doublés, pièce d’estomac; tête ondée, lourde, chevillé, rebouché, repercé; vernis rouge au fond, les éclisses, la tête, plus terreux à la table, l’ensemble du violon est lourd. M. Hel, from Lille Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1733, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; drab/lacklustre wood, plain, with a longitudinal split in the upper bout 1 pouce [27mm] from the centre-joint, terminating opposite the upper corner on 221

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the right-hand side. Flamed ribs, the wood is slightly curly-grained; irregular splits at the rib of the chin. The front plate is made from two pieces of spruce; there are splits at the sound-post. At the chin there is a small knot which looks like a patch placed there to close a groove[?] in the wood. There is a split from above the treble f as far as the edge; the edges have been doubled, the chest area patched. Flamed head, heavy, pegged, bushed, re-drilled. The varnish is red on the back plate, on the ribs, and on the head; the varnish on the front-plate is more muddy. The overall appearance of the violin is heavy. M. Hel would appear to be the luthier Pierre Joseph Hel (1842-1902) who established his business in Lille in 1865 (see also JF55.2, p. 66 [U]). No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 133 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 133 [L] M r Germain, à Paris Violon Jh Guarnerius del Gesù, année 1743 Fond d’une pièce, bois gris, légèrement ondé dans le haut; éclisses pareilles; celle du bouton à une ligne noire qui ferait croire à une cassure; table de 2p., très-joli sapin, fin et serré; toute petite cassure à l’âme où il y a une pièce; tête ondée assez grossière; les f sont très-ouvertes et très grossières; l’ensemble du violon est carré, grossier, mais le violon est intact; vernis jaune rouge doré, magnifique partout. ex Merz de Bruxelles Vendu à M r Auer à St Petersbourg, axzxz. M. Germain, from Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, year 1743 The back plate is in one piece; drab/lacklustre wood, faintly flamed in the upper bout. The ribs are similar; the rib at the end pin has a black line which was thought to be a split. The front plate is made from two pieces; very attractive spruce, [?the rings are] thin and tight/narrow; an extremely small split at the sound-post where there is a patch. The head is flamed; fairly crude. The fs are very ‘open’ and very crude. The overall appearance of the violin is blunt and crude, but the violin is undamaged. The varnish is golden yellow-red, magnificent throughout. ex Merz, of Brussels Sold to M. Auer, from St Petersburg, axzxz. No further information has been located for ‘Merz’; the name does not appear on the CzAr/Tarisio website. The website identifies three violins associated with the Hungarian violinist Leopold Auer (1845-1930) but all three are Stradivari instruments, with dates of 1690, 1691, and 1711. Auer’s name is not mentioned by the Hills in their Guarneri monograph (1931). No further information has been located for this 1743 violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 134 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 134 [U] 1896: Docteur Salathé, à Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius, amatisé, année [no year-date is provided] Fond de deux pièces, belles ondes larges En Allemagne 1896: Doctor Salathé, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, Amatisé, year 222

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The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wide flames. In Germany. No further text is provided. See JF55.2, p. 142 [U] for a 1712 Stradivari violin which was also owned by Dr Salathé.

***** JF55.2, p. 134 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 134 [L] 1897: C te DesVergers, à Paris Violoncelle A. Stradivarius, amatisé, 1688, recoupé à 74cms Fond de 2p., bois à contresens, très-chatoyant au milieu, bords neufs, trous de vers à gauche du talon remis et au bas, trou de procession rebouché; éclisses bois pareil, nombreux trous de vers; table de 2p., beau sapin moyen, s’élargissant sur les bords, cassures sous les pieds du chevalet, au-dessus des f et au bas à gauche; écartement des f 11cms; vernis blond rouge doré, très-beau; belle tête italienne de Gagliano. 1897: Comte DesVergers, from Paris Antonio Stradivari cello, Amatisé, 1688, reduced in length to 74cms [29¼ inches] The back plate is made from two pieces; the wood cut against the grain, very shiny in the middle; the edges are new; worm tracks to the left of the neck-foot have been repaired, and, at the bottom, a [back plate] ‘suspension-strap’ hole has been plugged. The wood of the ribs is similar [to that of the back plate]; many worm tracks. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, medium [-width rings?], widening at the edges; splits under the feet of the bridge, above the fs, and in the lower bout, on the left. The gap between the upper eyes of the fs is 11cms. The varnish is golden blonde-red, very beautiful. Beautiful Italian head made by Gagliano. The only Stradivari cello of 1688 identified by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 65) – also identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 41432) – is that known as the Cazenove/Marylebone. This cello is also described and photographed by Jacques Francais (Dr. Herbert Axelrod Quartet, pp. 29-32). Francais includes (pp. 47-48) a copy of a letter (11 January 1928) sent by Alfred Hill to The Rudolf Wurlitzer Company in New York in which Alfred Hill writes: ‘It is my impression that this ’cello, originally of large proportions, was reduced in size, in this country [England], possibly by John Betts, at which period, I am inclined to think, the varnish was somewhat touched up; the head, which is quite pure, is particularly fine.’ The decorations which now cover the ribs and scroll of the 1688 Cazenove/Marylebone cello were created and applied to the wood by René Morel, copying the decorations which are found on the Stradivari cello which is exhibited at the Palacio Real in Madrid, Spain; Morel was acting upon the instruction of Jacques Francais. This artificial creation of a decorated cello has proved to be controversial. Jost Thöne’s life-size photograph of the back plate of the Cazenove/Marylebone cello (Thöne, Vol. I, pp. 184195) reveals a small, off-centre, circular flaw in the wood, 8cms from the bottom edge (but this location is not where one would expect a suspension hole to be drilled). Thöne provides a detailed historical narrative for this cello but the name of Comte DesVergers is not mentioned.

***** JF55.2, p. 135 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 135 [U] Colonel Miklashersky, à S t Petersbourg Violon A. Stradivarius, 1726, 13p. 1l., 223

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Fond 2 pièces, belles ondes droites et larges, un peu noyées vers le joint, très-belles éclisses, ondes plus vives et plus chatoyantes; table de 2 p., cassures à l’âme, à l’f droite, dont une allant vers le bas, avec un petit felipeau, petites cassures au menton; cassure du haut du bord à gauche allant jusqu’au haut du bord du C;(a) très-belle tête, fendue de la cheville du Sol à celle du Mi; très-beau vernis, rouge clair doré (aoxzx). Germain, 1897, axhxz. Colonel Miklashersky, from St. Petersburg Antonio Stradivari violin, 1726, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, straight and wide, [the flames] slightly obscured towards the [centre-] joint. Very beautiful ribs, the flames brighter and shimmering. The front plate is made from two pieces; splits at the sound-post and at the treble f, one of which extends towards the bottom, with a small covering piece of wood; small splits at the chin; a split in the upper bout, at the left edge, which extends [downwards] as far as the edge of the [bass-side] C.(a) Very beautiful head, cracked from the G-string peg to the E-string peg [?cracked across the rear of the peg-box]. Very beautiful varnish, golden light-red (aoxzx). [Emile] Germain, 1897, axhxz. (a)

At this point, the writer of the descriptive text has drawn a sketch of the violin’s front-plate upper bout, showing a crack from the left of the neck-foot down to the plate-edge just above the upper corner of the bassside C; the sketch is replicated in the EF/JF55.4 ledger. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of Colonel Miklashersky is associated only with a Matteo Goffriller viola of 1700. Colonel Miklashersky is not identified by Ernest Doring or by the Hills (1902). Further information about this 1726 Stradivari violin has not been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 135 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 135 [L] M r Bret, à Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius, 1698 (c’est un Gofriler)(a) 13p. 2l. ½ Fond de 2 pièces, très-belles ondes vives et droites; à droite une petite pièce partant du coin du bas, longue de 1p. 6l., large d’une ligne; très-belles éclisses bien ondées; table de 2 pièces, sapin splendide fin et régulier; cassure au bas de l’f gauche, et quelques petites fentes aux bords du bas; pièce d’estomac; coins allongés et prononcés; très-belle tête douteuse; vernis rouge vif doré de toute beauté. Janvier 1900, aoxzx. M. Bret, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 1698 (it is a Goffriller),(a) 13 pouces, 2½ lignes [357.5mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful flames, bright and straight; to the right there is a small patch starting at the lower corner of the C, 1 pouce 6 lignes in length [40.6mm] by 1 ligne in width [2.26mm]. Very beautiful ribs, nicely flamed. The front plate is made from two pieces; splendid spruce, [?the rings are] thin and uniform; there is a split at the bottom of the bass f, and some small splits at the lower edges; there is a chest patch; the [C-bout] corners are noticeably elongated. Very beautiful head, [but of] doubtful [authenticity]. The varnish is bright golden red, of exceptional beauty. January 1900, aoxzx. (a)

In JF55.2 the reference to (Matteo?) Goffriller appears to have been a subsequent annotation.

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This violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as the Vatelot (ID 41587); the associated information states that the scroll is ‘in the Stradivari style’. The photographs (as with those provided by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 379)) clearly demonstrate the elongated C-bout corners. According to Doring the violin remained in the Bret family from 1900 until 1998. For M. Bret see also JF55.2, p. 7 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 136 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 136 [U] Dietz Monnin Violon de A. Stradivarius, année 1705, 13 pouces 1 ligne Fond d’une pièce très beau, ondes larges presque droites, éclisses bois semblable, petites cassures à l’endroit du menton. Table de 2 pièces, ayant des cassures, beau sapin. Très belle tête, petites fentes à la cheville du La et à celle du Rè. ex Dietz Monnin, Hamma 1901. Dietz Monnin Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1705, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful, with wide flames, almost straight. The wood of the ribs is very similar; small splits in the area of the chin. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits; beautiful spruce. Very beautiful head, with small splits at the A-string peg and at the D-string peg. ex Dietz Monnin, Hamma 1901. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 136 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 136 [L] Meyer Ducommun Violon Stradivarius, année 1718 See JF55.2, p. 74 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 137 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 137 [U] 1882: (a) Rutson, à Londres Violon Stradivarius, année 1694, 13p. 2 lignes (longuet) Fond d’une pièce veines remontant à droite, éclisses bois pareil, table de 2 pièces, sapin très fin au milieu, cassures au menton, et à l’âme, très belle tête vernis rouge brun doré. 1882: (a) Rutson, from London Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1694, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], (long pattern) The back plate is in one piece; the flames rising to the right. The ribs are made from similar wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin in the middle; there are splits at the chin and at the sound-post. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red-brown. (a)

In view of the date it is unclear why this entry does not appear in Gand’s Catalogue descriptif.

This violin is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 40144. Further details and photographs of the violin (which was donated by John Rutson to the Royal Academy of Music, in London) can be found in Rattray (Masterpieces, pp. 56-59) where the body length is specified as 356.5mm.

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JF55.2, p. 137 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 137 [L] M me Storey, à Londres Violon Stradivarius, année 1701, 13p. 2 lignes, modèle étroit Fond de 2 pièces (presumé de Fent ou Panormo), ondes douces descendant. Eclisses ondes très vives, table de 2 pièces, ayant des cassures tel un peu contourné.(a) Tête de Vuillaume. Vernis brun doré. Mme. Storey, from London Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1701, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm], narrow model The back plate is made from two pieces (presumed to be by Fendt or Panormo); mild flames, descending. The flames of the ribs are very bright. The front plate is made from two pieces; having splits which are slightly irregular.(a) The head is by Vuillaume. The varnish is golden brown. (a)

The text tel un peu contourné is omitted in EF/JF55.4 (but an appropriately-sized blank space is left on the paper). William Fendt (1833-1852) and Vincenzo Panormo (1734-1813) were violin makers. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 138 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 138 [U] 1896: Germain, à Paris Violon A. Stradivarius, marqué 1735, 13p. 2l., Fond de 2 pièces, bois uni, grain de hêtre, nœud transversal à gauche en bas, éclisses pareilles, table de 2 pièces, sapin moyen fil ondulé, chevillé, fentes au menton et à l’f droite, pièce d’âme avec doublure, jolie tête, fendue avec cheville neuf ajusté en biais, vernis assez rare jaune doré, filetage grossiers (violon fait chez Stradivarius par son fils). 1896: [Emile] Germain, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, marked 1735, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm] The back plate is made from two pieces of plain beech-wood; a transverse knot on the left of the lower bout. The ribs are [made from] similar wood [as the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; medium [-width?] spruce, the threads [?the rings] undulating [longitudinally]; doweled; splits at the chin and at the treble f; a patch at the sound-post with doubling. Attractive head; cracked, with [a reinforcing] dowel newly fitted, obliquely. The varnish is quite sparse; golden yellow. The purfling is crude (this violin was made at the Stradivari workshop by his son). No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 138 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 138 [L] [Emile Germain] 1897: Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1707 See JF55.2, p. 132 [L].

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JF55.2, p. 139; EF/JF55.4, p. 139 Hugo Becker, à Francfort Violon A. Stradivarius, 1705, 354mm [the 4 then altered to show as 5; 354mm in EF/JF55.4] Fond 1 pièce, belles ondes larges et vives, remontant vers la gauche, à droite au dessous du C une tache noire, toute petite, qui ressemble à un trou de ver, sans en être; éclisses de toute beauté; quelques petites cassures, table de 2 pièces, sapin admirable de finesse et de regularité, un peu plus large sur les bords; cassures à l’âme, allant en biais, jusqu’au bord du bas, à gauche cassure du bas de l’f allant au bord du bas;(a) à droite la même; à gauche du cordier une petite cassure; tête superbe, de grande allure; vernis rouge vif doré splendide, un peu frotté à la table; morceau de bord au fond de 9cms, en mesurant en biais, le talon compris dans le haut à gauche. ex Wilmotte et Vormbaum Vendu à Marsick en 1904, aoxzx 1936, passé à la succession Brès-Chouanard 1936 appartient à Mme Brès-Chouanard 1937, acheté attttt, vendu G Huguenin à Vevey, bmtttt 1937 acheté par nous, attttt, revendu en Octobre à Huguenin Gustave à Vevey, bmtttt Le fr-suisse à 6.35 francs, soit en chiffres ronds 39,000 francs suisse Le franc-suisse à 6.35 soit $9,000 francs suisses 39,000. Hugo Becker, from Frankfurt Antonio Stradivari violin, 1705, 354/355mm The back plate is in one piece; beautiful flames, wide and bright, rising [from right] to left; to the right, below the C there is a black blemish, extremely small, which looks like a worm track (but it isn’t). The ribs are of great beauty, with some small splits. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce is admirable in its delicacy and uniformity, [the rings] being slightly wider at the edges; there are splits at the sound-post, extending obliquely to the lower edge; to the left there is a split below the f down to the lower edge;(a) the same on the right [treble] side; there is a split to the left of the tail-piece. The head is superb, of great style. The varnish is bright golden red, splendid, slightly rubbed on the front plate; a tiny patch at the edge of the back plate, 9cms, measured obliquely; the neck-foot included in the height on the left[?]. ex Wilmotte and Vormbaum Sold to Marsick in 1904, aoxzx 1936, passed to the heirs of Brès-Chouanard 1936, owned by Mme. Brès-Chouanard 1937, bought atttt, sold to G Huguenin, from Vevey [Switzerland], bmtttt 1937, bought by us, attttt, re-sold in October to Gustave Huguenin, from Vevey, bmtttt One Swiss franc was equivalent to 6.35 French francs; in round numbers 39,000 Swiss francs The Swiss franc at 6.35; would be 9,000 dollars; Swiss francs 39,000. (a)

the phrase à gauche cassure du bas de l’f allant au bord du bas is omitted in EF/JF55.4.

This violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 41175, the Marsick, of 1705. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 391) identifies and illustrates a Marsick violin of 1715 but makes no mention of a Marsick violin dated 1705. However, William Henley (Henley, p. 45) identifies just such a violin and specifies ‘Mr. Hugenin’ as the owner in 1937. For Martin Pierre Marsick see also JF55.2, p. 8 [U] and 21 [L].

*****

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JF55.2, p. 140 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 140 [U] 1886: Halphen, à Paris Violon Joseph Guarnerius, année 1728, 13 pouces Fond de 2 pièces, veines descendant, éclisses bois pareil, table de 2 pièces ayant quelques cassures, tête de Grancino, vernis brun (c’est un Testore). 1886: Halphen, from Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, year 1728, 13 pouces [351.9mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames descending. The wood of the ribs is similar. The front plate is made from two pieces, having some splits. The head was made by Grancino, brown varnish ([this violin] is a Testore). Fernand Gustave Halphen (1872-1917) was a composer. His name, on the CzAr/Tarisio website, is associated only with a Stradivari violin of 1727 (ID 40532). In view of the proximity between Fernand’s date of birth and the date of the descriptive entry it seems likely that ‘Halphen’ was Fernand’s father, Georges Léopold Halphen (1832-1903), who was a diamond merchant. ‘Grancino’ would seem to be Giovanni Battista Grancino II (1673-after 1723); ‘Testore’ would be Carlo Antonio Testore (1687-1765).

***** JF55.2, p. 140 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 140 [L] 1887: Hill à Londres Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1732, 13p. 2 lignes Fond de 2 pièces, presque uni, éclisses pareilles, celle du haut côté du Sol un peu veinée, table de 2 pièces, petite pièce d’âme, cassure du côté gauche dans toute la longueur, jolie tête, vernis rouge brun très beau. 1887: Hill [W. E. Hill & Sons], from London Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1732, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; almost plain [wood]. The ribs are similar; the rib of the upper bout on the G-string side is slightly flamed. The front plate is made from two pieces; a small patch at the sound-post, and a split on the left [bass] side for the entire length [of the body]. Attractive head. The varnish is red-brown, very beautiful. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 141 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 141 [U] 1888: Dehn, à Paris Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1709, 13p. 1l, Fond d’une pièce, jolies veines descendant à droite, nuance plus pâle dans le haut à droite et une dizaine de fibres représentant des partées, très-belles éclisses, jolie table de 2 pièces ayant quelques cassures dont une au menton, très jolie tête, vernis rouge doré. Vendu à Marteau par Vidoudez, aioxz, 1907. 1888: Dehn, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1709, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is in one piece; attractive flames descending to the right, with a paler colour in the upper bout, on the right [when viewing the back of the violin], and about ten fibres defining the border [of this paler section]. Very beautiful ribs. Attractive front plate made from two 228

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pieces, having some splits, of which one is at the chin. Very attractive head. The varnish is golden red. Sold to Marteau by Vidoudez, aioxz, 1907. This violin is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website as the Berlin Hochschule/Marteau (ID 41345). The associated photographs clearly show a lighter-coloured area of wood in the upper bout of the back plate, to the right, with a slightly off-vertical dividing line; there are two such lines in the lower bout, also on the right. The website states that the scroll is by Stradivari but ‘from an earlier period’.

***** JF55.2, p. 141 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 141 [L] 1887: Coussette, à Sedan Violon Stradivarius fils partant l’étiquette Stradivarius année 1737 et sur l’eclisse du C gauche l’étiquette Omobonus Stradivarius fils 1740, 13p. 2l. Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes descendant, éclisses un peu plus unies, table de 2 pièces ayant des cassures, tête ayant les oreilles un peu aplaties, vernis rouge doré. 1896 Germain, 10,000. 1887: Coussette, from Sedan (Ardennes region, northern France) Stradivari violin, son, showing a Stradivari label of the year 1737, and on the rib of the bassside C there is the label of Omobono Stradivari, son, 1740, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, descending. The [wood of the] ribs is slightly plainer. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits. The ‘ears’ of the head are slightly flattened [worn down?]. The varnish is golden red. 1896 Germain, 10,000. The description of this violin closely echoes that which was written in 1870 for a Stradivari violin belonging to Julien Sauzay (see JF55.2, p. 35 [U]); the texts which describe the violins’ labelling are all but identical. Both violins have two-piece front plates; on the Sauzay violin the ‘beautiful spruce has quite a lot of splits’, on the Coussette violin the front plate ‘is made from two pieces, having splits’; in both cases the varnish is ‘golden red’. However, although both violins have two-piece back plates the Sauzay back plate is made out of plain wood whereas the Coussette violin has ‘beautiful flames, descending’.

***** JF55.2, p. 142 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 142 [U] 1889: Rey, à Genève Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1712, 13p. 2 lignes Fond de 2 pièces veines larges descendant, vernis très usé, il n’en reste qu’au C, belles éclisses, table ayant beaucoup de cassures revernie, tête petites ondes, vernis rouge brun (table douteuse, tête de André Guarnerius). Cédé à Salathé, parti en Allemagne en 1905 pour hhxzx. 1889: Rey, from Geneva Antonio Stradivari violin, 1712, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are wide, and descend [from the centrejoint]. The varnish is very worn, remaining only at the Cs. Beautiful ribs. The front plate having a lot of splits; re-varnished. The head has small flames, the varnish is red-brown (the front plate is doubtful, the head is by Andrea Guarneri). Made over to Salathé, taken to Germany in 1905, for [the price of] hhxzx. 229

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No further information about this violin has been located. See also JF55.2, p. 134 [U]. *****

JF55.2, p. 142 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 142 [L] 1890: Rehfous, à Genève Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1706, 13 pouces 3 lig. Fond d’une pièce, ondes moyennes descendant légèrement à droite, talon et bords neufs sous la main, doublure dans le milieu, éclisses pareilles conservées, table sapin fin ayant des cassures, bord au menton et doublure au milieu, très belle tête vernis rouge doré. Herwegh 1900 (30,000 f) Revendu par Herwegh à Julius Falk de Philadelphie en 1907 pour moxzx?? 1890: Rehfous, from Geneva Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1706, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm] The back plate is in one piece; medium flames gently descending to the right. The neck-foot and the plate-edges under the hand are new, [?the back plate] doubled in the middle. The ribs are similarly [well?] conserved. The front plate spruce [?has thin rings], having splits at the edge of the chin, and [having been] doubled in the middle. Very beautiful head. The varnish is golden red. Herwegh, 1900 (30,000 francs) Re-sold by Herwegh to Julius Falk of Philadelphia in 1907 for moxzx?? Marcel Herwegh (1858-1926) was a violinist. On the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40620) the violin is listed as the Jules Falk, the associated photographs confirming the gently-descending back-plate flames. However, the website states that the internal label is dated 1723. The website cites a Gustave Bernardel certificate of 1900 wherein the violin is dated 1706. The website also quotes from a Hill certificate of 1937: ‘the instrument is from 1722-25’. If the violin currently has a label which is dated 1723 then it would seem that the 1706 label specified in the descriptive text of 1890 and in the Bernardel certificate of 1900 was subsequently removed and a 1723 label inserted in its place. William Henley (Henley, p. 74) dates the ‘Jules Falk’ violin to 1723 and provides a (partly unreliable) historical narrative: e.g. Count Cozio di Salabue did not own a 1723 Stradivari violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 143 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 143 [U] 1891: Guyot, Boulevard Flandrin 17, 1907 Violin A. Stradivarius, année 1714, 13p. 1 ligne Fond de 2 pièces ondes larges descendant, éclisses ondes plus vives, celles du bas ayant des cassures, celle opposée au menton ayant une pièce carrée, table de 2 pièces ayant des cassures, jolie tête un peu usée, vernis rouge brun doré retouché; pauvre violon, massacré, doublé, rebordé, refileté, reverni; à acheter oxzx Janvier 1907. [JF55.2 only] 1947, 156 Avenue Victor Hugo Décembre 1948 estimé atttttt; rep.[?] sttttt; reçu 5% expertise Vendu avec M r Ader, H l Ventes, acheté par Marius Casadessus. 1891: M. Guyot, Boulevard Flandrin, 17, [Paris], 1907 Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1714, 13 pouces 1 ligne [354.2mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames, descending. The flames of the ribs are brighter; the lower ribs having splits; the rib opposite the chin having a square patch. The front plate is made from two pieces, having splits. Attractive head, slightly worn. The varnish is 230

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golden red-brown, re-touched. A poor violin: massacred, reinforced, the edges re-made, new purfling, re-varnished. To buy: oxzx, January 1907. 1947, 156 Avenue Victor Hugo December 1948, estimated [value] atttttt; [price achieved?] sttttt; received 5% for our professional involvement[?]. Sold with M. Ader, [Hôtel Drouot?] auction, bought by Marius Casadesus. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies the name ‘Ader’ as Etienne Ader who is associated with a 1714 Stradivari violin known as the Lang (CzAr/Tarisio ID 43081). The associated photographs of the Lang violin reveal wide descending flames in the back plate. The website quotes from the W. E. Hill Photographic archive: ‘Submitted by Casadesus in June [19]53, bought at auction in Paris £1,500, quite genuine but table in poor shape.’

***** JF55.2, p. 143 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 143 [L] Germain, à Paris Violon Stradivarius, petit patron rallongé à doubles filets par J. B. Vuillaume, année 1697 Fond 2 pièces, petites ondes douces, toutes droites, éclisses pareilles avec 2 petites pièces côté droit, table 2 pièces, sapin fin s’élargissant de gauche à droite, ayant q.q. [quelques?] cassures et une pièce en haut à droite, tête de Vuillaume, joli vernis rouge brun bien conservé, raccords sur les bords. [Emile] Germain, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, small pattern, lengthened, having double purfling by J B Vuillaume, year 1697. The back plate is made from two pieces; small mild flames, absolutely straight. The ribs are similar, with two small patches on the right-hand side. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, widening from left to right, with some splits and a patch in the upper-right [treble] bout. The head made by Vuillaume. Attractive varnish, red-brown, well conserved, touched-up at the edges. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 144 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 144 [U] 1902: Hill, à Londres Violon A. Stradivarius, Crémone, 1727 (Omobonus) Fond 2 pièces, bois d’erable gris 356mm, éclisses en bois uni, table de 2 pièces sapin moyen régulier, cassures à l’âme à l’f droite, du bas au bord, une dans le haut à droite; tête plus lourde que d’habitude, bois uni; vernis rouge brun terreux, très dépouillé. Caressa. 1902: Hill [W. E. Hill & Sons], from London Antonio Stradivari violin, Cremona, 1727 (Omobono) The back plate is made from two pieces; drab/lacklustre maple-wood, 356mm [body length]. The ribs are of plain wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] medium width, uniform, with splits at the sound-post, at the treble f, at the lower edge, and at the upper-right [treble] bout. The head is heavier than usual, plain wood. The varnish is redbrown, muddy; very worn. Caressa. 231

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It is possible that this violin is that which is described and photographed in Rattray (2000), pp. 102-105, although the JF55.2 text makes no mention of what appears (from the photographs) to be considerable wear to the rear face of the scroll. The JF55.2 reference to the unusual ‘weight’ of the head appears not to correlate with the photograph (ibid., p. 102) wherein the head seems rather slender.

***** JF55.2, p. 144 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 144 [L] 1901: Cobbett, à Londres Violon A. Stradivarius, Crémone, 1722 Fond d’une pièce 353mm, bois presque uni, quelques ondes à peine apparentes et droites, éclisses ondes plus vives, table de 2 pièces, en joli sapin serré, nœud à gauche au dessus de l’f, nombreuses cassures, belle tête, vernis rouge orange, très dépouillé partout. Kreisler, 02 Hamma 16,000. Meinel, Londres, 1938, £st 1,600. 1901: Cobbett, from London Antonio Stradivari violin, Cremona, 1722 The back plate is in one piece; 353mm; the wood almost plain, some barely-visible straight flames; the flames of the ribs are brighter. The front plate is made from two pieces of attractive spruce, tight/narrow [rings], with a knot on the left above the f; numerous splits. Beautiful head. The varnish is red-orange, very worn throughout. Kreisler, [19]02 Hamma 16,000. Meinel, London, 1938, Pounds sterling 1,600. Walter Wilson Cobbett (1847-1937) was a businessman and a violinist. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies four Stradivari violins associated with W W Cobbett but none is dated 1722 (and none has a one-piece back plate of almost plain wood). There are nine violins associated with the Austrian violinist Fritz Kreisler (1875-1962) but only three are by Stradivari and of these only one has a one-piece back plate – the Huberman/Kreisler violin of 1733 (ID 40687) – which has clearly-visible back-plate flames ascending from left to right and does not have a front-plate knot on the left above the f. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 145 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 145 [U] 1901: Dufresne à Logelbach Violon A. Stradivarius, 1718, fond d’une pièce, 357mm, bois sur couche, ronceux, ondes vives descendant à gauche, très belles éclisses, bien ondées; belle table de 2 pièces en sapin moyen, petites meurtrissures à gauche en haut, près du bord; très belle tête, pièce d’estomac à la table, aucune cassure, vernis rouge orange. Caressa, Mlynarski, 1902 Milton Seligmann à Francfort 30,000 1935 entre les mains de Kolish. 1901: Dufresne, from Logelbach (Vosges region, south of Strasbourg) Antonio Stradivari violin, 1718, the back plate is in one piece; 357mm length, ‘layered’ wood, curly-grain; bright flames descending [from right] to left. Very beautiful ribs, nicely flamed. Beautiful front plate made from two pieces; medium [-width?] spruce; small bruises in the upper-left [bass side] bout near the edge. Very beautiful head; a chest-patch in the front plate; without a split; the varnish is red-orange. 232

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Caressa, Mlynarski, 1902 Milton Seligmann, from Frankfurt, 30,000 1935 in the hands of Kolisch. For M. Dufresne see also JF55.2, p. 86 [U] and 148 [L]. For Emil Szymon Mlynarski see also JF55.2, p. 20 [L]. This violin is ID 41478 on CzAr/Tarisio. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 216-217) writes: ‘It was in the possession of Caressa & Français in 1902, and was sold by them to Dr. Milton Seligman [… who] placed the violin […] at the disposal of Rudolf Kolisch, who founded the famous string quartet which bears his name.’ Doring explains that Kolisch (1896-1978) had the violin altered to permit left-handed playing, an alteration which was reversed when Erich Lachmann acquired the violin in 1944. Doring’s text confirms the one-piece back plate.

***** JF55.2, p. 145 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 145 [L] 1901: B on Franchetti, à Paris Violon A. Stradivarius, 1718 Fond de 2 pièces, 353mm, ondes vives, bois moiré sur couche et ronceux, éclisses de toute beauté, ondes larges vives; table de 2 pièces, doublée au milieu, ½ bords; cassure de l’âme allant au bord du bas, autre cassure parallèle; petite cassure au coin du haut à gauche; tête magistrale; vernis de toute beauté rouge vif. Schmidt, ex Spohr. 1901: Baron Franchetti, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 1718 The back plate is made from two pieces; 353mm length; bright flames; ‘watery’ ‘layered’ wood, curly-grained. The ribs are exceptionally beautiful, the flames wide and bright. The front plate is made from two pieces; doubled at the middle; half edges. There is a split from the sound-post to the lower edge, with another, parallel, split; there is a small split at the upper corner of the bass-side C. The head is magisterial. The varnish is of exceptional beauty; bright red. Schmidt, ex Spohr. The name ‘Baron Franchetti’ may indicate Leopoldo Franchetti (1847-1917) who was an Italian politician. Further information about this violin is limited to a commentary written by Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 219) in which he states: ‘Both Hart and Hill trace the instrument directly from Spohr to the late owner’ (i.e. John Hudson Bennett, of New York).

***** JF55.2, p. 146 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 146 [U] Darche, à Bruxelles Violon J. Guarnerius del Jesus à Crémone, année 1733 Fond de 2 pièces, 353mm, belles ondes vives moyennes, descendant légèrement, éclisses bois plus doux, petite pièce au cordier, petite brisure à gauche du bouton; belle table de 2 pièces, sapin très-serré au milieu; les f trés-accusées, toutes petites pièces en haut, tête magistrale, trou de ver bouché par une flipeau entre le La et le Ré à droite; vernis rouge doré assez dépouillé. Vendu à M r Bonjour à Nantes, par nous par C.F. en Juin 1903 – mxzxz – commion Cézard mxzx repris à Bonjour, revendu à Rebner en 1908 oxzxz. 233

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Darche, from Brussels Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, from Cremona, 1733 The back plate is made from two pieces; 353mm; beautiful flames, bright, medium, gently descending [from the centre joint]. The wood of the ribs is less distinctive [than the wood of the back plate]. A small patch at the tail-piece; a small split to the left of the end pin. The beautiful front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow in the middle; the fs are very pointed; extremely small [internal?] patches in the upper bout. The head is magisterial; a worm track has been plugged with a covering patch between the A-string [peg] and the D-string [peg] on the treble side [of the peg-box]. The varnish is golden red, fairly worn. Sold to M. Bonjour, from Nantes, by us by Caressa & Français in June 1903, mxzxz, commission Cézard mxzx. Re-acquired from Bonjour, re-sold to Rebner in 1908, oxzxz. ‘Darche’ would seem to be Nicolas Darche (1815-1873) a violin maker who was initially employed by J-B Vuillaume’s brother, Nicolas-François Vuillaume, in Brussels; see also JF55.2, p. 93 [U]. This violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 40432, identified as the Rebner/Bonjour violin, the bodylength measured at 353mm, but the violin dated as ‘c.1740’. The names of Darche, Bonjour, and Rebner are listed as sequential owners. The associated photographs reveal a two-piece back plate in which the flames descend steeply from the centre-joint, not at all ‘gently’. The Hills (Hill (1931), p. 88) identify a ‘Period 1740’ del Gesù violin as ‘M. Adolf Rebner, ex Bonjour’.

***** JF55.2, p. 146 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 146 [L] 1888: Sarasate Violon A. Stradivarius, année 1713, 13 pouces 2 lignes Fond de 2 pièces splendide, ondes descendant, éclisses ondes un peu plus larges, table de 2 pièces superbe sapin plus fin au milieu, cassures à l’âme et à la barre, doublure, très belle tête intacte, vernis rouge doré splendide. ex Boissier de Genève, Naegely légué au Conservatoire de Madrid 1908. 1888: Sarasate Antonio Stradivari violin, 1713, 13 pouces 2 lignes [356.4mm] The back plate is made from two splendid pieces, the flames descending. The flames of the ribs are slightly wider [than on the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; superb; the spruce [?rings are] thin at the middle; there are splits at the sound-post and at the bass-bar; doubled. Very beautiful head; intact. The varnish is golden red, splendid. ex Boissier, of Geneva, Naegely Bequeathed to the Madrid Conservatoire in 1908. This violin is described by the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 59): The year 1713 gives us an admirable violin, the “Boissier”, now owned by Señor [Pablo] Sarasate. Fétis mentions it as one of the finest existing Stradivaris, and we can certainly confirm his statement. Its outline is of the 141/16-inch form [357.2mm], the model a little fuller, though closely following that of the “Parke” instrument; the edge, corners, and purfling are perhaps a trifle neater, and the sound-holes more lightly cut. The varnish is also of great beauty, its tint being a shade redder than that of the “Parke”, and the whole instrument is in very fine condition.

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The Boissier/Sarasate violin of 1713 is described and photographed in Beare et al. (2013), pp. 154-161; the associated commentary states that ‘its neck [was] probably made by Vuillaume’. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the ID is 40241.

***** JF55.2, p. 147 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 147 [U] Bachelez, notaire, 3 rue Turbigo à Paris Violon Stradivarius acheté autrefois à l’hôtel Drouot pour exzx Bachelez, lawyer, 3 rue de Turbigo, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, bought sometime in the past at [an auction at the] Hôtel Drouot for exzx. This violin may be the 1704 ‘ex St. Senoch’ violin identified in Henley (p. 44).

***** JF55.2, p. 147 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 147 [L] J. Loëb, à Paris, 9 rue Condorcet Basse de A. Stradivarius, 1726 Fond d’une pièce en peuplier; gros nœud de bois, en haut, au milieu, petits trous de vers, en bas à gauche, talon remis; éclisses en peuplier, petites fentes à la main; table de 2 pièces, splendide, sapin large, nœud transversal de 11cms, sous le haut du cordier, à droite; cassures d’âme, d’f, de bords, à droite; tête magistrale en hêtre; au-dessous de chaque cheville, vers la mortaise un lozange rebouché; au-dessus une pièce en carrée, vers les coulisses, à chaque cheville, taille 76cms; vernis rouge doré coloré de toute beauté; payée oxzx à la V e [Veuve] Miremont, à la vente Miremont Vendu à M r Chapman de Londres en Janvier 1907 (par Hugo Becker) mxzxz. J. Loëb, 9 rue Condorcet [Paris] Antonio Stradivari cello, 1726 The back plate is in one piece of poplar; there is a large knot in the middle of the upper bout; there are small worm tracks in the lower bout, on the left. Modified neck-foot. The ribs are of poplar, with small splits [in the rib] at the hand. The front plate is made from two pieces; splendid; the spruce [?rings are] wide, with a transverse knot of 11cms [in length] under the upper part of the tail-piece to the right. There are splits at the sound-post, at the f, at the edges on the treble side. The magisterial head is made of beech-wood; below each peg – towards the [peg-box] cavity – there is a lozenge-shaped plug; above there is a square patch, towards the flutings, at each peg. The body length is 76cms. The varnish is golden red, a colour of exceptional beauty. Paid oxzx to the widow Miremont, at the Miremont auction/sale Sold to Mr Chapman of London in January 1907 (by Hugo Becker), mxzxz. Jules Loëb was the dedicatee for Gabriel Fauré’s Elegie for cello and piano, op. 24, and, with Fauré accompanying, gave the first performance in 1883. This cello is now known as the Marquis de Corberon/Loeb (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40655). Various descriptions and photographs of the cello confirm the large black knot in the upper-centre of the back plate. The CzAr/Tarisio website places the cello initially with the Marquis de Corberon – Pierre Philibert Catherine Bourée de Corberon – who was born in 1746 and died on the Paris guillotine in May 1794; he was a lieutenant

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in the French Guards and, between 1786 and 1788, a front-desk viola player in the l’Orchestre de la Loge Olympique. The evidence which securely associates the cello with the Marquis is unknown; also unknown is what happened to the cello during the many decades following the execution of the Marquis. How and when Claude Augustin Miremont (1827-1887) – a Parisian violin dealer – obtained the cello is unknown. The undated JF55.2 descriptive text implies that Jules-Léopold Loeb (1852-1933) obtained the instrument from Miremont’s widow; thus Loeb’s purchase might reasonably be dated to c.1890. Subsequently the cello passed from Loeb to Hugo Becker (1863-1941) and from Becker (in 1907) to Mr Chapman for the benefit of the latter’s daughter, Elizabeth. The cello is now owned by the Royal Academy of Music in London. The Hills twice mention the Corberon cello in their Stradivari monograph of 1902. On p. 129 they identify a cello belonging to ‘M. Loeb, ex Marquis de Corberon, dated 1717’. On p. 136 they write: The three instruments [cellos] of the year 1717 and that of 1719 are interesting examples […]. That of M. Loeb, a meritorious Parisian artiste, belonged formerly to the Marquis de Corberon. In the 1909 second edition of their monograph (p. 135) the date of the cello is changed to 1726, and, on p. 148, the Hills re-word their commentary: The “Chevillard” bass and that of Miss Chapman, both dated 1726, are the last of this series of noble works that we can vouch for. The latter instrument previously belonged to M. Loeb, a deserving Parisian artist, and prior to this, it was in the possession of the Marquis de Corberoa [sic]. For the description of the Chevillard cello see JF55.2, p. 175 [U].

***** In the EF/JF55.4 ledger, after the descriptive entry for the 1726 cello belonging to M. Loëb, there are two small paper notelets inserted into the ledger. The handwriting in both notelets is the same and the second notelet is initialled ‘E.F.’:

Voir, pour cello 1726 si c’est celui de Berne, table de Lupot. Berne (Suisse), Professor Lehr Lorenz, cello Antonius Stradivarius, dit le “Duc de Marlborough” année 1719, vendu par CF à [no further text] En 1937 proprieté de Lehr Lorenz à Berne, beau cello table refaite par Nicolas Lupot. Vu l’instrument au concert du 15 Juin 1937 à Crémone pour le bicentenaire de Stradivarius. E.F. The 1726 cello: find out if it is the one in Berne, with a front plate made by Lupot. Bern, Switzerland. Professor Lorenz Lehr, Antonio Stradivari cello, called the Duke of Marlborough, of the year 1719, sold by Caressa & Français to [no further text] In 1937 it was owned by Lorenz Lehr, from Bern, a beautiful cello, the front plate re-made by Nicolas Lupot. Saw the instrument at the concert on 15 June 1937 at the Stradivarius Bicentenary in Cremona. E[mile] F[rançais]. See also JF55.2, p. 114 [L] for the description of a cello which, in 1886, belonged to the Duc de Camposelice; the cello is dated 1719 and, very likely, is the same instrument (Duke of Marlborough) as is identified here.

***** JF55.2, p. 148 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 148 [U] Ch. Dancla à Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius, 1708 See JF55.2, p. 86 [U] for a detailed consideration of this 1708 violin.

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JF55.2, p. 148 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 148 [L] Duc de San Lorenzo, à Madrid (Vendu à M r Sanz pour 3000 pesetas 9bre 1903) Violon de A. Stradivarius, 1718; 360mm Fond de 2p., ondes droites, larges et superbes; éclisses absolument admirables; dans celles des C, peintes en noir deux descriptions latines “In domo ejus”, “gloria et Divitiæ”; table de 2 pièces, en beau sapin moyen; cassures à l’âme et en haut de l’f gauche; pièce d’âme; belle tête ondée; vernis rouge vif doré de toute beauté; violon de tout 1er ordre. Acheté entre H. S. C., aioxz Vendu Dufresne à Logelbach, eoxzx, en 1908, repris pour moxzx Revendu M r G Talbot, Aix-la-Chapelle, eoxzx “Gloire et richesse dans sa maison” 1937 Exposition de Crémone, no. 70. Duc de San Lorenzo, from Madrid (sold to M. Sanz for 3,000 pesetas, November 1903) Antonio Stradivari violin, 1718; 360mm The back plate is in two pieces; straight flames, wide and superb. The ribs are absolutely wonderful; in the ribs of the C-bout, painted in black, there are two Latin inscriptions: “In domo ejus” and “Gloria et Divitiæ”. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful medium [width?] spruce; there are splits at the sound-post and above the bass-side f; there is a patch at the sound-post. Beautiful flamed head. The varnish – bright golden red – is exceptionally beautiful. Everything about this violin is first class. Bought between H[ill], S[ilvestre & Maucotel], and C[aressa & Français], aioxz Sold to Dufresne, from Logelbach, eoxzx, in 1908; re-acquired for moxzx Re-sold to M. G Talbot, Aix-la-Chapelle [Aachen], eoxzx ‘Glory and riches in his house’ 1937, Cremona Exposition, no. 70. The inscription ‘In domo ejus’ is on the bass-side C-bout rib; the inscription ‘Gloria et Divitiæ’ is on the trebleside C-bout rib. The CzAr/Tarisio identification is ID 41477 and the website places the violin with Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume in 1857. The evidence for this placement is a letter, dated 6 May 1857, sent by Jean-Baptiste to his brother, Nicolas-François, in Brussels. In the letter Vuillaume states that he and Nicolas are joint owners of ‘Le San Lorenzo’ which Vuillaume prices at 1,000 francs. The Duc de San Lorenzo was possibly Lorenzo Fernandez de Villavicenzio y Cañas, 3rd duke of San Lorenzo de Valhermoso (1778-1859). William Henley (Henley, p. 66) identifies the ‘Grand Duke San Lorenzo of Spain’. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 216) advances a narrative in which the Duke’s son took his father’s violin and sold it to ‘an antiquarian of Madrid’ who, in turn, sold it ‘for a small sum’ to one ‘Esclava’; the latter took the violin to Paris and sold it to an unknown purchaser ‘for 30,000 francs’. Doring also relates that ‘the violin has an inscription on the sides said to have been executed by Stradivari in compliance with the wish of the Duke.’ Doring’s ‘Duke’ would surely have been a grandfather (or great-grandfather) of Lorenzo Fernandez. No further information for M. Sanz has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 149 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 149 [U] 1903: 16 Juin, Vente Lelong, à Paris Violon A Stradivarius, 1721 237

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Fond 2p.; 362mm, ondes moyennes, vives, descendant vers les bords; le filet au-dessus du bouton, usé jusqu’au ras du bois sur 55mm ; coup formant C à droite, en bas vers le bord; éclisses ondes plus larges et plus vives, celle du bas d’une seule pièce; table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, serrée; cassures à l’âme, au menton (3 petites) une du bord du haut au sommet de l’f gauche; très-belle tête, un peu usée à la volute; vernis rouge doré ambré, retouché partout; pièce d’âme en doublure. Acheté entre H. S. C. (hrrox) Vendu par Hill à Cobbett, Janvier 1904, hioxz [JF55.2 only] 1956 chez Hill. 1903: 16 June, the Lelong auction, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 1721 The back plate is made from two pieces; 362mm; medium [-width] flames, bright, descending towards the edges; the purfling above the end pin is worn down to the brim of the wood over a length of 55mm; a blow has left a C-shaped mark on the lower-right [of the back plate] towards the edge. The flames of the ribs are wider and brighter; the rib around the lower bout is in one piece. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, tight/narrow. There are splits at the sound-post, at the chin (three small splits), and a split from the upper-bout edge to the top of the bass f. Very beautiful head; slightly worn at the volute. The varnish is golden red, amber, re-touched everywhere. There is a doubling patch at the sound-post. Bought between H[ill], S[ilvestre & Maucotel], and C[aressa & Français] (hrrox) Sold by Hill to [W W] Cobbett, January 1904, hioxz 1956, with the Hills [in London]. ‘Lelong’ identifies the violinist Camille Lelong (1841-1888) who won First Prize for violin at the Paris Conservatoire in 1862. His widow auctioned an enormous number of personal and family items at the Hôtel Drouot (the Paris auction-house) in June 1903. The Paris music journal, le Ménestrel, announced the auction in the issue dated 14 June 1903 (p. 191) explaining that since there were so many items to be sold the auction would be spread over five days (16-20 June) but that all the musical instruments and bows would be auctioned on the first day; the finest instruments would be two Stradivari violins, dated 1720 and 1725. The subsequent issue of le Ménestrel (21 June 1903, p. 200) included a report on the auction: the 1720 violin was sold for 12,000 francs, the 1725 violin was sold for 10,500 francs. The report states that the 1720 violin had been revarnished, while the 1725 violin had a ‘doubled’ back plate. There is no mention of a Stradivari violin labeldated 1721. It is possible that the journal’s reporter confused 1721 with 1720, but to do this in consecutive issues of le Ménestrel seems unlikely. However, perhaps the reporter’s reference to the re-varnishing of the 1720 violin is related to the JF55.2 identification of the 1721 varnish being ‘re-touched, everywhere’. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 236) briefly lists a 1721 Stradivari violin belonging to Walter Wilson Cobbett. The CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40518) identifies this violin as the Lelong/Cobbett/Suk. The name ‘Suk’ does not appear within the website’s list of owners but, according to Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. III, p. 288), a certificate for this violin was written by Jacques Francais in 1983 and issued to the violinist Josef Suk (1929-2011). The Thöne photographs reveal that both plate edges, at the end-pin, have been worn down; the photographs also reveal the back plate’s C-shape at the right-hand edge of the lower bout. The CzAr/Tarisio website specifies the body length of the violin as 357mm, as does Thöne. The length specified in the descriptive text – 362mm – is unambiguously written in both ledgers, and the considerable detail of the description suggests that the violin was carefully studied in the Caressa and Français workshop. Nonetheless, the 362mm measurement would appear to be a mistake.

*****

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JF55.2, p. 149 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 149 [L] Argiewicz, chez Landeker, à Berlin Violon A. Stradivarius, 1718 (vraie étiquette) (étiquette originale) Fond de 2 pièces, ondes larges et vives, descendantes vers les bords, taille 354mm; petite cassure descendant du talon à gauche, vers le joint en triangle, longue de 9cms ½, traverse le joint; très-belles éclisses, celle du C droit en bois uni, table de 2 pièces, sapin large, très-beau; cassure à l’âme; pièces à l’âme, et une passant sous la barre, en longueur, cassure à la barre; très-belle tête, bien pure; vernis rouge orange doré, blond. Acheté chez Kessler, 26.000 M. en 1900. [Artur] Argiewicz, at the house of Landeker, from Berlin Antonio Stradivari violin, 1718 (true label) (original label) The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames wide and bright, descending towards the edges; the length is 354mm. There is a small split descending from the left side of the neck-foot towards the centre-joint, creating a triangle 9.5cms long and crossing the centre-joint. The ribs are very beautiful; the rib of the treble-side C is made of plain wood. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] wide, very beautiful; there is a split at the sound-post, patches at the sound-post, a patch crossing underneath the bass-bar; longitudinally; a split at the bass-bar. Very beautiful head, really pure. The varnish is golden red-orange, blonde. Bought from the firm of [Ernst] Kessler, 26,000 Marks, in 1900. This violin is identified as ID 40506 on CzAr/Tarisio; the associated photographs confirm the back-plate diagonal crack which forms a triangle with the line of the centre-joint. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 219) provides a brief historical note for this violin. Artur Argiewicz was at one time the assistant leader of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra.

***** JF55.2, p. 150; EF/JF55.4, p. 150 Mai 1904: M r Röntgen, van Eeghenstraat 77, Amsterdam Violon A. Stradivarius, 1717, taille 358mm Fond de 2 pièces, très-belles ondes larges et vives, plus gris dans le bas; 2 petits chanteaux en bas, celui de gauche 93mm, celui de droite 89mm; talon original; éclisses très-belles; celle du bouton d’une pièce; celle de la main plus usée et dévernie; table de 2 pièces, sapin large, moiré à droite, crevé à l’âme, plusieurs cassures; demi-bords, estomac en doublure; le coin, à gauche, en bas, remis; tête fort belle, plus usée à gauche, en regardant le fond; trous rebouchés, gerçure à la cheville du Ré; vernis rouge ambré doré, dépouillé, très-beau, remis sous le chevalet; beau violon séduisant. Ex Lepinski, 2e violon de David à Leipzig Reparé par Hill en 1903, qui l’a estimé aoxzx: offert par C.F. rxzxz en Mai 1904. May 1904: M. Röntgen, van Eeghenstraat 77, Amsterdam Antonio Stradivari violin, 1717, length 358mm The back plate is in two pieces; very beautiful flames, wide and bright; drab/lacklustre in the lower bout; two small width-inserts in the lower bout, that on the left being 93mm, the one on the right being 89mm; the neck-foot is original. The ribs are very beautiful; the rib around the end pin is in one piece; the rib of the hand is worn and no longer has any varnish. The front plate is made from two pieces; wide spruce, ‘watery’ on the treble side, ruptured at the soundpost; several splits; half edges; a doubling patch in the chest. The lower corner, on the bass side, has been replaced. The head is really beautiful, more worn on the left (when viewing the back 239

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plate). The peg-holes have been bushed; there is a split at the D-string peg. The varnish is golden red-amber, worn down, very beautiful, [the varnish] renewed under the bridge. A seductively beautiful violin. ex Lepinski [Lipiński], second violin to David from Leipzig. Repaired by Hill in 1903; they estimated its value at aoxzx; rxzxz offered by Caressa & Français in May 1904. Karol Joseph Lipiński (1790-1861) was a violinist. Ferdinand David (1810-1873) was the soloist at the first performance (1845) of Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto. Julius Röntgen (1855-1932) helped found the Amsterdam Conservatoire and the Concertgebouw orchestra. The Lipiński violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 40497, but dated to 1715 instead of 1717. The widthinserts in the lower bout of the back plate are revealed in the CzAr/Tarisio photographs, as is the left-side wear to the scroll (when viewed from the rear); the treble-side lower bout of the front plate appears to have some ‘watery’ stains. Clearly, the current Lipiński violin is the same instrument as described in May 1904; it is unclear why the identification of 1717 as the label-date of the violin should have been superseded by a date of 1715. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 214) reports that Engelbert Röntgen (the father of Julius) ‘owned a Stradivari of 1717 said to be of the largest dimensions. The correct date of the violin is 1715; it was the “Lipiński”. Doring does not specify the evidential basis for his re-dating of this violin. William Henley (Henley, p. 60) also dates the violin to 1715. Doring (ibid., p. 197) cites a letter ‘written by the late Alfred Hill [which] characterizes the “Lipinski” as “a very fine and bold type of the largest dimensions of the master’s works …”.’ Doring adds his own comment: ‘We have, in the instruments of 1715, some variations [of size], and in this specimen one which exceeds all the others in its extreme breadth.’ Tracing measurements of the 1715 Lipiński violin, supplied to the present author, are: Upper Bout width 168mm, Centre Bout 113mm, Lower Bout 206.5mm, and Body Length 357.5mm. Only the Centre Bout measurement is abnormal. Extensive information about the Lipiński violin is located at: http://frankalmond.com; the violin is there dated to 1715. The descriptive text (above) is repeated at JF55.2, p. 194 and EF/JF55.4, p. 194.

***** JF55.2, p. 151; EF/JF55.4, p. 151 M r Popoff, à Moscou, 1904 Violon A. Stradivarius, 1733, da anni 93 (?EF) étiquette originale Fond 1 pièce, 13p. 2l. ½; bois doux, petites ondes droites peu apparentes, un peu ronceux dans le haut; largeur de la partie du haut 6p. 2l. ½; largeur du bas 7p. 8l. ½; largeur des C, 4p. 2l. ½; le bord est creusé, le filet très-régulier, un peu large; les gorges des voûtes assez accentuées, mais les voûtes bien pleines; éclisses ondes vives, dans le haut 1p. 1l., et 1p. 1l. ½, dans le bas 1p. 2l.; table de 2 pièces, beau sapin régulier; f légèrement penchées; à droite le coin du C est usé,(a) le bord du fond au-dessous également; le bord du fond à la main tres-usé; à la table 2 cassures, une du bas de l’f droite, allant au bord du bas; une autre partant du C, allant vers le bas en longeant le bord, longue de 1p.: très-belle tête creusée, la coulisse lourde, plus large à gauche; le contour lourd et un peu appesanti comme rondeur; poignée originale; vernis rouge (chaud) foncé admirable et intact partout; table enfoncée du côté de l’âme, au pied du chevalet. Ex Böhm, prof r du Conservatoire Vendu à Popoff en 1900 pour 30,000 f, pour rxzxz 240

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Yehudi Menuhin acheté à Berlin en 1929 à Hermann ($45,000?) lui à été offert par M r Henry Goldman. M. Popoff, from Moscow, 1904 Antonio Stradivari violin, 1733, ‘of years 93’ (?EF) [Emile Français], original label The back plate is in one piece; 13 pouces 2½ lignes [357.6mm]; mild wood, small straight flames, faintly visible; slightly curly-grained in the upper bout. The [maximum] width of the upper bout is 6 pouces 2½ lignes [168.1mm]; the width of the lower bout is 7 pouces 8½ lignes [208.7mm]; the [minimum] width of the C-bout is 4 pouces 2½ lignes [113.93mm]. The [plate-] edge is furrowed, the purfling is very consistent [but] slightly wide. The fluting of the archings is quite noticeable but the archings themselves are nicely shaped. The ribs have bright flames; the [height of the ribs] in the upper bout is 1 pouce 1 ligne [29.3mm] and 1 pouce 1½ lignes [30.5mm]; in the lower bout the height is 1 pouce 2 lignes [31.6mm]. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, consistent [-width rings?]. The fs are slightly slanted. On the right [treble side] the corner of the C is worn;(a) the edge of the back plate, below, is equally worn; the edge of the back plate ‘at the hand’ is very worn. There are two splits on the front plate, one below the treble f which extends as far as the lower edge; another [split] starts at the [treble?] C and continues towards the bottom following the edge – the length is 1 pouce [27mm]. Very beautiful head, furrowed, the ‘scoops’ [at the rear] are substantial, and wider on the left. The contour is heavy and slightly ‘forced’ in its curvatures. The handle [neck] is original. The varnish is dark red (warm), admirable, and intact throughout. The front plate has sunk on the side of the sound-post, at the foot of the bridge. ex Böhm, professor at the Conservatoire. Sold to Popoff in 1900 for 30,000 francs, for rxzxz. Bought in 1929 from Hermann, Berlin (45,000 dollars?) [for] Yehudi Menuhin; [Menuhin] was presented with the violin by Henry Goldman. (a)

At this point the JF55.2 copyist has drawn a sketch of the treble-side C with, it seems, an indication of some damage to the lower corner; the sketch is not replicated in EF/JF55.4. Joseph Böhm (1795-1876) was a violinist and a Director of the Vienna Conservatory. This violin is the Prince Khevenhüller/Menuhin (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40678). Prince Johann Sigismund Friedrich Khevenhüller-Metsch (1732-1801) bought the violin for his second wife, Marie Josephine Henriette Barbara, Countess of Strassoldo, on the occasion of their marriage in November 1800. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 318-319) states that Joseph Böhm owned and used the violin until his death in 1876 when it passed to his nephew, Louis, who was a professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatoire; Louis sold the violin to Viktor Popoff. Doring also states that the violin ‘was still in its original condition’ and that the label carries an annotation indicating that it was made during Stradivari’s ninetieth year. Toby Faber provides a faint reproduction of the Khevenhüller label (Faber, p. 104); from this illustration it is very difficult to see whether the handwritten ‘age’ numerals are 90 or 93. If Stradivari was 93 years of age in 1733 then he was born in 1640 – a date which has never been proposed as a possibility. The descriptive text makes no mention of the combined Khevenhüller/Strassoldo coat of arms which is attached to the back plate of the violin below the neck-foot.

***** JF55.2, p. 152; EF/JF55.4, p. 152 Popoff, à Moscou Violon de Antonius Stradivarius, 1708, légèrement Amatisé

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Fond de 2 pièces, bois sur maille, petites ondes douces, éclisses même bois; table de 2 pièces (morceau remis dans le milieu, dans toute la longueur sur une largeur de 5 millimètres) sapin fin, les pattes d’f retouchées, un […?] en poire à la Guadagnini; 17 fractures dans le bas de la table; 4 dans le devant à gauche, en regardant le violon, dont une qui part du dessus de l’f gauche au bord; bords très-usés dans le bas de la table; cheviller remis; de la tête il ne reste que la coquille de vraie; vernis rouge brun sur fond doré, très-retouché partout; la table noire à l’estomac; longueur 356mm au fond; 354mm la table; hauteur des éclisses devant 28mm, derrière 29mm. Offert zxzx en 1904 – 15 Septembre. Popoff, from Moscow Antonio Stradivari violin, 1708, slightly Amatisé The back plate is made from two pieces; the wood cut ‘on the cross’, small mild flames. The ribs are made from the same wood. The front plate is made from two pieces (a tiny strip of wood replaced in the middle, for the whole length, 5mm wide); the spruce [rings] are thin; the tabs [wings] of the fs have been retouched; one [hole?] has a pear-like shape (Guadagnini style); seventeen splits in the bottom of the front plate; four on the bass side of the front (when viewing the violin [from the front]) of which one extends from above the bass f to the edge; the edges are very worn in the lower part of the front plate. The peg-box has been replaced; only the scroll is original. The varnish is red-brown, over a golden ‘ground’; [the varnish] extensively re-touched. The chest-area of the front plate is blackened. The body length is 356mm (back plate), 354mm (front plate); the height of the ribs in front 28mm, behind 29mm. Offered zxzx in 1904 – 15 September. This violin appears to be ID 40743 on the CzAr/Tarisio website where it is named the Popoff but dated to 1683. The associated photographs of the front plate appear to show a number of splits, of which at least four are to the left of the tail-piece. The photograph of the front plate is not of high enough quality to show a central replacement piece of wood, 5mm in width.

***** JF55.2, p. 153; EF/JF55.4, p. 153 1904: M r Kœnigswerther, à Francfort, 29 Miquelstrasse Violon Stradivarius, année 1701 Violon splendide, fond de 2 pièces, à petites ondes droites et vives, très jolies; éclisses superbes; taille 355mm; table de 2p., sapin très-fin comme les Amati, petite pièce d’âme, admirable d’aspect; tête tout-à-fait belle; violon Amatisé de coins, de forme, de voûtes; trèsfrais; vernis rouge blond doré, un peu brun. Acheté à Edler en 1904, 35,000 M. avait appartenu à Engelhardt, et joué par Tivador Nachez. 1904: M. Kœnigswerther, 29 Miquelstrasse, Frankfurt Antonio Stradivari violin, 1701 Splendid violin; the back plate is made from two pieces; small flames, straight and bright; very attractive. The ribs are superb. The length is 355mm. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin (as found on Amati violins); there is a small patch at the soundpost. The appearance of the violin is admirable. The head is beautiful in every aspect of its making. The corners, the form, the archings – all are Amatisé. Very fresh. The varnish is golden red-blond, slightly brown. Bought from Edler in 1904, 35,000 Marks. 242

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Previously owned by Engelhardt and played by Tivador Nachez [Nachéz]. Tivador Nachéz (1859-1930) was a Hungarian violinist. A 1701 violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 41312 with the soubriquet Circle/Nachéz. The website cites a certificate issued by Gand & Bernardel in 1879 which states that ‘the instrument was previously owned for many years by Monsieur Tuvache of Rouen.’ The website’s history of ownership for this violin is specified as: in 1870 until 1879 1879-1900 from 1900 in 1902 until 1904 from 1904

Tuvache David Laurie Engelhard Charles F. Edler Tivador Nachéz Charles F. Edler Heinrich Koenigswerther

The Circle/Nachéz violin is also described at JF55.2, p. 38 [L], the description dating from 1870. According to that description the 1701 violin has an inscribed semicircle at the top of the back plate (confirmed by the CzAr/Tarisio photographs associated with ID 41312, and described by Henley (Henley, p. 38)). Since the inscribed semicircle is unmissable – likewise the small knot on the right of the back plate’s lower bout – but neither feature is mentioned in the descriptive text (above), the possibility exists that the violin described in 1904 is not the same as that which was described in 1870. However, the names of the owners, and the dates, are all but identical, and there are common features between the two violins: Length Back plate flames Front plate rings The head Varnish

1870 text 355.3mm almost horizontal very narrow beautiful light red

1904 text 355mm horizontal very narrow beautiful golden red-blond

There also exists a 1716 Nachéz violin which is characterised by Jost Thöne (Thöne, Vol. III, p. 164) as the violin ‘which became [Nachéz’s] ‘solo’ instrument for the rest of his life.’

***** JF55.2, p. 154; EF/JF55.4, p. 154 1904: Colonel Maître, à Sedan J h Guarnerius del Gesù, année 1734 (étiquette originale) Fond 2p., belles ondes larges, plus vives à gauche; 35cms; les éclisses des C et du bas bien ondées; celles du haut plus grises, plus unies; celle de gauche, en bas, en regardant la table, a une brisure; éraillures de pointes à celles du haut, beaucoup plus prononcées à celle de droite, en regardant la table; les éclisses sont rehaussées en haut et en bas, de 1mm environ; très-belle table de 2 p., en sapin admirable; deux cassures à l’f gauche; une à l’f droite; belle tête, fendue à gauche; vernis rouge clair, brun doré; violon intact. Vendu roxzx par nous par C.F. en 8bre 1904 repris et vendu à M r Auger, à Paris, en 1905 pour roxzx. 1904: Colonel Maître, from Sedan [Ardennes] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, year 1734 (original label) The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wide flames, brighter on the left. [The body length is] 35cms. The ribs of the C-bouts and [the ribs of] the lower bouts are nicely flamed; the ribs of the upper bouts are rather drab/lacklustre, rather plain; the rib on the lower-left (viewing the front plate) has a split; there are scratches made with a pointed object in the upper-bout ribs, 243

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very noticeable on the [upper treble-side] rib (when viewing the front plate); the ribs, both upper and lower, [have been] raised by about 1mm. Very beautiful front plate which is made from two pieces of admirable spruce; there are two splits at the bass f and one at the treble f. Beautiful head, cracked on the left. The varnish is light red, golden brown. The violin is intact. Sold for roxzx by us by Caressa & Français in October 1904 Re-acquired and sold to M. Auger, from Paris, in 1905, for roxzx. The name ‘Colonel Maître’ is associated on CzAr/Tarisio only with two Stradivari violins of 1708; the name ‘Auger’ is unknown to the website (also unknown to the Hills (1931)). For Colonel Maître see also JF55.2, pp. 29 [U], 86 [U], 157, and 183. No further information for this 1734 Guarneri violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 155 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 155 [U] 1904: M r Maury, à Paris Posséde 1 archet Tourte jeune argent 1937 appartient à sa fille M lle [no further text] J h Guarnerius del Gesù, 1732, étiquette originale Fond d’une pièce; talon remis; petites ondes vives, droites; montant vers la droite, régulières, veine noirâtre dans la partie droite, cassure près du bouton; éclisses ondes larges et vives, celle du haut à gauche a une cassure a deux cassures; table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin, cassure à l’âme; cassures aux pattes d’f, très-belle tête, bien pure, ayant été fendillée, foncée, surtout à la cheville de la chanterelle, tache noirâtre de massiguage près du de gorgement côté droit – taille 352mm, vernis rouge orange doré. Vendu roxzx par nous par C.F. en 1904. 1904: M. Maury, from Paris Possesses a silver-mounted bow made by Tourte the Younger 1937 [the violin?] belongs to his daughter, Mlle. [no further text] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1732, original label The back plate is in one piece; modified neck-foot; [the back plate has] small flames, bright and straight, climbing towards the right; regular; a black-ish vein line in the right-hand part, a split near the [tail-piece] end pin. The flames of the ribs are wide and bright; the upper-left rib has a split, has two splits. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin; there is a split at the sound-post, splits at the wings of the fs. Very beautiful head, very pure, having been deeply cracked, especially at the peg of the singing string [the E-string]. There is a blackish blemish […?] near the [throat?] on the treble side; the body length is 352mm. The varnish is golden red-orange. Sold for roxzx by us by Caressa & Français in 1904. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 155 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 155 [L] 1905: Edler, à Francfort sur mein A. Stradivarius, 1699 Fond 2p., très-beau, belles ondes moyennes, droites et vives, plus vives au milieu; 355mm; éclisses superbe, ondes très-vives, moyennes; table de 2p., sapin très-fin, comme les Amati; 244

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cassures du bas de l’f gauche au bord, et à l’âme; tête fort belle, ondée, trous rebouchés; tête plus belle comme travail, que le violon; modèle un peu longuet; vernis rouge doré ambré au fond; plus rouge, plus frotté aux éclisses, plus brun à la table. Vendu par nous par C.F. en 1905 – aioxz. 1905: Edler, from Frankfurt am Main Antonio Stradivari [violin], 1699 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; beautiful flames, medium width, straight and bright; brighter in the middle; 355mm. The ribs are superb; the flames very bright; medium [width]. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin, as in [violins made by] the Amatis. There are splits at the bottom of the bass f at the edge, and at the sound-post. The head is particularly beautiful, flamed; the peg-holes have been bushed; the head (in terms of workmanship) is more beautiful than the rest of the violin. The model of the violin is slightly ‘long’. The varnish is golden red-amber on the back plate; it is a deeper red, [but] more abraded, on the ribs; more brown on the front plate. Sold by us by Caressa & Français in 1905 – aioxz. There are eleven violins associated with Charles F. Edler (a violin dealer) on CzAr/Tarisio but not one which is label-dated 1699. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 156; EF/JF55.4, p. 156 Hugo Reiffenberg, à Paris Violon A. Stradivarius, 1717 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes larges et vives; éclisses pareilles au fond, cassures, et une petite pièce en triangle; table de 2 pièces, sapin moiré, bois régulier et fin; l’f de gauche, plus penchée, plus Guarnerius que l’autre; belle tête; vernis rouge (un peu chocolat) brun doré; taille 360mm. Ex Costé, de Nancy Acheté en 1900 à Silvestre pour amxzx, mxzxz r [JF55.2 only] Juillet 1957 acheté par M Robert Sorell à New York, 15,000 $ demandés Violon Guarnerius del Gesù. Hugo Reiffenberg [Reifenberg], from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 1717 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames wide and bright. The [wood of the] ribs is similar to the back plate; there are splits and a small triangular patch. The front plate is made from two pieces; ‘watery’ spruce; the wood is regular and thin. The bass f is more slanting, more ‘Guarneri’ in character than the other. Beautiful head. The varnish is golden red-brown (slightly chocolate in colour). The body length is 360mm. ex Costé, of Nancy Bought [by Reifenberg?] in 1900 from Silvestre for amxzx, mxzxz July 1957: bought by Mr Robert Sorell, from New York; 15,000 dollars asked Violin Guarneri del Gesù. The 1717 Reifenberg violin, with an ‘original label’, is presented on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41538; the website’s sequence of owners makes no mention of Robert Sorell. The website’s photograph of the front plate, especially the shaping of the fs, suggests the hand of Guarneri del Gesù rather than Stradivari. The 1717 Reifenberg violin also appears in Thöne (Vol. III, pp. 196-203); the historical narrative makes no mention of Robert Sorrell. Thöne specifies 355.5mm (front) and 356mm (back) as the body-length measurements.

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A roughly triangular shape, created by a faint flaw-line within the wood, can be observed at the bottom edge of the back plate’s lower bout, on the right; this may be the feature referred to in the descriptive text (although the text seems to place the triangular patch in one of the ribs). The Reifenberg violin exhibits a distinctive knot in the back-plate wood, to the left of the neck-foot and next to the plate edge; the JF55.2 descriptive text does not mention this identifying mark.

***** JF55.2, p. 157; EF/JF55.4, p. 157 Colonel Maître, à Sedan Violon A. Stradivarius, 1708 Fond d’une pièce à contresens, bois moiré, grandes et belles ondes de toute beauté, tout petit nœud dans le haut vers la gauche; fond splendide, éclisses à ondes vives, moyennes, très serées, sur maille, celle du bas en une seule pièce; table en sapin très fin, en 2p; plusieurs cassures rapprochées au menton, une à l’âme, une chaque trou de l’f au bord du C, une en haut de l’f gauche sous la touche; tête ondes très larges; le Mi et le Ré trous rebouchées, vernis rouge doré ambré merveilleux, étiquette originale, 357mm. Ex Tlinsch, à Leipzig Ex Küstener, Künstener, banquier Leipzig oxzxz en Mai 1905 (J. Thibaud) Repris en Mars 1912 contre Dancla et a donné oxzx Vendu Hamma 1912, Mars; nxzxz Glatz – Neumann, à Vienne. Colonel Maître, from Sedan Antonio Stradivari violin, 1708 The back plate is made from one piece, cut against the grain; the wood ‘watery’; large and beautiful flames of great beauty; there is a tiny knot in the upper bout, towards the left; the back plate is splendid. The ribs have bright flames, medium, very tight/narrow, cut ‘on the cross’; the rib of the lower [bout] is in one piece. The front plate is made from spruce [?with very thin rings], in two pieces; several splits close together at the chin, a split at the sound-post; a split at each hole of the f at the edge of the [treble?] C; a split above the bass f under the fingerboard. The flames of the head are very wide; the holes for the E-string and the D-string pegs have been bushed. The varnish is golden red-amber, marvellous; original label; 357mm. ex Tlinsch, from Leipzig ex Küstener, Künstener, banker, Leipzig oxzxz in May 1905 (Jacques Thibaud). Exchanged in March 1912 [by Colonel Maître?] with an additional cash payment of oxzx for the Dancla violin. Sold [to? by?] Hamma in March 1912; nxzxz Glatz – Neumann, from Vienna. This violin appears on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 40084, the Ruby/Il Rubino. See JF55.2, p. 86 [U] for further information about this violin and how it might relate to the 1708 Stradivari violin known as the Dancla.

***** JF55.2, p. 158 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 158 [U] 1905: Hegar, à Zurich Antonius Stradivarius (fausse étiquette de 1695) doit être de 1680 environ 246

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Fond d’une pièce, 354mm, ondes douces allant à gauche en descendant; éclisses très-belles, ondes vives, table de 2 pièces, sapin plutôt large; tête remise par Bausch à Berlin; vernis orange doré, parti presque partout; la table n’en a plus du tout; instrument à acheter de mxzx à oxzx (pièce en longueur à la table du bas de l’f gauche allant au bord). 1905: Hegar, from Zurich Antonio Stradivari [violin], (false label of 1695); the violin must be from about 1680 The back plate is in one piece; 354mm; mild flames descending to the left. The ribs are very beautiful, with bright flames. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] rather wide. The head has been replaced by Bausch, of Berlin. The varnish is golden orange, almost entirely worn away; the front plate has none at all. The instrument, to buy, is worth between mxzx and oxzx (there is a longitudinal front-plate patch from below the bass f to the edge). The identity of ‘Hegar’ is uncertain; he may be Friedrich Hegar (1841-1927) who was a Swiss composer, conductor, and violinist. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of ‘Professor J. Hegar’ (?Johannes Hegar (18741929) cellist) is associated only with a Stradivari cello (ID 41449). No further information has been located for the violin described above.

***** JF55.2, p. 158 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 158 [L] Obry, 67 rue des Jacobins, à Amiens Violon A. Stradivarius, 1721 (doublé) fond 1 pièce, assez chatoyant, bois uni; belles éclisses, ondes larges; table de 2 pièces, plusieurs cassures, revernie sous la touche et le chevalet; tête érable bois quadrillé (a) d’une autre époque; vernis rouge brun chaud; taille 355mm: grande doublure au fond. Vaut hoxzx: 1906 Revu en 1910. Obry, 67 rue des Jacobins, Amiens Antonio Stradivari violin, 1721 One-piece back plate (doubled); quite shiny, plain wood. Beautiful ribs with wide flames. The front plate is made from two pieces, with several splits; re-varnished under the fingerboard and under the bridge. The head is made from maple wood, cross-hatched(a) and from another period. The varnish is a warm red-brown. The body length is 355mm. There is a large doubling on the back plate. Worth hoxzx: 1906 Seen again in 1910. (a)

See also JF55.2, p. 172.

No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 159; EF/JF55.4, p. 159 1905: Ten Have, à Paris Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, Crémone, 1737 Fond d’une pièce, ondes moyennes, assez vives, descendant à gauche; tout petit chanteau à droite, en bas; talon chevillé, couronne: éclisses bois pareil au fond; toute petite pièce au247

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

dessous du bouton, de 5cms ½ de long, sur 6mm de haut; table de 2 pièces, sapin moyen, plutôt fin; plusieurs cassures: 2 du bas de l’f droite, allant au bord, une à l’âme; 2 du bas de l’f gauche, très près l’une de l’autre; tête longue et maigre, 2 joues aux chevilles du Ré et du La; vernis rouge orange doré, sec mais transparent; taille de 350mm: violon gauche, grossier, f longues, laides et mal coupées. P.S. Beau violon, grande sonorité, f très caractéristique en tête de cheval f – EF – dernière époque. 1905: Ten Have, from Paris Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, Cremona, 1737 The back plate is in one piece; medium flames, quite bright, descending to the left; a tiny width-insert in the lower-right; the neck-foot has been dowelled and crowned. The ribs are made of wood similar to that of the back plate. There is a tiny patch below the [tail-piece] end pin, 5.5cms long by 6mm high. The front plate is made from two pieces; medium spruce, [?the rings are] rather thin. There are several splits; two below the treble f, extending to the edge; one at the sound-post; two below the bass f, very close to each other. The head is long and thin; two cheek patches – at the D-string and A-string pegs. The varnish is golden red-orange; dry, but transparent. The body length is 350mm. The violin is clumsy, crude, the fs are long, ugly, and badly cut. P.S. Beautiful violin, grand sonority, the fs are very characteristic, with horse-heads – E[mile] F[rançais] – last period. Willem Ten Have (1831-1924) was a Dutch composer and violinist. The name ‘Ten Have’ is associated on CzAr/Tarisio only with a 1780 Guadagnini violin (ID 49267). Ten Have is not mentioned by the Hills (1931). No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 160; EF/JF55.4, p. 160 1906: M r Albert Zimmer, à Bruxelles Violon de A. Stradivarius, 1708, (étiquette vraie), (étiquette originale) Fond 1 pièce à contresens, bois splendide à belles ondes vives, larges, droites, mais contrariées;(a) talon original, filetage superbe; taille 360mm: éclisses, bois sur maille, ondes moyennes, vives, très-belles; celle du bas en 1 seule pièce, trace d’entaille du sillet primitif: table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, de toute beauté; petite cassure à l’âme, et une petite à l’f gauche; grand estomac en doublure, et petite doublure en boudin, à l’f droite: tête superbe, bien ondée; vernis rouge vif doré de toute beauté; très-beau violon. l’a acheté, roxzx, en 1903 à M r Soil de Tournai racheté par nous à Zimmer avril 1909 – roxzx Vendu à Talbot à Aix-la-Chapelle, Juin 1909 – ooxzx [JF55.2 only] 1954 Zlatko Balokovic - $40,000 de Herrmann ex Strauss, ambassadeur des U.S.A à Paris. 1906: M. Albert Zimmer, from Brussels Antonio Stradivari violin, 1708, (true label) (original label) The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain; splendid wood with beautiful bright flames, wide and straight but inconsistent.(a) The neck-foot is original; the purfling is superb. The body-length is 360mm. The ribs are made from wood cut ‘on the cross’, medium flames, bright and very beautiful; the rib of the lower bout is in one piece; there is a trace of the cut for the original [tail-piece] saddle. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] 248

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thin, of great beauty; there is a small split at the sound-post and a small split at the bass-side f; the chest has been extensively doubled, and there is a small doubling, the [reinforcing piece of] wood shaped like a finger, at the treble-side f. The head is superb, nicely flamed. The varnish is bright golden red, of great beauty; a very beautiful violin. It was bought [by A Zimmer?], roxzx, in 1903, from M. [Amédée] Soil, of Tournai Re-bought by us from Zimmer in April 1909 – roxzx Sold to Talbot, from Aix-la-Chapelle, June 1909 – ooxzx 1954 Zlatko Balokovic from [Emil?] Herrmann for 40,000 dollars ex Strauss [Straus], US ambassador to Paris. (a)

Photographic evidence for the 1708 Straus violin, sourced from from the website of The Stradivari Society, reveals that the back-plate flames gently ascend from left to right across the plate; some of the flames ‘ripple’ slightly and there are places where the flames appear to stop in mid-plate and then start again but from a slightly higher or lower point. It is not clear which feature is being identified by the term contrariées. Zlatko Balokovic (1895-1965) was a Croatian violinist. The ‘Straus’ (not, as is frequently written, ‘Strauss’) who was US ambassador to France between 1933 and 1936 was Jesse Isidor Straus (1872-1936). Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 132-133) associates this 1708 Soil/Straus violin with Jesse’s brother Herbert N[athan] Straus (1881-1933); on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 41156) the sequence of owners places the violin with ‘Herbert N. Strauss and wife’ in 1943.

***** JF55.2, p. 161; EF/JF55.4, p. 161 [Albert Zimmer] 1906: Violon A. Stradivarius, 1727, étiquette (“choisi par Kreutzer”) Fond 1 pièce, toute petites ondes serrées et vives, sur bois gris, veines droites; talon original; les éclisses ont les ondes un peu plus fortes; table de 2 pièces, sapin moyen, très-fin au joint; cassure à chaque f, dans le haut, remontant le long de la touche; une dans le bas, vers l’âme, toute petite pièce d’âme sur une autre plus ancienne, le reste intact; taille 355mm; écart des f 54mm: tête en bois pareil au fond, pas usée, très-pure, les trous rebouchés; vernis rouge brun; violon plutôt gros d’allure, haut d’éclisses: sonorité un peu alto. Acheté en 1805 chez Lupot Hertel de Wiesbaden nous l’a vendu en 1906: anxzx Hertel l’a vendu à C.F. en 1906, anxzx, de Wiesbaden cédé à Hamma avril 1906: raoxz Le même que celui porté page 174 Cédé par Hamma à Wittgenstein à Vienne en 9bre 1910 pour 45,000 M. [Albert Zimmer] 1906: Antonio Stradivari violin, 1727, the label [has the annotation] (“chosen by Kreutzer”) The back plate is in one piece; extremely small flames, tight/narrow and bright, on drab/lacklustre wood; the flames are straight. The neck-foot is original. The flames of the ribs are slightly more vivid. The front plate is made from two pieces; medium [-width] spruce, [?the rings are] very thin at the joint; there is a split at each f, in the upper bout, extending alongside the fingerboard; there is a split in the lower bout, near the sound-post; there is an extremely small patch at the sound-post on top of another, older, patch; the rest of the violin is intact. The body length is 355mm; the gap [between the upper eyes] of the fs is 54mm [see the correction below]. The head is made from wood which is similar to that used for the back plate; not worn, 249

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very pure; the peg-holes have been bushed. The varnish is red-brown; the violin is rather ungainly in its appearance, and high in the ribs; the sonority is slightly like that of a viola. Bought in 1805 from Nicolas Lupot Hertel of Wiesbaden sold it to us in 1906: anxzx Hertel sold it to Caressa & Français in 1906, anxzx, of Wiesbaden Made over to Hamma in April 1906: raoxz This is the same violin as described on p. 174 [see below] Made over by Hamma to Wittgenstein, from Vienna, in November 1910, for 45,000 Marks. ‘Hertel’ may be a descendant of Gottfried Christoph Härtel (1763-1827) who took control of the musicpublishing firm of Breitkopf in 1795; the firm is based in Wiesbaden. This 1727 violin was auctioned at Christie’s, in April 1998, for £947,500; the buyer was Haim Lazarov who then sold the violin to the Russian violinist Maxim Vengerov for $1.6 million. The violin is ID 40535 on CzAr/Tarisio where the colour photographs clearly reveal the tightly-packed narrow flames on the back plate. A second, almost identical, description of this violin is at JF55.2, p. 174 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 174 [U]:

1909: Xavier Wittmann à Constance, grande Duché de Bade Antoine Stradivarius, 1727 (étiquette manuscrite “choisi par Kreutzer”), 355mm Fond 1 pièce, toutes petites ondes serées, vives, sur bois gris, veines droites, talon original; éclisses pareilles au fond, ondes un peu plus fortes; table de 2 pièces, très-beau sapin moyen, très-fin au joint; cassure à chaque f, dans le haut, remontant le long de la touche, une dans le bas, le long de l’âme, une à l’âme; toute petite pièce d’âme, le reste intact; écart des f 45mm;(a) tête en bois pareil au fond, superbe et intacte, les trous rebouchés; vernis rouge brun, intact partout; les éclisses hautes. ex Grand duc de Russie; acheté chez Lupot au 1806; donné au Felder, precepteur dans la famille, et vendu à Hertel de Wiesbaden en 1880: cédé à Hamma en 1906 par nous par C.F. contre axzxz et un Bergonzi estimé haoxz; appartient à Wittgenstein à Vienne Le même que page 161. 1909: Xavier Wittmann, from Constance (Grand Duchy of Baden) Antonio Stradivari violin, 1727, [with a] hand-written label – “chosen by Kreutzer”; 355mm The back plate is in one piece; extremely small flames, tight/narrow, bright, on drab/lacklustre wood; straight flames. The neck-foot is original. The ribs are made from wood which is similar to that used for the back plate, the flames are slightly more vivid. The front plate is made from two pieces, very beautiful medium spruce, very thin at the joint; there is a split at each f, in the upper bout, alongside the fingerboard; another split in the lower bout, alongside the sound-post; a split at the sound-post; there is a very small sound-post patch; the rest of the violin is intact. The gap [between the upper eyes] of the fs is 45mm.(a) The head is made from wood similar to the back plate, superb and intact; the peg-holes have been bushed. The varnish is red-brown, intact all over. The ribs are high. ex Grand Duke of Russia; bought from Lupot in 1806; given to Felder, the family’s private tutor, and sold to Hertel of Wiesbaden in 1880: made over to Hamma in 1906 by us by Caressa & Français against axzxz and a Bergonzi [violin] valued at haoxz; [the Stradivari violin currently] owned by Wittgenstein, of Vienna. The same violin as on page 161. (a)

a correction of the obvious mistake made in the first description.

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The descriptive texts do not make clear whether it was the violinist Rudolf Kreutzer (1766-1831) who bought the 1727 Stradivari from Nicolas Lupot in 1805 (or 1806) or the ‘Grand Duke of Russia’ (who cannot be further identified). Similarly, the precise identity of the tutor, ‘Felder’, is uncertain. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 276) states that this 1727 Stradivari violin was ‘brought to New York and sold by Victor S. Flechter to the late Senator William A. Clark for the use of his grand-daughter’. W A Clark fathered only two children (daughters) by his second wife; neither daughter married. It is possible that Doring has confused this 1727 violin with the Kreutzer violin which is label-dated 1720 (see JF55.2, p. 24 [U]). Henley (Henley, p. 79) appears to follow Doring’s information.

***** JF55.2, p. 162 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 162 [U] 1903: Sulzbach, banquier à Francfort, 47, Westendstrasse Violon A. Stradivarius, 1712 Fond 1p., forme bombée, un peu Vieuxtemps, ondes droites assez larges et vives, tout dépouillé, jolies éclisses, ayant quelques cassures; table de 2 pièces, joli sapin, parait intacte; tête lourde et maigre de la fin; vernis rouge brun, doré, très dépouillé; 355mm. 1903: Sulzbach, banker; Westendstrasse 47, Frankfurt Antonio Stradivari violin, 1712 The back plate is in one piece; bulbous shape, slightly [?reminiscent of the] Vieuxtemps; the flames are straight, fairly wide and bright; [the varnish is] extensively worn. Attractive ribs, having some splits. The front plate is made from two pieces; attractive spruce, seems to be intact. The head is heavy, [but] thin at the end [top of the scroll?]. The varnish is red-brown, golden; very worn. 355mm. No further information about this violin has been located. For the Stradivari Vieuxtemps violin of 1710 see JF55.2, p. 39 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 162 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 162 [L] [Sulzbach] 2e Violon, A. Stradivarius Fond 1p., érable moiré, jolies veines droites, genre Hercule d’Ysaÿe;(a) belles éclisses; table 2p., sapin régulier, cassure apparente à l’âme, et d’autres à l’f gauche; la tête a des joues et des clavettes; elle est frottée et revernie sur les côtés; beau vernis rouge brun épais; étiquette de 1732; d’anni 82. [Sulzbach] The second violin [belonging to M. Sulzbach]; Antonio Stradivari The back plate is in one piece; ‘watery’ maple, attractive straight flames, [in the style of the] Hercule violin belonging to [Eugène] Ysaÿe.(a) Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; regular [?consistent-width] spruce; a split at the sound-post is visible, and there are others at the bass-side f. The head has cheek patches and ‘locking pins’ [dowels?]. The violin is abraded and re-varnished on the sides [on the ribs?]. Beautiful varnish, red-brown, thick; label of 1732, ‘of years 82’. (a)

see JF55.2, p. 103 [L].

No further information about this violin has been located. If the 1732 label was glued inside the violin by Stradivari, and if he wrote the ‘of years 82’ annotation on the label, then his year of birth was 1649 or 1650.

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JF55.2, p. 163 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 163 [U] 1906: M lle Gabrielle Wietrowetz, à Berlin Violon A. Stradivarius, 1717; 353mm Fond 2p., belles ondes, larges, vives, presque droites, les éclisses moins ondées; table 2p., sapin régulier, moyen; 3 cassures; une du bord du haut à gauche, descendant jusqu’au sommet de l’f; une autre du bas de la même f, allant au menton; une autre partant du haut de l’f droite le long de l’âme, parallèle au joint; doublure et ½ bords; tête unie, usée très-dépouillée; vernis rouge orange doré pâle, très-beau au fond. 14,000 M. en 1892. 1906: Mlle. Gabrielle Wietrowetz, from Berlin Antonio Stradivari violin, 1717, 353mm The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, wide, bright, almost straight. The ribs are less flamed. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce has uniformly medium [-width rings]. There are three splits; the first starts at the upper-left edge, descending as far as the top of the [bass] f; there is another [split] from below the same f down to the chin; [the third] split starts from the top of the treble f, extending as far as the sound-post, parallel to the [centre-] joint. [The front plate] is doubled and there are half edges. The head is plain, worn bare. The varnish is red, pale golden orange; very beautiful on the back plate. 14,000 Marks in 1892. Gabrielle Wietrowetz was a pupil of Joseph Joachim and helped to popularise Brahms’ Violin Concerto. Her name does not appear on the CzAr/Tarisio website, nor is it mentioned by Ernest Doring or by the Hills. No further information for her 1717 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 163 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 163 [L] Miss Bright, à Londres Violon A. Stradivarius, 1720 (les 2 derniers chiffres grattés, le violon est de 32 ou 33) Fond de 2 pièces splendide; larges et magnifiques ondes droites; 353mm; éclisses pareilles au fond; petite gerçure en longueur à celle de la main; cassure en travers à celle de gauche du manche; table de 2 pièces, fort belle, sapin large, serré au joint; 2 cassures à droite, l’une du bas de l’f au bord en bas, une du haut de l’f au bord du haut; cassure à l’âme; tête magnifique, ondes très-douces; vernis rouge chaud et vif, de toute splendeur; admirable instrument. (ex Crouzé) acheté 35,000 M. en 1901. Miss Bright, from London Antonio Stradivari violin, [the label now showing the date of] 1720 (the final two [original] numbers having been scratched out; the violin is from 1732 or 1733) The back plate is made from two splendid pieces; wide and magnificent straight flames; 353mm. The ribs are similar to the back plate; there is a small longitudinal split along the rib of the hand; there is a split across the rib to the left of the neck. The front plate is made from two pieces; really beautiful; wide spruce, tight/narrow at the joint. There are two splits on the right [treble side]; one from below the f down to the lower edge, and one from the top of the [same] f to the upper edge; there is a split at the sound-post. The head is magnificent, the flames very mild. The varnish is red; warm and bright; of great splendour; an admirable instrument. (ex Crouzé); bought for 35,000 Marks in 1901. No further information about this violin has been located.

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JF55.2, p. 164 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 164 [U] 1906: Jean de Schimkèvitch à S t Petersbourg Violon A. Stradivarius, portant une étiquette de 1710 (a dû être fait par Omobonus) Fond 2p., belles ondes larges, vives; 355mm; éclisses fort belles, bois plus gris que le fond; table de 2p., plusieurs cassures; tête assez jolie; vernis blond rougeâtre, frotté. (ex Doyen) Novbre: hexzx Repris en xbre 1906, annulé. 1906: Jean de Schimkèvitch, from St. Petersburg Antonio Stradivari violin, carrying a label of 1710 (it must have been made by Omobono) The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful wide flames, bright; 355mm. The ribs are really beautiful [but] the wood is more drab/lacklustre than on the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces, with several splits. The head is quite attractive. The varnish is reddishblond, abraded. (ex [Louis] Doyen) November [1906?]; hexzx Re-acquired in December 1906; cancelled [the purchase monies refunded?]. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 164 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 164 [L] 1907: Louis Ries, à Londres (acheté par Hamma de Stuttgart, en Juin 1907, pour mexzx) Violon A. Stradivarius 1710 (vraie étiquette) étiquette originale Fond d’une pièce, bois sur maille, ondes moyennes, très-vives, fort belles à l‘œil; descendant un peu à gauche; talon original; éclisses superbes à ondes larges, droites, très-vives: gerçure perpendiculaire à celle de la main à 4cms ½ du talon; petite gerçure à celle opposée à la main, en haut, allant à moitié de l’éclisse, et à 9cms du talon. Table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, splendide; très-serré au joint; les deux coins à droite un peu usés: onglets prononcés; f admirables, mais celle de gauche mieux conservée; celle de droite les arêtes un peu usées. Vernis orange brun doré très-beau; surtout au fond et aux éclisses; plus usé un peu noirâtre, avec de grandes tâches à la table; il y a, à la table, un tout petit trou bouché, sur le bord, en haut, à droite; à côté une petite résine noire à 1cm du bord; taille 36cms. Tête de André Guarnerius Tête de André Guarnerius tête de A Stradivarius fort jolie, allant très-bien, comme harmonie de vernis. Aucune cassure ni doublure a été remplacée par Fridolin Toujours en Allemagne en 1932 1937 Exposition de Crémone 1949 Werro demande $30,000 1907: Louis Ries, from London (bought by Hamma, of Stuttgart, in June 1907, for mexzx) Antonio Stradivari violin, 1710 (true label) original label The back plate is in one piece, the wood cut ‘on the cross’; medium flames, very bright, really pleasing to the eye, descending slightly to the left. The neck-foot is original. The ribs are superb, having wide flames, straight [vertical], very bright; there is a perpendicular split in the rib of the hand 4.5cms from the neck-foot, and a small split in the upper part of the rib which is opposite the hand, extending half way along the rib and starting 9cms from the neck-foot. The 253

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front plate is made from two pieces; thin [-width?] spruce, splendid; [?the rings are] very tight/narrow at the joint. The two [front plate] corners at the treble-side C are slightly worn; the [purfling] mitres are pronounced. Admirable fs, but the one on the bass side has been better conserved; the one on the treble side has slightly worn edges. The varnish is golden orange-brown, very beautiful, especially on the back plate and on the ribs; [the varnish] is more worn, slightly blackish, with large blemishes/stains [accumulations of blackened resin?] on the front plate [above the bridge]. There is, on the front plate, a very small plugged hole at the upper-right edge; at the side there is a small black resin [pocket?], 1cm from the edge. The body length is 36cms. The head was made by Andrea Guarneri; the head by Andrea Guarneri; the head was made by A Stradivari; really attractive, matching very nicely, likewise the blending of the varnish. Neither a split nor a doubling has been replaced by Fridolin [Hamma]. Still in Germany in 1932 1937 Cremona [Bicentenary] Exhibition 1949 Werro wants 30,000 dollars for it. Louis Ries (1830-1913) was a Dutch violinist. Henry Werro (1896-1971) was a violin dealer in Bern, Switzerland. This violin is the Ries (ID 41360 on CzAr/Tarisio). Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 156-157) writes extensively about this violin, stating that Louis Ries acquired the violin in 1857 and used it ‘throughout his career of 38 years’. *****

JF55.2, p. 165; EF/JF55.4, p. 165 1907: Leloup Rolland de Sancy de Sancy de Rolland Violon A. Stradivarius 1726 See JF55.2, p. 20 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 166; EF/JF55.4, p. 166 1907: M r le C te d’Alcantara Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, fausse étiquette de 1737 Fond d’une pièce à ondes vives et contrariées, droites, sur bois ronceux; taille 352mm; quatre trous de vers en bas, à droite, bouchés en noir; grande cassure, à droite, en longueur, du haut en bas; éclisses, très-belles ondes vives; quelques gerçures; celle à gauche de la main, plus jaune de vernis, a dû être remise; table d’une pièce; bois filandreux, uni de pores, très-fin au milieu; trous de vers à gauche du cordier et en travers au bas de la touche; quelques cassures; demi-bords, tête et manche se tenant; remis par J. B. Vuillaume; vernis rouge vif, très-beau. Vaut hoxzx. étui-double acajou ; 3 archets: 1 acier Vuillaume; 1 Eury, ébène et or, très-beau, bag.-ronde [baguette]; 1 Tourte garni argt, clavette à la tête. 1907: M. le Comte d’Alcantara Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, false label of 1737 The back plate is in one piece; having bright and varied flames, straight, on curly-grained wood; the length is 352mm. There are four worm tracks in the lower bout, on the right, plugged with black [mastic?]; a large longitudinal split on the right-hand side, from top to bottom. The 254

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ribs have very beautiful bright flames; some splits; the rib to the left of the hand [i.e. to the left of the neck] has varnish which is more yellow – the rib must have been replaced. The front plate is in one piece; the wood is frayed [splintered?], […?] [?the rings are] very thin in the middle; there are worm tracks to the left of the tail-piece and [some which are] crossing [the plate] below the fingerboard; some splits; half edges; the head and the neck are in one piece; replaced by J B Vuillaume. The varnish is bright red, very beautiful. Worth hoxzx. A double case made of mahogany; three bows; one steel bow made by Vuillaume; one by [Jacob] Eury, ebony and gold, very beautiful, round stick; one Tourte bow decorated in silver, a ‘key’ [a locking pin?] at the head. The CzAr/Tarisio website identifies only a Stradivari violin of 1732 as associated with the Duke of Alcantara. It is unclear whether the writer of the JF55.2 description believed the violin to be genuinely a del Gesù but one which contained a fraudulent label, or whether the writer believed the violin itself to have been made by someone other than Guarneri. No further information has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 167 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 167 [U] 1907: M elle Ilse Pescatore, à Bruxelles Violon A. Stradivarius, un peu longuet, année 1699 See JF55.2, p. 132 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 167 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 167 [L] 1911: M r Sigmund Fraenkel, à Francfort sur le mein, Nibelungen Allee, 29 Violon A. Stradivarius, longuet, 360mm; année 1695 Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes vives, droites, serrées; éclisses ondes plus larges, vives; table de 2 pièces, sapin très-serré, extrêmement fin; plusieurs petites cassures, une à l’âme, une grande du bas de l’f gauche au bord; pièce d’âme, demi-bords; très-belle tête, bien conservée, moderne, a ondes très-vives, serrées; vagues restes de vernis rouge; reverni partout; demandait aaxzx M. en 1911, demandait 22,000 M en 1911, offert hhxzx M. Appartient à Kaufman, revu en 1913, offert 10,000 f. 1911: M. Sigmund Fraenkel, Nibelungen Allee 29, Frankfurt am Main Antonio Stradivari violin, long pattern, 360mm, 1695 The back plate is in one piece; small bright flames, straight, tight/narrow. The ribs have flames which are wider, and brighter. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow, extremely thin; several small splits, one at the sound-post, a large split from below the bass f to the edge; there is a patch at the sound-post; half edges. Very beautiful head, well conserved, modern, having flames which are very bright and tight/narrow. Some remnants of [the original?] red varnish [still exist]; re-varnished throughout. [Fraenkel?] wanted aaxzx Marks in 1911, wanted 22,000 Marks in 1911; offered hhxzx Marks. Owned by Kaufman[n]; [the violin] seen again in 1913; offered 10,000 francs. Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 85-87) identifies only two Stradivari violins of 1695 – the Sandars and the Goetz. The Sandars has a two-piece back plate, and the Goetz has a history of ownership which, according to Doring (likewise the CzAr/Tarisio website, ID 40785) does not include the names of Sigmund Fraenkel or Kaufmann; for ‘Kaufmann’ see also JF55.2, p. 99 [L].

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Nonetheless, Henley (Henley, p. 30) describes the 1695 Hawaiian violin (which, in 1929, was owned by Ludovic de Goetz) as: ‘One-piece back with flame running straight across. Orange-red varnish. Long model.’ The photographs on the Tarisio website and in Thöne (Vol. I, p. 261) confirm the back-plate flames as described by Henley, and Thöne specifies the body length as 361.5mm (front) and 362mm (back).

***** JF55.2, p. 168; EF/JF55.4, p. 168 1907: M r Emile Sauret Violon de Antonius Stradivarius, 1708 Fond d’une pièce, bois sur couche, moiré, larges ondes, talon original, petite gerçure à droite du talon à 2cms dans le bas du filet; taille 354mm; éclisses à belles ondes larges et douces; 2 gerçures à droite du bouton; au-dessus du bouton, trace de l’ancien sillet; petite brisure perpendiculaire à 2cms, dans le coin de droite, en bas; petit trou de ver rebouché à l’éclisse coin du haut; table de 2 pièces (non authentique pour la table) en sapin moyen, très-fin au milieu, f magnifiques; aucune cassure, sauf une toute petite à gauche, à 5cms du cordier; quelques égratignures à droite du cordier; très-jolie tête, coulisse un peu plate, trous rebouchés. Vernis orange doré, très-ambré, très-beau. (ex Wilmotte, d’Anvers) Acheté axzxz en 1887 à Berlin. 1907: M. Emile Sauret Antonio Stradivari violin, 1708 The back plate is in one piece; the wood is ‘layered’, ‘watery’, wide flames. The neck-foot is original. There is a small split to the right of the neck-foot, 2cms, in the lower part of the purfling. The body length is 354mm. The ribs have beautiful flames, wide and mild; two splits to the right of the [tail-piece] end pin; above the end pin there is a trace of the original saddle; there is a small perpendicular split, 2cms, in the treble-side lower corner; there is a small worm track, plugged, at the rib’s upper corner. The front plate is made from two pieces (not authentic/original); medium [-width?] spruce, very thin at the middle. The fs are magnificent. [The front plate] is without splits apart from one tiny split on the left, 5cms from the tail-piece. There are some scratches to the right of the tail-piece. Very attractive head, the fluting slightly flat; the peg-holes have been bushed. The varnish is golden orange, deep amber, very beautiful. (ex Wilmotte, of Antwerp) Bought [by E Sauret?] for axzxz in 1887 in Berlin. Emile Sauret (1852-1920) was a French violinist and composer. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of Emile Sauret is associated with two Stradivari violins but these are dated 1685 and 1703. William Henley (Henley, p. 39) reports: Sauret owned two Strads; the [1702 Emil Sauret violin] was later owned by Mr. R. Powell, and is said to be a fake. Both violins were named ‘Sauret’, the other being perfectly genuine and a fine specimen. Henley does not identify ‘the other … perfectly genuine’ Stradivari violin.

***** JF55.2, p. 169; EF/JF55.4, p. 169 1907: M r Emile Sauret Violon de Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, année 1744; taille de 351mm 256

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Fond de 2 pièces à larges et belles ondes vives; chevillé en haut à gauche droite, en bas à gauche; talon original; petit morceau de bord, remis à gauche du cordier, long de 4cms. Eclisses ondes moins larges que le fond; petite brisure, en biais, à gauche du cordier. Table de 2 pièces; très-beau sapin, très-fin à droite, plus large à gauche; nœud moiré, trèsdoux, en haut à gauche: très-belles f, celle de droite plus ouverte, plus longue; cassures d’âme et une du cran de l’f droite allant en bas. Tête brutale, plate, boutons très-longs, l’arête irrégulière vers le bas; deux joues, une de chaque côté de la cheville du Ré au Mi; trous rebouchés. Vernis rouge orange, très-beau, par tâches. Payé aoxzx chez Hill [JF55.2 only] 1953 Doctor M H Cottle à Chicago. 1907: M. Emile Sauret Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, year 1744, body length is 351mm The back plate is in two pieces; wide and beautiful flames, bright; [the plate has been] pinned in the upper bout, on the left right, and in the lower left. The neck-foot is original. A small area [of the plate] edge, to the left of the tail-piece, has been replaced; 4cms in length. The ribs have flames which are less wide than those on the back plate; there is a small oblique split to the left of the tail-piece. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] very thin on the right, wider on the left; there is a ‘watery’ knot, very mild, in the upper-left [bass side] bout. Very beautiful fs; the one on the treble side is more open and longer [than the one on the bass side]. There are splits at the sound-post and a split from the notch of the treble f towards the bottom. The head is brutal, flattened, the protruding eyes [of the scroll] are very long; the edges are uneven towards the bottom; two cheek patches, one on each side of the D-string and E-string pegs; the peg-holes have been bushed. The varnish is red-orange, very beautiful, [?free from] any stains/blemishes. Paid aoxzx at the Hills [of London] 1953, Doctor M H Cottle, from Chicago. This violin is the Suaret Guarneri (ID 40253 on CzAr/Tarisio). In Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 137, it is stated that the label inside the Sauret violin ‘is not original’.

***** JF55.2, p. 170; EF/JF55.4, p. 170 M r Fresson, à Liège, Janvier 1908 Violon A. Stradivarius, 1712, plus Amatisé que cette époque; 355mm Fond de 2 pièces, ondes douces, moyennes, descendant légèrement à gauche; brisure en haut à gauche; petite pièce carrée à 16mm du joint, talon remis, à droite, égratinures,(a) à gauche égratinure droite, 62mm de longeur; éclisses, ondes larges, assez vives; celle du menton ayant une gerçure de 80mm de longueur; celle à la main remplacée du manche sur une longueur de 63mm. Table de 2 pièces, en sapin très-serré; très-nombreuses cassures; l’f droite abîmée; jolie tête, bien ondée, très-usée à gauche (en regardant le fond); vernis rouge vif doré; retouché, surtout à la table. (vaut mxzx). M. Fresson, from Liège, January 1908 257

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Antonio Stradivari violin, 1712, more Amatisé [in style] than would be expected from the date; 355mm. The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, medium [width?], gently descending to the left; there is a split in the upper bout, on the left; there is a small square patch 16mm from the centre-joint. Modified neck-foot; to the right there are scratches,(a) to the left there is a straight scratch 62mm in length. The ribs have wide flames, fairly bright; the rib at the chin has a split 80mm in length; the rib at the hand, starting from the neck, has been replaced over a length of 63mm. The front plate is made from two pieces of very tight/narrow spruce; a large number of splits; the treble f has been damaged. Attractive head, nicely flamed, very worn on the left (‘left’ when viewing the back plate). The varnish is bright golden red; re-touched, especially on the front plate. (Worth mxzx). (a)

at this point, to represent the scratches, the writer of the descriptive text has drawn two diagonal lines which descend from left to right, bisected by a single diagonal line ascending from left to right; the drawing is replicated in EF/JF55.4. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 171 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 171 [U] 1899: Hanfblum, St Petersbourg Violon A. Stradivarius, 1715 Fond d’une pièce, ondes descendant à droite, table en beau sapin, un peu frotté, vernis rouge orange pâle. acheté chez Hill en août 1899, rxzxz. Cédé à Schimkèvitch, Ingénieur à la gare de Varsovie, de S t Petersbourg, pour 12,000 roubles. 1899: Hanfblum, St. Petersburg Antonio Stradivari violin, 1715 The back plate is in one piece, the flames descending to the right. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce, slightly abraded. The varnish is pale red-orange. Bought from the Hills in August 1899, rxzxz. Made over to Schimkèvitch, engineer at Warsaw Station, St. Petersburg, for 12,000 roubles. This violin is ID 41395 on CzAr/Tarisio and identified as the Rode/Duke of Cambridge. The Tarisio.com website specifies the major dimensions as 170mm, 114mm, 216mm, and 359mm (source and methodology unknown).

***** JF55.2, p. 171 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 171 [L] 1908: Brun, à Zurich Violon A. Stradivarius de 1700, on a fait un 9 du dernier zéro Fond d’une pièce, talon original, à ondes moyennes, vives, d’un bel effet, descendant légèrement à gauche; veine perpendiculaire dans le bas au milieu; trois cassures en bas, dont une à gauche en bas pareille à un chanteau; une dans le haut à gauche également, mais en brisure accentuée; éclisses ondes très-vives, très-belles; celle du bas à droite en grande partie remise; brisures à celle de gauche, en bas; table de 2 pièces sapin fin (amatisé); plus ondoyant en haut à gauche; deux coins de gauche, et celui en bas à droite, remis; de nombreuses 258

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cassures surtout à gauche en bas; jolies f, bien caracterisées; tête élégante, fort bien traitée; bois ondes moyennes, assez vives; trous de la chanterelle rebouchés, raccords mal faits; le cul de poule assez blanc, dépouillé; vernis rouge orange ambré; plus rouge vif aux éclisses; assez retouché à la table; pièce d’âme carrée à la table, taille 355mm. Possède aussi un 2e violon de Stradivarius (ex-Diannah) 1908: Brun, from Zurich Antonio Stradivari violin of 1700; a 9 has been created from the final 0. The back plate is in one piece. The neck-foot is original. Medium flames, bright and beautiful in appearance, descending gently to the left; there is a perpendicular vein-line in the middle of the lower bout. There are three splits in the lower bout of which one – in the lower-left – looks like a width-insert; there is a similar split in the upper-left but the damage is more serious. The flames of the ribs are very bright, very beautiful; the rib of the lower bout, on the right, has been almost entirely replaced; there are splits in the lower-left rib. The front plate is made from two pieces of spruce; [?the rings are] thin (Amatisé); [?the rings are] more rippled in the upperleft; the two bass-side corners, and the lower treble-side corner, have been replaced; numerous splits, especially on the lower left. Attractive fs, nicely characteristic. The head is elegant, really well done; the wood has medium flames, fairly bright; the [two] holes for the E-string peg have been bushed [but] badly cut; the ‘hen’s tail’ is quite white, worn down. The varnish is redorange-amber; the colour is a brighter red on the ribs; quite a lot of re-touching of the front plate [varnish]; there is a square sound-post patch [underneath] the front plate; the body length is 355mm. [M. Brun] also owns a second Stradivari violin (ex Diannah). No further information for ‘Diannah’, or for this 1700/1709 violin, has been located; ‘Brun’ may be Pierre Alfred Brun. The only violin connected with M. Brun (according to the CzAr/Tarisio website) is a Pietro Guarneri (of Venice) instrument of 1747 (ID 40686).

***** JF55.2, p. 172; EF/JF55.4, p. 172 1908: Turrettini, à Genève Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, fausse étiquette de Stradivarius Fond d’une pièce, 353mm, petites ondes assez vives, et serrées, descendant à droite; bois quadrillé; talon remis, vernis rouge vif, très-chaud. Eclisses à belles ondes larges et vives; le vernis un peu plus foncé, et un peu frotté; l’ancien sillet a été remplacé par 2 petites pièces; petites gerçures dans le C, sous le coin à droite en regardant la table. Table de 2 pièces, beau sapin serré, plus large sur les bords; 3 grandes cassures à gauche; revernie partout (par Arthur) donne l’aspect noir et sale; rebordée, refiletée en partie, trèsabîmée; f retouchés, surtout celle de gauche. Tête unie, trous du La et du Mi rebouchés, coulisses et arêtes assez usées, beau vernis rouge. Vaut exzx. P.S. pour moi EF – la table et les éclisses ne sont pas de l’auteur. Turettini a payé hoxz francs réparation en 1923. Vendu Lyon et Healy vers 1929-30. 1908: Turrettini, from Geneva Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, false label of Stradivari

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The back plate is in one piece; 353mm; small flames, fairly bright and tight/narrow, descending to the right; the wood is cross-hatched. Modified neck-foot. The varnish is bright red, very warm. The ribs have wide and bright flames; the varnish is slightly darker and slightly abraded. The original [tail-piece] saddle has been replaced with two small pieces; there are small splits in the C, under the corner on the right-hand side (when looking at the front plate). The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful tight/narrow spruce; [?the rings are] wider at the edges; there are three large splits on the left. [The front plate has been] entirely revarnished (by Arthur) giving a dark and dirty appearance; new edges, new purfling (in places), very damaged; the fs have been re-touched, especially that which is on the bass side. The head is made of plain wood; the holes for the A-string and E-string pegs have been bushed; the flutings and the edges are fairly worn; beautiful red varnish. Worth exzx. P.S. for me E[mile] F[rançais] – the front plate and the ribs are not by the author. Turrettini paid hoxz francs for restoration in 1923. Sold to Lyon & Healy around 1929-30. This violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 47740), dated to ‘c1731’, and with the soubriquet Geneva/Turrettini. Guarneri’s Geneva violin – ‘1731-34’ – appears in Robinson (pp. 24-25). Both the Tarisio and the Robinson photographs of the violin’s back plate reveal longitudinal ‘veins’ in the wood of the upper bout, on the right, crossing the descending flames at ninety degrees – hence (it is assumed) the reference to the wood being ‘cross-hatched’. One of the high-resolution photographs provided on the CzAr/Tarisio website reveals, through the upper ‘eye’ of the bass f-hole, a fragment of the internal label, on which can be seen an upper-case letter J and, below this, most of an upper-case letter C. The letter J would not appear on the upper line of a Stradivari label and the second line of Stradivari’s labels always begins with the word Faciebat. This would suggest that the ‘false label of Stradivari’ has, at some time, been removed, and a false Guarneri del Gesù label glued in its place. The photographic evidence reveals f-hole shapes which are more reminiscent of Antonio Stradivari than Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù.

***** JF55.2, p. 173; EF/JF55.4, p. 173 1908: Turrettini, à Genève Violon A. Stradivarius, longuet, 362mm, étiquette de 169... (probablement 1694) See JF55.2, p. 126 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 174 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 174 [U] 1909: Xavier Wittmann, à Constance, Gd Duchè de Bade Antoine Stradivarius, 1727 (étiquette manuscrite "choisi par Kreutzer") See JF55.2, p. 161.

***** JF55.2, p. 174 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 174 [L] 1909: José Relvas, à Lisbonne Violon A. Stradivarius, 1725 260

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Fond de 2p., toutes petites ondes droites, douces, très-serrées; jolies éclisses, pareilles au fond; table de 2p.; sapin moyen, 1 nœud en haut et 1 en bas, à droite; grandes cassures à droite et à gauche; jolie tête, trous rebouchés, fendue; vernis rouge brun doré. Taille de 355mm. Vaut haxzx. 1909: José Relvas, from Lisbon Antonio Stradivari violin, 1725 The back plate is made from two pieces; extremely small straight flames, mild, very tight/narrow. Attractive ribs, similar [wood] to the back. The front plate is made from two pieces of medium [-width?] spruce; there is a knot in the upper bout and one in the lower, on the right [treble side]. There are large splits to the right and to the left. Attractive head, the pegholes bushed; cracked. The varnish is golden red-brown. The body length is 355mm. Worth haxzx. ‘José Relvas’ may be José Maria de Mascarenhas Relvas de Campos (1858-1929) who was a Portuguese politician. This violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41521, the Portuguese. The associated photographs include two images of the internal label; at the bottom of the label someone has inked the following annotation: ‘# 180’ (or, perhaps, ‘# 160’). The identity of the person responsible for this annotation is unknown. The violin is itemised in Henley (p. 76).

***** JF55.2, p. 175 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 175 [U] 1909: Ex-Chevillard, appartient à la famille royale de Portugal Basse A. Stradivarius, 1725 Fond de 2p., petites ondes droites, serrées, vives; 755mm; rayures sur le vernis, à gauche, en haut; très-belles éclisses, ondes larges, vives; table de 2p., sapin large, plutôt laid; grosse meurtrissure, à droite, en haut, à la place du taquet d’archet; coins abîmés, très-belles f; trèsbelle tête, bois à contresens, veiné dans le bas, derrière; petit trou rebouché sur l’arête, tête anterieure à la basse; vernis rouge brun doré, presque marron; plus rouge vif à la tête; vue en 1909. Vaut axzxz. 1909: ex Chevillard, owned by the Portuguese royal family Antonio Stradivari cello, 1725 The back plate is made from two pieces; small straight flames, tight/narrow, bright. [The body length is] 755mm. Scratches in the varnish on the left of the upper bout. Very beautiful ribs with wide bright flames. The front plate is made from two pieces; [?the rings of the] spruce are wide, somewhat ugly; a large bruise to the right of the upper bout at the place where the bow is secured [inside a cello case?]; the [C-bout] corners have been damaged. Very beautiful fs. Very beautiful head, the wood cut against the grain; a vein-line at the bottom (at the rear); a small hole on the edge has been plugged; the head dates from an earlier period than the body of the cello. The varnish is golden red-brown, almost chestnut-brown; [the varnish] is a brighter red on the head. [The cello] seen [by Caressa & Français?] in 1909. Worth axzxz. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 130 and p. 142) date the Chevillard cello to 1726. In the 1909 second edition of their Stradivari monograph (p. 148) the Hills state: The “Chevillard” bass and that of Miss Chapman,(a) both dated 1726, are the last of this series of noble works that we can vouch for. The latter instrument previously belonged to M. Loeb, a deserving Parisian artist, and prior to this it was in the possession of the Marquis de Corberoa.

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[…] The former instrument [i.e. the Chevillard] was sold by M. Thibout in 1836 to M. Mulzer, an amateur, and it was subsequently purchased by the above-named artist [assumed to be Pierre Alexandre François Chevillard (1811-1877)]. In 1868 the latter [Chevillard] parted with it through the medium of Vuillaume to the late King of Portugal, Dom Luis, who was an amateur violoncellist. The price paid by the King was twenty thousand francs = £800. […] The head is of large size […] we are of opinion that it [the head] is of pre-1700 period. (a)

see also JF55.2, p. 147 [L].

In 1868 the King of Portugal was Luis I (1838-1889, reigned 1861-1889). Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 273) also dates the Chevillard cello to 1726. On the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40280) it is stated that the ‘c.1725’ cello passed to ‘Dom Luis, King of Portugal’ in 1909; the King of Portugal in 1909 was Manuel II. In both the JF55.2 and the EF/JF55.4 ledgers the writing of the numeral ‘5’ (of ‘1725’) is entirely unambiguous. The Chevillard cello is now owned by the Museu da Música in Lisbon. For a Chevillard violin see JF55.2, p. 18 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 175 [L] 1909: V e Fernandez, Calle Majorqua, à Barcelona Violon A. Stradivarius, 1697 See JF55.2, p. 118 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 176 [U] 1909: Kubelik Violon A Stradivarius, 1683 See JF55.2, p. 53 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 176 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 176 [L] 1909: Madame Turot: 38, rue Boileau Violon Antonius Stradivarius, année 1685 Fond d’une pièce, à contresens, 355mm; ondes légères, moyennes, douces, droites; éclisses pareilles; traces de vers dans le bas du fond à droite, et à l’éclisse côté gauche, bas du coin, et sous le menton; table de 2 pièces, beau sapin; fin au milieu, moyen sur les côtés, avec petites moirures dans le devant à droite de la table; fractures aux pattes d’f; fractures assez nombreuses; pièce à l’estomac; traces de vers à droite du cordier; tête un peu lourde; clavette à droite du cheviller; vernis jaune ambré doré, clair; un peu noir à l’estomac de la table. ex de Rèmusat; ex G Willaume;(a) ex de Schruabach, Schwabach Pièce à la table à droite du cordier, en triangle, sur le bord; assez grande. 1909: Madame Turot: 38, rue Boileau [Paris] Antonio Stradivari violin, 1685 The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain; 355mm; delicate flames, medium, mild, straight. The ribs are similar [to the back plate]. There are traces of worms on the right of the back plate’s lower bout, and at the rib on the left (below the corner) and under the chin. The 262

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front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] thin at the middle, medium-width at the sides, with small watery areas in the front on the treble side of the plate. There are splits in the wings of the fs; there are quite a number of splits; there is a patch in the chest. There are traces of worms to the right of the tail-piece. The head is slightly heavy; there is a locking key[?] on the right [treble side] of the peg-box. The varnish is golden yellowamber, light. The varnish is slightly blackened on the chest of the front plate. ex de Rèmusat; ex G Willaume;(a) ex de Schruabach, Schwabach There is a patch in the front plate, to the right of the tail-piece, a triangle, at the edge; fairly large. (a)

Albert-Gabriel Willaume (b. 1873) was awarded a Premier Prix from the Paris Conservatoire in 1895.

No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 177; EF/JF55.4, p. 177 Samuel Bonjour, Nantes Basse D. Montagnana, à Venise, 1742 Fond de 2p., bois sur maille, ondes larges, vives, descendante, superbes; 2 petits chanteaux de 1cm de chaque côté en bas; trou de procession, bouché par une cheville en carrée, fracture en croix, côté gauche à 7cms du joint et 3cms du bord, ayant 6cms de long; une autre petite, sur le côté gauche à 4cms du joint; 2 fractures, en chanteaux, dans le bas, partant des coins; filets, petits onglets; éclisses, même bois que le fond; pièce, en carré, mal mise à l’eclisse du bas; table de 2p., sapin moyen dans le milieu, allant s’élargissant jusqu’au bord; un peu moiré; f intactes, splendides; fractures en biais, dans le bas, à droite, ayant été faites en détablant la basse; taches de vernis sous la touche; et une à gauche, faite par un touret d’archet:(a) tête splendide coulisses creuses, arêtes du cul de poule se prolongeant assez loin dans les coulisses; tous les trous rebouchés; un phélipeau filipot a été mis dans le cheviller pour réparer le trou du Ré: taille 750mm. Vernis rouge brun doré, un peu écaillé, de toute beauté, partout. Vendu oxzxz en Janvier 1909 Repris un violon et une basse Strad., pour cette somme Appartient à Gérard Hekking qui l’a achetée à la mort de Bonjour, roxzx, 1910 Est en Norvège. Samuel Bonjour, Nantes Domenico Montagnana (from Venice) cello, 1742 The back plate is made from two pieces, the wood cut ‘on the cross’; wide flames, bright, descending, superb; two small width-inserts of 1cm on each side of the lower bout; there is a ‘suspension-strap’ hole which has been plugged by a square dowel; there is a split in the shape of a cross on the left side 7cms from the joint and 3cms from the edge, 6cms in length; there is another, small, split, on the left side, 4cms from the joint; there are two splits within the widthinserts of the lower bout, starting at the corners; the purfling has small mitres. The ribs are made from the same wood as used for the back plate; there is a square patch – badly made – in the bottom rib. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce is medium [-width?] in the middle, progressively widening towards the edges, slightly ‘watery’. The fs are intact; splendid. There are diagonal splits in the lower bout, on the right, brought about during the dismantling of the cello. There are [black] blemishes in the varnish below the fingerboard, and a blemish on the left, made by the ‘screw’ of a bow.(a) The head is splendid, furrowed flutings; the edges of the ‘hen’s tail’ extend quite far into the flutings; all the peg-holes have been bushed; a covering 263

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piece of wood has been inserted into the peg-box to repair the D-string [peg] hole. The body length is 750mm. The varnish is golden red-brown, slightly shell-like, of great beauty throughout. Sold [by Caressa & Français?] for oxzxz in January 1909 Re-acquired a violin and a Stradivari cello for this sum [The Montagnana cello] owned by Gérard Hekking who bought it following the death of Bonjour, roxzx, 1910 It is in Norway. (a)

?scratch marks made in the wood by the edges of the nut/screw when the bow is tucked inside a cello case.

This cello is ID 42639 on CzAr/Tarisio. The CzAr/Tarisio photographs clearly show a small square patch centred on the back-plate joint, at the same level as the upper corners of the C-bout.

***** JF55.2, p. 178 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 178 [U] Fritz Hirth (de Zurich) à Munich Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, année 1737 Fond de 2 pièces, bois un peu uni; belles éclisses; table de 2p., sapin régulier; beau vernis rouge ambré doré; tête de André Guarnerius, allant très-bien. L’a acheté à Edler en 1908, roxzx M. Fritz Hirth (of Zurich) from Munich Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, year 1737 The back plate is made from two pieces, the wood slightly plain. Beautiful ribs. The front plate is made from two pieces; uniform [-width?] spruce. Beautiful varnish, golden red-amber. The head was made by Andrea Guarneri, very good workmanship. The violin was bought from Edler in 1908, roxzx Marks. The maker of the violin’s head was more likely to have been Giuseppe Guarneri filius Andreæ (died April 1740); Andrea Guarneri died in 1698. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 178 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 178 [L] 1909 Xbre 3: P. Donckier de Donceel Violon A. Stradivarius, 1712 See JF55.2, p. 9 [L]. *****

JF55.2, p. 179; EF/JF55.4, p. 179 1909: Felix Berber, à Genève Violon de Antonius Stradivarius, 1717 (les deux derniers chiffres illisibles) Fond de 2 pièces, ondes douces, droites, petites; petite pièce carrée dans le bas à droite du joint;(a) veine en haut à gauche ressemblant à une cassure; veine plus douce à droite, en bas; éclisses ondes larges, vives, fort belles; table en beau sapin, moyen, en 2 pièces; estomac et ½ bords; 4 coins originaux; grande cassure du haut de l’f gauche(b) allant au bord en bas; une autre(c) allant au bord du haut; meutrissure carrée, assez large, à droite du cordier, formée de 264

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lignes noires: belle tête un peu lourde; brisure reparée par 2 joues interieures, à la cheville du La; vernis rouge transparent, assez mat et assez usé, mais dont il y a encore une quantité suffisante. Taille 355mm Acheté mnxzx M. chez Hammig en 1905. 1909: Felix Berber, from Geneva Antonio Stradivari violin, 1717 (the two last numbers are illegible) The back plate is in two pieces; mild flames, straight, small; there is a small square patch in the lower bout to the right of the centre-joint;(a) there is a vein-line in the upper-left resembling a split; there is a less distinct vein-line on the right of the lower bout. The ribs have wide flames, bright, very beautiful. The front plate is made from beautiful spruce; medium; in two pieces; there is a stomach [patch?] and half-edges; the four corners are original. There is a large split from the top of the bass f(b) extending to the bottom edge; there is another split(c) extending to the upper edge; there is a square bruise, fairly large, to the right of the tail-piece, formed by black lines. The head is beautiful, slightly heavy; there is a split which has been repaired with two internal cheek patches at the A-string peg. The varnish is transparent red, fairly matt and fairly worn, but there is still a sufficient quantity. Length 355mm Bought for mnxzx Marks from Hammig in 1905. (a)

At this point the writer has drawn a sketch of a small square; the sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4.

(b)

At this point the writer draws a sketch of the treble f showing the downward split starting from the inside edge of the upper eye. It would seem that the writer mistakenly used the word gauche when droite should have been used (unless the left/right orientation is being defined from the rear of the violin). The JF55.2 sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4. (c)

At this point the writer has drawn a sketch of the treble f showing the upward split starting from the outer edge of the upper eye; the sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4. This violin appears on CzAr/Tarisio as the Antonius (ID 40522), dated 1711. The website cites information from Jayson Dobney (Assistant Curator, Department of Musical Instruments, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) which indicates that, under ultra-violet light, the label-date has been revealed to be 1711 (the Antonius violin is owned by the Museum). The Museum’s photograph of the violin’s front plate reveals a downward split from the treble f; however, the upward split from the same f is not clearly visible. There is a set of short, longitudinal, black lines to the right of the tail-piece. The photograph of the back plate shows the square patch to the right of the centre-joint in the lower bout.

***** Page ‘180’ of the EF/JF55.4 ledger contains a description of the Stradivari 1716 Provigny violin; the opposite leaf (recto) of the ledger – also numbered ‘180’ – contains the description for Felix Berber’s 1740 Guarneri del Gesù violin:

JF55.2, p. 180 [U] 1910: Felix Berber, à Genève Violon Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, 1740 Fond de 2 pieces, ondes douces, droites, moyennes; petite cassure, à droite, le long du joint, en longueur, en haut petite brisure à gauche du joint, en bas, à peine visible; taille 352mm; éclisses superbes, bien ondées; table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, admirable et régulier; aucune cassure, pas de pièce d’âme; veine brune à droite, en longeur; tête maigre, creusée; beau vernis rouge orange ambré. ex Boissier – Paganini – Arbos 265

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Vendu par nous Xbre 1909, oxzxz Otto Senn, à Bale, 14/11/21, haoxzx Acheté la même année à M me Berber à Munich, noxzx P.S. la table du violon n’est pas de l’auteur quoi-que italienne et fort belle – les ff ont été complètement rebouchées – c’est un travail merveilleux et absolument invisible de l’exterieure (note personnelle de E.F.(a) 1933 Ce violon est un J h fils d’André. E.F. (a)

the words complètement rebouchées and absolument are underscored in the EF/JF55.4 text.

1910: Felix Berber, from Geneva Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1740 The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, straight, medium; a small split, to the right, alongside the centre-joint, longitudinal, in the upper a small split to the left of the centrejoint, in the lower bout, hardly visible. The body length is 352mm. The ribs are superb, nicely flamed. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin; admirable and uniform. There is no split, nor a patch, at the sound-post; there is a brown vein-line on the treble side, longitudinal. The head is thin, furrowed. The beautiful varnish is red-orange-amber. ex Boissier – Paganini – Arbos Sold by us, December 1909, oxzxz Otto Senn, from Basle, 14.11.21, haoxzx Bought in the same year from Mme. Berber, from Munich, noxzx P.S.: the front plate of the violin is not by the author though it is still Italian and really beautiful – the fs have been completely bushed [?the longitudinal edges of the fs re-shaped with glued-on strips of wood] – this is a marvellous example of lutherie and [the repair is] absolutely invisible from outside of the violin (personal note of Emile Français). 1933 This is a Joseph [Giuseppe Guarneri] filius Andreæ violin. Emile Français. A high-quality photograph of this violin’s front plate (CzAr/Tarisio ID 40430, the Lutti/Senn) confirms the longitudinal vein-line to the right of the tail-piece. The photograph also appears to show a serious split in the front-plate lower bout, bass-side, mid-way between the tail-piece and the bout edge, extending halfway up the bout towards the bass f; this split is not mentioned by the writers of the descriptive texts. The website specifies the violin as ‘c.1738’; the Hills (Hill (1931), p. 88) specify ‘1740’.

***** The EF/JF55.4 description for Felix Berber’s 1739 Guarneri violin appears at the bottom of the second leaf (recto) which has been numbered as ‘180’; the descriptive text is then repeated on the verso which is identified as ‘page 180’.

JF55.2, p. 180 [L] [Felix Berber] 1905: Hambourg; Violon Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, année 1739 Vernis jaune brun, très-dépouillé, voûtes plates; table très-abîmée, les f ayant des morceaux dans les trous; coins et bords remis; mauvais fracture sous l’âme, vernis pauvre; 3 doublures et ½ bords; 2 joues aux chevilles; contre-éclisses et coins en sapin; taille 352mm. Reparé en 1905 – no. 102-1905, vaut hxzxz. [‘page 180’ only] L’a revendu depuis à … [no further text]. [Felix Berber] 1905: Hamburg; Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1739

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The varnish is yellow-brown, very worn; the archings are flat. The front plate has been badly damaged; both fs having tiny patches [?added to the edges] in the holes; the [C-bout] corners and the [plate] edges have been replaced; there is a bad split below the sound-post. The varnish is poor. Three doublings, and half edges; two cheek patches at the pegs. The counter-ribs [linings?] and the corners are made in spruce. The body length is 352mm. Repaired [by Caressa & Français?] in 1905 – no. 102-1905; worth hxzxz. Subsequently sold to … [no further text]. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, no page number; editorially numbered as p. 180 recto 1908: Madame de Provigny, à Paris Violon A. Stradivarius, 1716, taille 357mm Fond de 2 pièces, ondes larges, descendantes, bois sur maille, usure de vernis dans le haut du fond, s’étendant du côté de la main, où le bord est usé; très-dépouillé, à partir du milieu du fond et sur le côté droit. Eclisses même bois que le fond, très-dépouillées dans le bas, surtout l’éclisse droite; dans les C le vernis simplement éclairei dans le milieu; éclisse devant côté de la main, dépouillée jusqu’au tournant du coin. Table très-belle, sapin fin dans le milieu, s’élargissant dans les flancs; dépouillée au menton et à la main; bords usé dans le C droit, aux coins; tâches légères à gauche, sur le devant, et à droite, en bas: fracture de l’f gauche, longeant la barre, allant vers le haut; vernis rouge doré transparent sur fond doré, filets fins (étiquette originale) (legué au Musée du Conservatoire) avec un Panormo violon, alto recoupé Amati, basse de Castagneri, archets etc. 1908: Madame de Provigny, from Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 1716; body length is 357mm The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames, descending [from the centre-joint], the wood cut ‘on the cross’; there is wear to the varnish in the upper bout of the back plate, extending from the side ‘of the hand’ where the edge is worn; [the varnish is] very worn from the middle of the back plate and on the right-hand side. The ribs are made from the same wood as the back plate, very worn in the lower rib, especially in the right-hand rib; in the C-bouts ribs the varnish is clearly lighter [in colour] in the middle; the rib infront of the hand is worn down to the curve of the corner. The front plate is very beautiful, the spruce [?rings are] thin in the middle, widening in the flanks; worn down at the chin and at the hand; the edges of the corners in the treble-side C are worn; there are light blemishes to the left on the front, and to the right in the lower bout. There is a split at the bass f, for the length of the bass-bar, extending into the upper bout. The varnish is golden red, transparent, on top of a golden ‘undercoat’. The purflings are narrow (original label). Bequeathed to the Museum of the [Paris] Conservatoire, together with a [Vincenzo] Panormo violin, a cut-down Amati viola, a Castagneri cello, bows, etc. Madame de Provigny was Palmyre Anaclette Besson, wife of André de Provigny. This Provigny violin was bequeathed to the musueum of the Paris Conservatoire by Madame de Provigny (1821-1908), daughter of Louis Edouard Besson (1783-1865). Madame Provigny’s Will was drawn up on 15 September 1896 and the Provigny violin transferred to the Paris Conservatoire in 1909.

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A photograph of the bass side of the violin’s front plate (the photograph sourced from the Musée de la Musique, in Paris) shows a dark longitudinal crack which passes very close to the right-hand edge of the upper eye of the bass f.

***** JF55.2, p. 181 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 181 [U] 1910: M me Bidermann, 21 B d S t Germain Violon A. Stradivarius, 1666, étiquette “Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis Alumnus Nicolaji Amati, Faciebat anno 1666” (le dernier chiffre écrit);(a) fond d’une pièce fond de 2 pièces à petites ondes, bois plutôt ronceux; taille 358mm; belles éclisses; coins très-pointes, style Amati; belle table en 2p.; bien conservée; belle tête, mais moins hardies que celles connues; la coulisse très-belle: vernis rouge marron foncé. Beau violon à revoir. (Je connais un A. Strad 1666, très beau, jaune doré, tout à fait le grand Amati qui appartient à la Marquise d’Ondigné à Paris) Nadaud le connait. 1910: Mme. Bidermann, 21 Boulevard St. Germain [Paris] Antonio Stradivari violin, 1666, the label [stating]: “Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis Alumnus Nicolaji Amati, Faciebat anno 1666” (the last numeral handwritten).(a) The back plate is in one piece, the back plate is in two pieces, small flames, the wood somewhat curly-grained. The body length is 358mm. Beautiful ribs; the corners are very pointed, in Amati style. Beautiful front plate in two pieces; well conserved. Beautiful head, but less bold than others which are known [from this period]; the fluting [of the scroll] is very beautiful. The varnish is dark red/chestnut-brown. A beautiful violin to review. (I know [another?] Antonio Stradivari [violin] of 1666, very beautiful, golden yellow, everything made [in the style of?] a ‘grand’ Amati violin, owned by the Marquise d’Ondigné, [d’Andigné] from Paris). [Edouard] Nadaud knows it. (a)

At this point the writer of the descriptive text has drawn a sketch of Stradivari’s circular monogram; the sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4. The Marquise d’Andigné was Madeline Ives Goddard, of Chicago (d. 1931); her husband was the French politician Pierre Marie Fortuné, Marquis d’Andigné (1868-1935). Madame Bidermann’s violin is probably that which is now known as the Serdet; historical details and highquality photographs appear in Beare et al. (2013), pp. 48–55. The curious discrepancy between the two descriptive texts – one specifiying a one-piece back plate, the other specifying a two-piece plate – is possibly explained by some of the narrow flames on the Serdet violin which appear, at first glance, to run all the way across the plate; the two-piece construction is more clearly seen in the upper half of the plate as a result of the clear discontinuity of the flames and the visibility of the centre joint. The full-page photograph of the Serdet back plate (ibid., p. 53) appears to show two diagonal worm tracks in the upper bout, to the right. According to Charles Beare (ibid., p. 48) ‘Alfred Hill saw [the Serdet violin] in the Paris shop of Paul Serdet in April 1900, and fortunately was able to photograph its label for their book’ (i.e. the Hills’ Stradivari monograph of 1902). The 1666 label shown in the Hills’ publication (opp. p. 216) is not identical to the 1666 label shown in Beare et al. (2013), p. 48, the text of which is: Antonius Stradiuarius Cremonenſis Alumnus Nicolaij Amati, Faciebat Anno 1666 The label’s final numeral is handwritten. The fact that the writer of JF55.2, when noting the label-text, writes ‘Stradivarius’ rather than ‘Stradiuarius’, may be nothing more than a simple error, likewise the omission of a ‘long S’ in ‘Cremonensis’ and the reversal of the final two letters in ‘Nicolaji’.

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Calliper measurements of the Serdet violin reveal a body length of 356.5mm; this would entirely agree with the ledger-specification of 358mm if the latter was achieved with a flexible tape lying on the violin’s arching.

***** JF55.2, p. 181 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 181 [L] 1911: A. Soil, à Tournai Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, 1733 Fond d’une pièce, larges et belles ondes descendant à gauche, 2 tout petites chanteaux sur les bords au fond, mis en dehors du filet, faisant bord; éclisses ondes vives, serrées; celle du bouton d’une pièce; très-belle table d’une deux pièces, sapin serré au milieu, très-large sur les bords, surtout à gauche droite; large veine noire à gauche droite, belles f, jolies régulières, finement coupées; belle tête, larges ondes, cheville du Mi trou rebouchée; petites gerçures à gauche, à la cheville du Mi et à celle du Sol; vernis rouge orange, très-dépouillé, taille 350mm; violon intact. L’inscription suivante, au crayon, sur le fond, en bas: Par les bons soins de Léon Depret acheté à M. Dubosq de Bordeaux par l’entremise de M r Emile Germain, l’an de grâce 1890, 19 Décembre par Amédée Soil de Tournai. Acheté roxzx 22 Février 1911 par nous, par C.F. 1911: A Soil, from Tournai Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1733 The back plate is in one piece; wide and beautiful flames descending to the left; two really small width-inserts at the edges at the bottom, outside the purfling and thus forming the edge. The ribs have bright flames, tight/narrow; the rib at the end pin is in one piece. Very beautiful front plate made from one two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] tight/narrow at the middle, very wide at the edges, especially on the left right; there is a wide black vein on the left right. Beautiful fs, nicely ‘regular’, and precisely cut. Beautiful head, wide flames; the hole for the Estring peg has been bushed; small splits on the left at the E- and G-string pegs. The varnish is red-orange, very worn; the body length is 350mm; the violin is intact. The following inscription, written in pencil, is to be found on the back plate [?on the inside] at the bottom: ‘Through the good offices of Léon Depret, bought from M. Dubosq, of Bordeaux, through the intermediary M. Emile Germain, in the year of our Lord 1890, 19 December, by Amédée Soil of Tournai.’ Bought, roxzx, 22 February 1911, by us, by Caressa & Français. This Guarneri Soil violin is ID 42723 on CzAr/Tarisio. For further instruments owned by M. Dubosq Lettré see JF55.2, p. 54 [L] and p. 97 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 182; EF/JF55.4, p. 182 1911: A. Soil, à Tournai Violon A. Stradivarius, 1714 Fond de 2 pièces, larges et belles ondes vives, en fougère, talon original; toute petite cheville, en bas, au joint, en dedans et touchant le filet; éclisses ondes vives, serrées, très-belles; table de 2 pièces, beau sapin régulier, serré au joint, plus large sur les bords; petites meurtrissures 269

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produites par les chanterelles en cassant, sous le cordier; coins du C droit et bord de ce C, meutris, usés par l’archet; ni coins, ni ½ bords remis; toute petite cassure à l’âme; côté gauche droit en bas, avec le sapin assez frotté, rayures à fleur; tête admirable, bien ondée, un peu usée aux arêtes en arrière de la volute; manche original, rehaussé; dans la mortaise P.S. incrustées; vernis rouge rose doré, qualité du Boissier;(a) violon admirable; taille 358mm; 2 inscriptions au crayon; l’une au-dessus de l’étiquette, l’autre sur le tasseau du bouton: A. Soil 1874 (ooxzx). Vendu à M r Oscar Bondy à Cologne Vienne 11.2.11: ioxzx. [JF55.2 only] Yehudi Menuhin. 1911: A Soil, from Tournai Antonio Stradivari violin, 1714 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are wide, beautiful, and bright, having a ‘fern’ [or ‘bracken’] appearance. The neck-foot is original. There is an extremely small locating dowel, at the bottom [of the back plate], on the [centre-] joint, on the inside of the purfling and touching it. The ribs have bright flames, tight/narrow, very beautiful. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful regular spruce; tight/narrow [?rings] at the joint, wider at the edges. There are small bruises underneath the tail-piece – caused by the strings breaking. The two corners of the treble-side C, and the edge of the C itself, have been bruised and worn by [the action of] the bow. The corners have not been re-made nor are there any half-edges; there is a tiny split at the sound-post. At the lower left right [of the front plate], where the spruce is fairly abraded, there are [longitudinal] scratches in the grain. The head is admirable, nicely flamed, slightly worn on the rear edges of the volute. Original neck, raised; in the [peg-box] cavity are the inlaid letters ‘P.S.’. The varnish is golden red-pink, the same quality as on the Boissier violin;(a) admirable violin; the body length is 358mm. Two inscriptions in pencil: one above the label, the other on the block at the end pin: ‘A. Soil 1874’ (ooxzx). Sold to M. Oscar Bondy, from Cologne Vienna, 11 February 1911: ioxzx. Yehudi Menuhin. (a)

The Boissier/Sarasate violin of 1713; see JF55.2, p. 146 [L].

This violin is the well-known Soil of 1714 (ID 1954 on CzAr/Tarisio). See www.thesoilviolin.uk for the present author’s detailed historical account which demonstrates that the ‘original’ neck of the Soil violin (displayed and so identified at the Museo del Violino in Cremona, Italy) is not the original.

***** JF55.2, p. 183; EF/JF55.4, p. 183 M r le Colonel Maître, à Sedan Violon Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, 1735, vraie étiquette Fond d’une pièce, 355mm, à contresens bois moiré, petites ondes droites, assez vives; petits trous de vers dans le milieu du bas; éclisses pareilles au fond, celle du bas en une pièce; une longe cassure à droite, partant du sillet allant presque au coin; petite cassure à l’éclisse du C droit; table de 2p., sapin fin; trois cassures, l’une du bord en haut, à gauche, au sommet de l’f, et un autre du bas de la même f, allant au bord au menton; une petite du trou de l’f au bord; f très-typiques, longues et pointues; tête en bois uni, très-pure, fort belle; joue à droite partant de dessus le Mi, jusqu’au bas; vernis très-épais, gras, rouge vif, superbe partout où il est intact. ex d’Armaillé vendu en 1906: oxzxz. Colonel Maître repris en 1913, revendu à Albert Spalding, noxzx. 270

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M. le Colonel Maître, from Sedan Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1735, true label The back plate is in one piece, 355mm, cut against the grain; the wood is ‘watery’, small straight flames, fairly bright; small worm tracks in the middle of the lower bout. The ribs are similar to the back plate; the rib at the tail-piece end is in one piece; there is a long split on the right, starting from the [tail-piece] saddle and extending almost to the [C-bout] corner; there is a small split in the treble-side C-bout rib. The front plate is made from two pieces; thin [-width?] spruce. There are three splits: one from the upper-left edge as far as the top of the [bass] f; another from below the same f down to the edge at the chin; a third split from the hole [upper or lower?] of the f to the edge. The fs are very typical, long and pointed. The head is made from plain wood, very pure, really beautiful; there is a cheek patch on the right [of the peg-box] from above the E-string peg to the bottom. The varnish is very thick, oily, bright red, superb, especially where the violin is undamaged. ex [Comte] d’Armaillé Sold in 1906, oxzxz, Colonel Maître Re-acquired [by Caressa & Français?] in 1913, re-sold to Albert Spalding, noxzx. Albert Spalding (1888-1953) was an American violinist and composer. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of Albert Spalding is associated only with a Guarneri violin of 1743. This violin has a prominent knot in the upper-left of the front plate, a knot which is not mentioned in the descriptive text (above). The names of ‘Maître’, Armaillé’ and ‘Spalding’ are not mentioned by the Hills in their Guarnerifamily monograph (1931). No further information about this 1735 violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 184; EF/JF55.4, p. 184 Dr Wilhelm Kux, banquier à Vienne Antonius Stradivarius, 1719 (les 2 derniers chiffres refaits, doit être de 1729)(a) Fond de 2 pièces, belles ondes larges et douces, remontant vers les bords; bord du haut à la main remis; très-belles éclisses à ondes larges et vives; petite meutrisseure formant un point noir à l’éclisse opposée à celle de la main; table de 2p., sapin large sur les bords, trèsdépouillée de vernis, tout les bords refaits sauf au C gauche; 2 grandes cassures à l’f gauche; une allant au menton, l’autre le long de la barre jusqu’au bord du haut; belle tête usée à l’arrière, côté gauche, en regardant le fond; érable ondé, large et doux; vernis très-dépouillée, rouge brun doré, chaud; très-beau aux éclisses; taille 353mm. Ex Nathaniel de Rotschild à Vienne; lui a été acheté par Kux en 1908, pour 30,000 Kronen. Dr Wilhelm Kux, banker, from Vienna Antonio Stradivari [violin], 1719 (the last two numerals re-made; [the original numerals] must have been 1729).(a) The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful flames, wide, mild, rising towards the edges. The edge at the hand [upper-right] has been re-made. Very beautiful ribs with wide and bright flames; there is a small bruise, creating a black point, at the rib opposite the rib of the hand. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] wide at the edges; the varnish is very worn; all the edges have been re-made apart from that of the bass-side C-bout. There are two large splits at the bass f – one which reaches as far as the chin, the other along the bass-bar, extending to the upper edge. The beautiful head is worn at the rear, on the left side (when

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looking at the back plate); the maple is flamed, wide and mild. The varnish is very worn, golden red-brown, warm, very beautiful on the ribs. The body length is 353mm. ex Nathaniel Rothschild, from Vienna. [The violin] was bought from him by Kux in 1908 for 30,000 Kronen [Austrian krone]. (a)

it would seem that only the third numeral would have needed to be ‘re-made’.

This violin appears to be the Kux, Hesle, Rothschild, listed on CzAr/Tarisio as ID 43080. However, the website states that the violin is ‘labelled … 1713’ and the website photograph of the front plate does not reveal two large splits at the bass f-hole. The Hills (1902) identify Nathaniel Rothschild only in connection with a Stradivari cello label-dated 1710. Wilhelm Kux is not mentioned in the Hills’ monograph.

***** JF55.2, p. 185; EF/JF55.4, p. 185 Mai 1911: Ernest Jellinek, à Berlin W. Duntzelstrasse, 2, ou Guntzelstrasse Violon Antonius Stradivarius, 1707, fausse étiquette Fond d’une pièce, ondes plutôt serrées, assez vives descendant à droite; 5 trous de vers dans le bas, dont 1 en longueur, traversant le filet, et 2 petits ronds au-dessus; grande ligne mince, filet dans le bois, un peu à gauche, perpendiculaire, talon original; très-belles éclisses à ondes larges fort belles; celle du bouton d’une pièce; très-belle table en sapin, très-fin au joint, moyen sur les flancs, plus serré sur les bords; coins et bords originaux; pas de demi-bords; cassure à l’âme, petite pièce; belle tête bien ondée; trou du Mi rebouché; arête de gauche en haut légèrement usée: taille 354mm; très-beau vernis rouge clair doré, bien conservé partout sur beau fond jaune d’or: fort joli violon. Venant ex Baron de Schikler. May 1911: Ernest Jellinek, from Berlin W., Duntzelstrasse 2, or Guntzelstrasse Antonio Stradivari violin, 1707, false label The back plate is in one piece; the flames somewhat tight/narrow, fairly bright, descending to the right. There are five worm tracks in the lower bout, of which one is longitudinal, crossing the purfling, and [there are] two small round [holes] above; there is a long thin line, a ‘thread’ in the wood, slightly to the left, perpendicular. The neck-foot is original. Very beautiful ribs with wide flames, really beautiful; the rib of the end pin is in one piece. Very beautiful spruce front plate; [?the rings are] very thin at the centre-joint, medium at the flanks, tighter/narrower at the edges; the [C-bout] corners and the edges are original; no half edges. There is a split at the sound-post and a small patch. Beautiful head, nicely flamed; the E-string peg-hole has been bushed; the upper-left edge [of the scroll] has been slightly worn. The body length is 354mm. Very beautiful varnish, light golden red, well conserved, especially on top of the beautiful golden-yellow ‘undercoat’. A really attractive violin. ex Baron de Schikler. As with other instruments which are described as having false labels it is not clear whether the JF55.2 writer believed the violin itself was genuine but a false label had been glued inside, or whether the writer believed that both violin and label were false; it is not clear what evidence led the writer to decide that the label was false. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 186; EF/JF55.4, p. 186 Mai 1911: Ernest Jellinek, à Berlin W. Violon Antonius Stradivarius, étiquette 1722 (doit être de 1731 ou 1732) 272

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Fond de 2 pièces, ondes très-douces, larges et droites; talon original, surmonté d’une couronne d’ébène; éclisses ondes larges, un peu plus vives; celle du bas d’une pièce, entaille du sillet; table de 2 pièces, sapin large; pas de coins, ni de demi-bords remis; cassure à l’âme, pièce d’âme; petite cassure au-dessus du trou de l’f gauche, allant au bord; tête splendide, bien ondé, très-bien conservée; vernis rouge doré, un peu brun, mais admirablement conservé; taille 355mm: fort beau violon, petite tâche noire à droite, sur la table, en bas de l’f gauche. May 1911: Ernest Jellinek, from Berlin W. Antonio Stradivari violin, label 1722 (it must be from 1731 or 1732) The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are very mild, wide, and straight. The neckfoot is original, ringed with a crown of ebony. The ribs have wide flames, slightly brighter [than the flames on the back plate]; the rib at the bottom [at the tail-piece end pin] is in one piece, gashed at the saddle. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] wide; the corners have not been replaced, nor is there any half-edging. There is a split at the sound-post, with a patch; there is a small split above the ‘eye’ [upper or lower?] of the bass f, extending to the edge. The head is splendid, nicely flamed, very well conserved. The varnish is golden red, slightly brown, but wonderfully well conserved. The body length is 355mm. A really beautiful violin. There is a small black blemish to the right, on the front plate, below the bass [treble?] f. The name of Ernest Jellinek is not mentioned by the Hills in their 1902 Stradivari monograph. On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name is associated only with a 1736 Guarneri violin (ID 40422). No further information about this 1722/1731/1732 Stradivari violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 187; EF/JF55.4, p. 187 1911: M r Boutard, 27 quai de Tilsitt, à Lyon Violon Antonius Stradivarius, 1713 (étiquette originale), taille 354mm Fond de 2 pièces, ondes droites, moyennes, très vives, fond superbe; chevilles sur le tasseau du haut et du bas, au milieu du joint; belles éclisses, pareilles au bois du fond; celle à droite, en regardant la table, a des brisures en long, formant une tâche un peu noire; table de 2p., trèsbelle; sapin plutôt large; petite cassure au C droit vers le bas,(a) meutrisseures faites par le cordier; tête superbe, fraîche, arêtes conservées, bois bien ondé; trou du Mi rebouché; couronne d’ébène au talon original; vernis rouge vif splendide, très-bien conservé; vernis un peu gras et écaillé sur beau fond doré; pas de demi-bords, ni de coins remis; grand et beau violon. (ex M is de Chaponay) Offert rxzxz en 1911 – 18 Mai roxzx avec Ruggeri J. B. et 4 archets, F. N. Voirin, Vuillaume, Lupot, Tourte, écaille et or dans étui double maroquin velours bleu a aussi un alto de P. A. Testore 1740,(b) 38cms, bien conservé, estimé exz; puis violons de P. Silvestre Alto ancien allemand ordinaire Tourte, une copie. Estimé le 9-12-24 bttttt le Strad., bttt le P. H. Sylvestre, ottt le Tourte garni or, et ett le Tourte ainé argent. 1937, appartient à M me V ve Boutard. 273

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1911: M. Boutard, 27 quai de Tilsitt, Lyon Antonio Stradivari violin, 1713 (original label), length 354mm The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are straight, medium [width], very bright; the back plate is superb; there are locating pins in the upper and lower blocks, centred on the joint. Beautiful ribs, similar to the wood of the back plate; the rib on the right (looking at the front plate) has some longitudinal splits which create a black-ish blemish. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful; the spruce [?rings are] rather wide; there is a small split at the treble-side C extending towards the bottom;(a) there are bruises made by the tail-piece. The head is superb, fresh, the edges are undamaged, the wood nicely flamed; the E-string peg hole has been bushed; the original neck-foot is crowned in ebony. The varnish is bright red, splendid, very well conserved; the varnish is slightly oily and shell-like, on top of a beautiful golden ‘undercoat’. No half-edging, and the [C-bout] corners have not been re-made. A grand and beautiful violin. (ex Marquis de Chaponay) Offered rxzxz in May 1911 – 18 May. roxzx with J B Ruggeri [violin?] together with four bows – by F N Voirin, Vuillaume, Lupot, and Tourte, tortoiseshell and gold – in a double case of leather with blue velour. Also a viola by P A Testore, 1740,(b) 38cms, well conserved, estimated [value] exz; also violins of P Silvestre. The viola is an ordinary old German [instrument]. The Tourte [bow] is a copy. Estimated value, 9 December 1924, for the Stradivari [violin] is bttttt; bttt for the P H Sylvestre [violin]; ottt for the gold-mounted Tourte, and ett for the silver Tourte-the-elder[?] bow. 1937, [the 1713 Stradivari] owned by the widow Mme. Boutard. (a)

At this point the writer includes a small sketch of the front-plate treble-side C-bout showing the line of a split which extends downwards into the lower bout; the sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4. (b)

the strike-through is not replicated in EF/JF55.4.

On the CzAr/Tarisio website a Stradivari violin identified as the ‘de Chaponay’ (ID 40291) is dated ‘1722’. The violin is associated with ‘Count de Chaponay’ between 1857 and 1876, and ‘Boutard from 1876’ but the associated photographs show the violin to have a one-piece back plate. The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 277) write: ‘The Count de Chaponay, who died in Lyons in 1877, was also an enthusiastic collector of fine instruments, and possessed several Stradivaris.’ On the (otherwise blank) verso of p. 187 in the EF/JF55.4 ledger is glued a small piece of notepaper on which is written:

Strad. Boutard Chargé Joannes Mègret Professeur au Conservatoire 11bis rue d’Enghien, Lyon, 2e De le surveiller et de rue freveuer[?] Octobre 1937 Lui ai vendu un Jo. Bapt. Rogerius, 1703, ssttt, repris un N. Gagliano, tête de Postiglione et un archet Lafleur pour anttt. Strad. Boutard The responsibility of Joannes Mègret Professor at the [Lyon?] Conservatoire 274

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

11bis rue d’Enghien, Lyon, 2e To look after it […?] October 1937 I [Emile Français?] have sold him a J. B. Rogeri [violin], 1703, ssttt, part-exchanged for a N. Gagliano [violin], the head made by Postiglione, together with a bow by Lafleur for anttt. ***** JF55.2, p. 188; EF/JF55.4, p. 188 1911: M r Simonetti, à Londres Violon Carlo Bergonzi, taille 351mm Fond 2 pièces, ondes vives, droites, moyennes, de toute beauté; le fond est chevillé sur les tasseaux, à gauche en haut, à droite en bas: éclisses à ondes très-larges, magnifiques, celle du bas d’une pièce; table de 2 pièces, sapin large, régulier, très-beau à l’œil; longue cassure à l’âme; belle tête, érable à jolies ondes, trous de chevilles rebouchés; petite gerçure en longueur dans la coulisse de gauche, derrière; la tête un peu maigre mais pure; vernis rouge vif, gras, splendide, plus noirci à la table. Violon robuste, mâle. Vaut aaxzx; l’a acheté hnxzx. 1911: M. Simonetti, from London Carlo Bergonzi violin, length 351mm The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are bright, straight, medium; of great beauty. The back plate is pinned to the blocks to the left [of the centre-joint] at the upper block and to the right at the lower block. The ribs have very wide flames, magnificent; the rib at the bottom is in one piece. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] wide, regular, very beautiful to the eye; there is a long split at the sound-post. Beautiful head, the maple having attractive flames; the peg-holes have been bushed; there is a small longitudinal split in the fluting on the left, at the rear; the head is slightly thin, but pure. The varnish is bright red, oily, splendid; blackened on the front plate. The violin is robust, manly. Worth aaxzx; bought for hnxzx. It was Achille Simonetti who played the Messiah violin as part of a lecture-concert given by Alfred Hill at the St. Mellitus Institute, Hanwell, Middlesex (UK) in October 1910; for the purposes of comparison Simonetti also played on a Messiah-copy violin (assumed to have been made in the Hills’ Hanwell workshops). See Chapter 10 of N Sackman, The ‘Messiah’ violin: a reliable history? (2015). On the CzAr/Tarisio website the name of Achille Simonetti (1857-1928) is associated only with a C F Landolfi violin of 1751 (ID 45174). No further information for the undated Bergonzi violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 189; EF/JF55.4, p. 189 1911: Marquise de Penette, mère de la Marquise de Belabre, 3 rue Hamelin, Paris sa fille est devenue Marquise de Fontarce, 3 rue Mollien. Violon de Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù à Crémone, 1737, étiquette vraie Fond d’une pièce à contresens, à ondes moirées, droites, douces et moyennes, d’un joli effet; talon remis; un petit trou noir de ver au coin du haut à droite, près du filet;(a) petites tâches et meurtrissures de trous de vers en bas à gauche; éclisses bien veinées, celle du bouton d’une seule pièce; aucune cassure; table de 2 pièces, sapin très-fin à droite, plus large à gauche, sans une cassure ni une pièce; f intactes, bien caractérisées mais plutôt élégantes; grosse cheville un peu à gauche du joint, près du sillet, sur le tasseau; belle tête, à ondes légères et fortes, piqûre 275

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

de ver sur la coulisse de droite, en regardant le fond; trous du Mi, du La, du Ré, rebouchés en partie, celui du Sol intact; très-beau vernis orange doré, très-transparent, un peu sec; plus brun et craquelé à la tête; taille 353mm. Rodmann Wanamaker Acheté par le grand-père de M elle de Belabre (M r Alphonse Vicomte de la Panette) à Vuillaume en 1847 pour raxz; offert en Juillet 1911: rxzxz. Acheté par nous en 1926 lttttt, vendu à J. Wanamacker, mltttt Toute la collection Wanamacker a été rachetée à sa mort par Wurlitzer M me de Fontarce, 3 rue Mollien. 1911: Marquise de Panette, mother of Marquise de Belabre, 3 rue Hamelin, Paris, her daughter subsequently Marquise de Fontarce, 3 rue Mollien [Paris]. Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, Cremona, 1737, true label The back plate is in one piece, cut against the grain, having watery flames, straight, mild and medium, and of attractive appearance. Modified neck-foot. There is a small black worm hole at the upper corner of the right-hand C, near the purfling;(a) small blemishes and bruises created by worm tracks in the lower-left. The ribs are nicely flamed; the rib at the end pin is in one piece; without splits. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin on the treble side, wider on the bass side; not a split nor a patch anywhere. The fs are intact, with the usual characteristics, but [in this case] rather elegant. There is a large locating dowel slightly to the left of the centre-joint, near the [tail-piece] saddle, on the [lower] block. Beautiful head, having flames which are light and strong[?]; there is a pin-prick worm hole on the right-side fluting (when viewing the violin from the back); the holes for the E-, A-, and Dstring pegs have been partially bushed [?bushed on just one side of the peg-box]; the hole for the G-peg is untouched. Very beautiful varnish, golden orange, very transparent, slightly dry; [the varnish is] more brown and crackled on the head. The body length is 353mm. Rodman Wanamaker Bought by the grandfather of Mlle. de Belabre (M. Alphonse, Vicomte de la Panette) from Vuillaume, in 1847, for raxz; offered [?for sale] in July 1911: rxzxz. Bought by us [Caressa] in 1926, lttttt, sold to J. Wanamaker, mltttt The entire Wanamaker collection was bought at his death by Wurlitzer Mme. de Fontarce, 3 rue Mollien. (a)

At this point the writer has drawn a small sketch of the back-plate right-hand C showing the position of the small hole – just below the upper corner as the C-bout edge curves inwards; the sketch is replicated in EF/JF55.4. This Panette violin is discussed in Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 71, and Vol. Two, p. 67. The price paid for the violin, in 1847, by the Vicomte de la Panette, is specified (ibid., Vol. One, p. 71) as 3,200 francs.

***** JF55.2, p. 190; EF/JF55.4, pp. 190-191 1911 (13 Septembre): M r Chatelanat, à Nyon (Canton de Vaud) en Suisse J h Guarnerius del Gesù, à Crémone, année 17..2, le chiffre après le 7 est effacé; Fond d’une pièce à larges ondes vives, allant vers la gauche en descendant légèrement; chevillé sur les 2 tasseaux; talon original avec couronne ébène; les bords du bas usés en biseau léger; dans le bas, près du bord, à droite, une meurtrissure petite, en rond;(a) éclisses pareilles au fond, très-bien conservées, celle du bas d’une seule pièce; table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, ondulé; les bords en partie refaits, depuis le milieu du haut, au milieu du bas, de chaque côté, 276

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

et aux 4 coins; f abîmées; celle de gauche écornée sur l’arête à gauche; celle de droite, a les arêtes arrondies et meurtries, partout: les f sont longues, bien caractérisées; cassure à gauche, mal réparée, au dessous de l’f, allant au menton; cassure d’âme, petite pièce mal mise, trèsbelle tête, bien ondée; trous du Mi rebouchés; les arêtes un peu usées; vernis très-dépouillé au fond; jaune doré au dépouillage; tâches rouge cerise vif dans le haut; vernis magnifique rouge gras, craquelé aux éclisses; rouge clair doré à la tête; fatigué, noirâtre, sale à la table; on a passé du vernis blanc à droite où il a été joué; taille 355mm. Acheté 24,000 f M r Jean-Jacques Mercier de Molin, Ave de Rumine à Lausanne en 9bre 1911. Acheté en 1805 en Italie par l’aïeul Chatelanat, offert axzxz le 12 Sept 1911 à Nyon et promis rxzx à oxzx, selon vente à Vidoudez. 1911 (13 September): M. Chatelanat, from Nyon (Canton of Vaud), Switzerland. Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, Cremona, 17..2, the number after the 7 has been erased. The back plate is in one piece; wide bright flames which gently descend [from right] to left; [the back plate] is pinned onto both [upper and lower] blocks. The neck-foot is original, with an ebony crown. The edges at the bottom have been slightly bevelled through wear; at the bottom, near the edge, on the right, there is a small circular bruise.(a) The ribs are made of similar wood to the back plate, very well conserved; the rib at the bottom is in one piece. The front plate is made from two pieces; thin spruce; undulating; the edges have been partly re-made – from the middle of the upper bout to the middle of the lower bout, on each side, and at the four corners. The fs have been damaged; the bass side f has been chipped on the left edge; the f on the treble side has had its edges rounded off and bruised, everywhere; the fs are long, very characteristic. There is a split on the left, badly repaired, below the f and extending to the chin; there is a split at the soundpost with a small badly-fitted patch. The head is very beautiful, nicely flamed; the [two] holes for the E-string peg have been bushed; the edges [of the scroll] have been slightly worn. The varnish is very worn on the back plate, golden yellow in the worn areas; there are bright cherry-red stains in the upper part; the varnish is magnificent, oily red, crackled on the ribs; light golden red at the head; ‘tired’, blackened, dirty on the front plate; white varnish applied on the right [treble side] where it has been played. The body length is 355mm. Bought for 24,000 francs by M. Jean-Jacques Mercier de Molin, Avenue de Rumine, Lausanne, in November 1911. Bought in 1805 in Italy by the grandfather Chatelanat; offered axzxz on 12 September 1911 to [M. Chatelanat at] Nyon, and promised between rxzx and oxzx according to the sale to Vidoudez. (a)

At this point the JF55.2 writer has drawn a diagram of the right-of-centre bottom edge of the violin’s back plate, showing the location of the circular bruise; the drawing is replicated in EF/JF55.4. For Jean-Jacques Mercier de Molin see also JF55.2, p. 95 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 191; EF/JF55.4, p. 191 [L] 1911: Monasterio, à Madrid, 11, Calle Maldonado Violon A. Stradivarius, 1708 (étiquette originale) Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes droites, vernis dans le haut rouge foncé, le bas complètement dépouillé, donne l’impression d’un petit violon; longueur 353mm; largeur du bas 21cms; éclisses ondes douces mais larges, chatoyantes, bien conservées, fort belles et avec un vernis plus doré, plus transparent que sur le fond; table de 2 pièces, sapin régulier, assez défraichie, 277

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

pas mal de cassures; grande pièce d’âme; tête fort belle; un côté très-usé; peu de vernis seulement dans les coulisses et sur les côtés (acheté amxzx X bre 1911) a été donné à Monasterio par le Duc San-Lorenzo Vendu Hamma, Janvier 1912 (mxzxz) Repris Hamma Mars 1911, mxzxz Vendu Hart le 27-1-13, rooxz Vendu Hart le 27-1-33, rooxz. 1911: Monasterio, from Madrid; 11, Calle Maldonado Antonio Stradivari violin, 1708 (original label) The back plate is in one piece; small straight flames; the varnish in the upper part is dark red; the lower part is completely bare [of varnish], giving the impression that it is a small violin. The body-length is 353mm and the [maximum] width of the lower bout is 21cms. The flames of the ribs are mild but wide, shimmering, well conserved, really beautiful, and with a more golden varnish – more transparent than on the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces; regular [-width?] spruce, quite faded, quite a lot of splits; there is a large patch at the sound-post. The head is really beautiful; one side is very worn; barely any varnish [remains], only in the flutings [of the scroll] and on the sides; (bought [by Caressa & Français?], amxzx, in December 1911). [The violin] was given to Monasterio by the Duc San-Lorenzo Sold [to?] Hamma, January 1912 (mxzxz) Re-acquired [?by Caressa & Français from] Hamma, March 1911 [1912?], mxzxz Sold [to George (II)] Hart, 27 January 1913, rooxz Sold [to George (II)] Hart, 27 January 1933, rooxz. The final EF/JF55.4 annotation – indicating a date of sale to Hart in 1933 rather than 1913 – is likely an inadvertent error. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 221) identifies a ‘1719 Monasterio’ violin, named after the Spanish violinist Jesús de Monasterio y Agüeros (1836-1903). Doring states that the violin subsequently passed to George Hart: The instrument is one of the notably fine works of the period, in impeccable condition and with a fine covering of varnish of richest texture and of a brilliant red colour. Doring’s comments about the violin’s condition and varnish – derived from his personal examination of the violin – sit against the JF55.2 text of 1911. If Doring’s violin and the JF55.2 violin are the same instrument then there is no obvious explanation why the ‘original label’ of 1708 should be re-specified as 1719. The Monasterio violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41486, dated 1719.

***** JF55.2, p. 192 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 192 [U] 1912: Cubertson [Culbertson] Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, 1732 See JF55.2, p. 66 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 192 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 192 [L] 1912: M r Emmanuel Moor, à Lausanne Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, 1734 278

Jacques Francais Rare Violins Inc.: the sales ledgers, 1845-1938

Fond d’une pièce, ondes larges, douces, descendant à gauche; talon remis; bois très dépouillé; un peu de vernis orange clair sur le bord des C; plus à gauche qu’à droite; éclisses ondes larges, assez vives; très-dépouillées de vernis: belle table en 2 pièces; sapin large à gauche, plus fin à droite; à gauche, en haut, entre la touche et le bord, un pointillé de points noirs, légèrement incurvé ayant 55mm: très-usée de vernis; vernis refait sous le chevalet, pièce d’âme et doublure en longueur, le long de la barre; tête avec joues de chaque côté, le cul de poule très-usé; taille 350mm. 1912: M. Emmanuel Moor, from Lausanne Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1734 The back plate is in one piece; the flames are wide and mild, descending to the left. Modified neck-foot. The [back plate] wood is very bare; only a little varnish is left – light orange – at the edge of the Cs; more on the left than on the right. The ribs have wide flames, fairly bright; the varnish is very worn. Beautiful front plate made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] wide on the left [bass side], thinner on the right [treble side]; on the left, in the upper bout, between the fingerboard and the edge, there is a dotted line – black dots – slightly curving, 55mm [in length]; [the front plate] varnish is very worn; the varnish has been renewed under the bridge; there is a patch at the sound-post and a longitudinal doubling, along the bass-bar. The head has cheek patches on each side; the ‘hen’s tail’ is very worn. The body length is 350mm. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 193; EF/JF55.4, p. 193 1912: Walter, ex prof r du Roi de Bavière Stradivarius, 1720 Très-beau fond d’une pièce, à belles ondes transversales, moyennes, très-vives, descendant à gauche; talon remis; place de l’âme, petite éraillure qu’on croirait une cassure; très-belles éclisses, pareilles au fond, bien conservées; très-belle table de 2 pièces, sapin serré, fin régulier; pièce d’estomac; cassures à l’âme et une du bas de l’f droite au bord; tête magnifique, bien ondée, pas usée; vernis rouge chaud doré, bien dépouillé: taille 36cms: donné à Walter par le roi Louis II de Bavière; acheté à la famille par Hill en 1911: raoxz Marks; repris par Hamma pour moxzx. 1922 – J. L. Courvoisier en dépôt chez C.F. Vendu à Vidoudez aaoxzx pour un client. 1912: Walter, ex professor to the King of Bavaria Antonio Stradivari violin, 1720 Very beautiful back plate in one piece, having beautiful transversal flames, medium, very bright, descending [from right] to left. Modified neck-foot. At the position of the sound-post [on the back plate?] there is a small scratch which one might think was a split. Very beautiful ribs, similar to the back plate, well conserved. A very beautiful front plate made from two pieces; tight/narrow spruce, uniformly thin [?consistently narrow rings]; there is a patch at the chest; there are splits at the sound-post and one from the bottom of the treble f to the edge. The head is magnificent, nicely flamed, not worn. The varnish is a warm golden red, attractively worn. The body length is 36cms. Presented to Walter by King Louis [Ludwig] II of Bavaria; bought from the family by Hill in 1911 for raoxz Marks; re-acquired by Hamma for moxzx [Marks]. 1922 – J. L. Courvoisier, on deposit at Caressa & Français [Albert Caressa?] 279

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Sold to Vidoudez, aaoxzx, for a client. Benno Walter (1847-1901) was a distinguished German violinist. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 222) describes this violin and provides photographs. The violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41488 where the sequence and dating of ownership, in some respects, sits against the information provided by the descriptive text.

***** JF55.2, p. 194; EF/JF55.4, p. 194 1904: Röntgen, à Amsterdam Violon Stradivarius, 1717 The descriptive text for this violin is identical to that of an earlier entry (JF55.2, p. 150; EF/JF55.4, p. 150) apart from the final line (in both ledgers) where the violin’s estimated value – previously specified as ‘aoxzx’ – is now replaced with ‘£1,000’ (equivalent to 25,000 francs). See the Notes for an explanation of the price codes. It is unclear why a descriptive entry dated 1904 should appear inbetween entries dating from 1912 and 1913.

***** JF55.2, p. 195 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 195 [U] 1913: Hubermann, à Vienne Stradivarius, 1713 Fond de 2 pièces, à larges ondes droites, donne l’impression d’une belle copie du Messie par Vuillaume; !! éclisses pareilles; belle table de 2 pièces, a une doublure d’estomac, 2 cassures, estomac; tête splendide, (revernie); taille 356mm: vernis rouge neuf, rouge vif, magnifique comme celui de Vuillaume. Payé en 1911, ioxzx, chez Hill ex Gibson (possède aussi plusieurs archets Tourte jeune – très beaux) 1936 – lui à été volé aux U. S. A. 1913: Hubermann, from Vienna [Antonio] Stradivari [violin], 1713 The back plate is made from two pieces, having wide straight flames, giving the impression of a beautiful copy of the ‘Messie’ [violin] by Vuillaume; !! The ribs are similar [to the back plate]. The beautiful front plate is made from two pieces, with a doubling of the chest, with two splits in the chest. The head is splendid (revarnished). The body length is 356mm. The varnish is red, new, bright red, magnificent, like that of Vuillaume. Bought in 1911, ioxzx, from Hill ex Gibson (who also possessed several bows by Tourte the younger – very beautiful) 1936 – it has been stolen in the USA. A more detailed description of Bronislaw Huberman’s 1713 Stradivari violin, written in 1931, appears at JF55.2, pp. 212-213; EF/JF55.4, pp. 212-213:

1931 Juillet: Huberman Bronislaw Violon A. Stradivarius, anno 1713, le dernier chiffre a été retouché, l’étiquette est trouée sous les deux derniers chiffres. Fond de 2 pièces en bel érable, ondes moyennes vives, irrégulières remontant vers les bords, dans le partie supérieure des C dans la gorge un petit nœud moucheté formant chenille, coupé

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dans le C gauche par le filet. Vernis magnifique rouge cerise transparent sur fond doré parfaitement conservé et abondant, talon original ayant été recollé, couronne en ébène. Table de deux pièces en beau sapin à pores fins au centre, s’élargissant vers les bords, morceau de ½ bord dans le C droit, un tout petit à la main, 3 coins refaits, cassure partant du coin gauche en bas descendant jusqu’à la mentonnière, 3 cassures à l’âme, fracture sur la barre partant de l’f montant jusqu’au filet parallèle à celle-ci, une fracture partant du bord longue de 5cms, petites cassures sous le cordier, partant du sillet faites en détablant l’instrument, grand estomac, parchemin intérieur autour des f. Vernis identique à celui du fond retouché à l’estomac et sur les fractures, ailleurs piqueté de points noirs. Eclisses en érable assorté à celui du fond ondes plus régulières, une cassure à l’éclisse du haut, côté gauche, un petit morceau chaque côté du manche à l’enclavement, vernis magnifique, peu dépouillé. Tête en érable à ondes douces, jolie volute fine, cul de poule usé, reformé avec de la gomme laque, 2 pièces au cheviller à hauteur du Sol, tous les trous de chevilles rebouchés. Vernis retouché en partie. Ecart des ff 17 lignes, Taille 355mm. Magnifique instrument, un peu corseté, grande sonorité. Ex Gibson – Huberman en demande $ otttt en 1931. 1931 July: Bronislaw Huberman Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1713, the last numeral has been re-touched; a section of the label, underneath the last two numerals, is missing. [?the last two numerals are inked onto bare wood] The back plate is made from two pieces of beautiful maple; the flames are medium, bright, irregularly rising to the edges. In the upper part of the Cs, in the ‘channel’, there is a small knot, speckled, looking like a caterpillar, cut in the left-side C, by the purfling. The varnish is magnificent, cherry-red, transparent, on a golden base [undercoat]; perfect conservation and generously applied. The neck-foot is original but has been re-attached; crowned in ebony. The front plate is made from two pieces of beautiful spruce, with thin pores in the centre, widening towards the edges. There is very small piece of half-edging in the right-side [trebleside] C, another tiny piece in the plate edge at the hand. Three of the C-bout corners have been re-made; there is a split starting from the lower corner of the left-side [bass-side] C, descending as far as the chin; there are three splits at the sound-post and a split above the bass-bar, starting from the f and extending as far as the point where the purfling is parallel to the split; there is a split starting from the edge, 5cms in length; there are small splits underneath the tail-piece which start at the saddle, [the splits created] during the dismantling of the instrument; large stomach; [pieces of] parchment glued internally, around the fs. The varnish is identical to that used on the back plate; it has been re-touched on the stomach and where there are splits in the wood; elsewhere there are black dots – like pin-pricks – in the varnish. The ribs are made from maple which matches that used on the back plate [but] the flames are more regular; there is a split in the rib of the upper-left bout and a tiny patch on each side of the neck at the neck foot; magnificent varnish, slightly worn. The head is made from maple, with mild flames; attractive scroll; the ‘hen’s tail’ is worn, recovered with gum lacquer [shellac?]; there are two patches in the peg-box above the G-string peg; all the peg holes have been bushed; the varnish [of the head] has been re-touched in places. The distance between the upper ‘eyes’ of the fs is 17 lignes [38.4mm]. The body-length is 355mm. Magnificent instrument, slightly ‘constricted’ [?the tone does not flow freely]; powerful sonority. ex Gibson; Huberman is asking otttt dollars, in 1931. 281

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The 1713 Gibson/Huberman violin is ID 40147 on the CzAr/Tarisio website. For Bronislaw Huberman see also JF55.2, p. 73 [L]. High quality photographs and a detailed historical narrative are provided in Thöne (Vol. III, pp. 92-99); measurements provided by Thöne specify the body length of the violin to be 354mm; the dimension between the upper eyes of the fs is specified as 37.5mm. According to Thöne the violin’s original label shows the date of 1708. The 1913 reference to the Le Messie (Messiah) violin and to Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume – and the adjacent exclamation marks which are found in the EF/JF55.4 ledger – are curious (as is the comparison between the violin’s varnish and that which was used by Vuillaume). The 1931 comment: ‘The varnish is magnificent, cherry-red, transparent, on a golden base, perfect conservation and generously applied’ does not seem to be applicable to the violin as photographed by Thöne.

***** JF55.2, p. 195 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 195 [L] Juin 1913: Marquis Spinola, chez l’avocat Tamanti, Via Spiga, 25, Milan Violon Stradivarius, 1685, modèle très-Amatisé Vernis jaune clair, 354mm; éclisses rehaussées de 1mm ½; tête avec joues incrustées. Vaut hoxzx, C on Bisiach comprise: 1937: Exposition Crémone, no. 58 catalogue – daté 1692; cheviller refait, volute lourde – table plus tard d’époque – en demande ottttt Lire, vaut altttt. June 1913: Marquis Spinola, at the house of the lawyer Tamanti, Via Spiga, 25, Milan Antonio Stradivari violin, 1685, the model is very Amatisé The varnish is light yellow; [the body length is] 354mm; the ribs [have been] raised by 1.5mm; the head has inlaid cheek patches. Worth hoxzx, the commission to Bisiach included. 1937: the Cremona Exhibition, number 58 in the catalogue; dated 1692. The peg-box has been re-made, the volute is heavy; the front plate is from a later period – a price of ottttt Lire asked; worth altttt [Lire?]. Leandro Bisiach (1864-1945) was an Italian violin maker. This violin, according to the information provided on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 44558), was lost during World War II but then discovered during the 1970s.

***** JF55.2, p. 196; EF/JF55.4, p. 196 Juin 1913: C sse Fontana, à Belgirate, près Stresa, au lac Majeur Violon A. Stradivarius, 1702 Fond d’une pièce, bois uni à contresens: éclisses ondées splendides; pièce mise au bouton de 3cms de chaque côté, et même pièce sous le cordier, au sillet: table de 2 pièces, sapin trèsserré; cassures à droite légèrement revernie: vernis rouge doré transparent, très-beau. Tête italienne de Postacchini (a) ayant été cassée, réparée par Bisiach, taille 355mm. Offert avec le violon J h Guarnerius filius Andreas 1705, fond de 2 pièces; cassures en biais à gauche en haut; très-beau vernis rouge vif doré; axzxz, avec 10% C on à Bisiach. 1930 appartiennent à Robert Foltzer de Gênes, achetés en 1925, 1905, 100,000 Lire à la C esse. June 1913: Comtesse Fontana, from Belgirate, near Stresa, Lago Maggiore Antonio Stradivari violin, 1702 The back plate is in one piece, the plain wood cut against the grain. The ribs have splendid flames; there is a patch inserted [in the rib] at the end pin, extending 3cms on each side, and the 282

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same patch [extends?] under the tail-piece, at the saddle. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow; there are splits to the right, lightly revarnished. The varnish is golden red, transparent, very beautiful. The head is Italian, made by Postacchini,(a) having been broken, repaired by Bisiach. The body length is 355mm. Offered [for sale?] together with a Giuseppe Guarneri filius Andreæ violin, 1705. The back plate is in two pieces. There are oblique splits on the left of the upper bout. Very beautiful varnish; bright golden red; [bought for?] axzxz with 10% commission to Bisiach. 1930 [both instruments?] owned by Robert Foltzer, of Genoa; bought in 1925, 1905, from the Countess, for 100,000 Lire. (a)

In the EF/JF55.4 ledger it is only the words de Postacchini which are crossed through; Andrea Postacchini was born in 1788 and died in 1862. The Conte de Fontana violin is identified as the concert instrument used for many years by David Oistrakh. A comprehensive study of the violin’s history, construction, certification, and tonal qualities can be read at http://www.naxosmusiclibrary.com/sharedfiles/booklets/dyc/booklet-cds389.pdf (accessed July 2016). This source includes the information that it was Leandro Bisiach who, at an unknown date, sold the 1702 Stradivari violin to the Conte di Fontana. The Count apparently sold the violin to Camillo Foltzer who, in turn, sold the violin to the Paris dealer Marcel Vatelot (1884-1970) and it was Vatelot who sold the violin to David Oistrakh. The internet source reproduces a typed statement made by the Hills in September 1963: Stradivari violin dated 1702, in the possession of Mr. David Oistrakh. Purchased by Count Fontana in 1870 from Ferrari, the Milanese violinist of repute, who had possessed it many years. Seen by our late Partner, Mr. Alfred Hill [d. 1940], in May, 1899, then in the possession of an Italian amateur (Foltzer of Genoa) who had acquired the instrument from the Count per the intermediary of Bisiach. In recent times it came into the possession of Monsieur Vatelot of Paris. The internet source also reproduces a certificate issued by the Hills (November 1925) to ‘Sig. Roberto Foltzer’, the certificate including photographs of the front plate and back plate of the Fontana violin. The back-plate flames are identical to those which appear on a CzAr/Tarisio website photograph (ID 40706). The internet source also includes a photograph of David Oistrakh sitting on a chair and tuning the strings of a violin; the upright back plate of the violin is facing the camera. The photograph is captioned David Oistrakh with the “Conte de Fontana” but comparison between the back-plate flames of this violin and the flames which are photographed on the CzAr/Tarisio website (and in Thöne, Vol. II, pp. 176-183) indicates that the violin being tuned by Oistrakh is not the Conte de Fontana. None of the certificates – Hill (1925), Marcel Vatelot (1959), Etienne Vatelot (1967), Sacconi (1978) – makes any mention of the 3-centimetre patch inserted around the violin’s end-pin, or a patch at the saddle underneath the tail-piece. The certificates from Vatelot and from Sacconi specify the front plate as being in one piece (similarly specified by Thöne (Vol. II, p. 176)).

***** JF55.2, p. 197; EF/JF55.4, p. 197 Février 1914: Monsieur Mylius, 90 Langegasse à Bâle Violon A. Stradivarius, 1700 Fond d’une pièce, très-belles ondes vives descendant à droite, petit nœud en biais dans le bas à droite; talon original; belles éclisses pareilles au fond; table de 2 pièces, sapin très-serré; trèsbelle tête, un peu usée sur les côtés, mais de belle allure; beau vernis rouge-orange clair; taille 355mm; acheté 21,000 f au landgrave de Hesse; violon venant de Laurie, puis de Gleichauf de Mulhouse. Vendu à Taft par Emil Heermann à Cincinnati Ohio en Mai 1915, mxzxz. February 1914: M. Mylius, 90 Langegasse, Basle 283

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Antonio Stradivari violin, 1700 The back plate is in one piece; very beautiful flames, bright, descending to the right; there is a small diagonal knot on the right of the lower bout. The neck-foot is original. Beautiful ribs, similar to the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow. The head is very beautiful, slightly worn on the sides but of beautiful appearance. Beautiful varnish – light red-orange. The body length is 355mm. Bought for 21,000 francs from the Landgrave of Hesse, the violin obtained from [David] Laurie; then to [Rudolf] Gleichauff of Mulhouse. Sold to Taft by Emil Heermann from Cincinnati, Ohio, in May 1915, mxzxz. The Landgrave of Hesse would appear to have been Frederick Charles Louis Constantine, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse (1868-1940). No further information about M. Mylius has been located. The violin passed from Caressa & Français to Wurlitzer (of New York) and then to Anna Sinton Taft (wife of Charles P Taft) who presented it, in 1915, to Emil Heermann, concertmaster of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra (the descriptive text, above, appears to have inadvertently reversed this transfer). Emil Heermann was the son of the violinist Hugo Heermann. The violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 40312; the associated photograph of the violin’s back plate reveals the short diagonal knot in the upper part of the lower bout, just to the right of where a centre-line would be. The same photograph also reveals that the back-plate button is not crowned. This Taft violin is variously dated 1700, 1702, or c.1700. For another violin sold by David Laurie to Rudolf Gleichauff see JF55.2, p. 85 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 198; EF/JF55.4, p. 198 1914: M r Charles Lebrun, 9 rue de l’Echelle Violon A. Stradivarius, 1712 (avec étiquette de réparation de Asentio à Madrid) Fond 2 pièces, belles ondes vives, larges, droites, le bord en bas très-usé; talon original; éclisses pareilles; celle de droite, en bas, en regardant la table, avec 2 petites pièces en lozange et une pièce carrée, table de 2 pièces, beau sapin large; grande cassure à l’âme et une autre du bas de l’f gauche au bord; ½ bords; tête lourde, bien ondée; vernis jaune doré rougeâtre, taille 355mm; acheté chez Chardon par Sighicelli en 1893, hoxzx ex-Paganini et de Boutillier Cédé à M r Otto Senn à Bâle en 1922 le 10 avril, pour hhxzxz (revernie par Vuillaume). 1914: M. Charles Lebrun, 9 rue de l’Echelle [Paris] Antonio Stradivari violin, 1712 (with a repair label of Asentio, from Madrid) The back plate is made from two pieces; beautiful bright flames, wide and straight; the [plate] edge at the bottom is very worn. The neck-foot is original. The ribs are similar [to the back plate]; the rib on the lower-right (when looking at the front plate) has two small lozenge-shaped patches and a square patch. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, wide [rings?]; there is a large crack at the sound-post and another below the bass f at the edge; half edges. The head is heavy [but] nicely flamed. The varnish is golden yellow – reddish. The body length is 355mm. [Bought from] Chardon by Sighicelli in 1893, hoxzx. ex Paganini and [ex] de Boutillier Made over to M. Otto Senn, from Basle, 10 April 1922, for hhxzxz (revarnished by Vuillaume). The identity of ‘de Boutillier’ is uncertain but may have been Comtesse Gabrielle-Pauline Bouthillier de Chavigny (c.1735-1822). The final decade of the Countess’s life would have overlapped with Paganini’s years

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of European fame and thus the transfer of a violin – perhaps as a gift – from the Countess to Paganni would be plausible. See also JF55.2, p. 72bis [L]. Joseph Chardon (of the firm Chanot & Chardon) was born in 1843 and died in 1930. Vincenzo Sighicelli (1830-1905) was an Italian violinist who taught in Paris from 1855. According to the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40228) the text of the repair label is Presviter Assensio cumpos…; it seems likely that Presviter is either badly written or has been mis-read, and should be Presbitero (priest) while cumpos… is likely to have been compostura (‘repaired’). Vicente Assensio (1730–c.1793) was employed at the Royal Court of Spain (Madrid) to maintain and repair the court’s string instruments.

***** JF55.2, p. 199 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 199 [U] 1870 Mai 21: Haller à St Petersbourg Violon A. Stradivarius, 1708 Beau fond; table très fendue, roxz Violoncelle Stradivarius, 1696 Beau bois, vernis jaune; fendu au fond; hxzxz. 1870, 21 May: Haller, from St. Petersburg Antonio Stradivari violin, 1708 Beautiful back plate; the front plate is extensively cracked, roxz. Antonio Stradivari cello, 1696 Beautiful wood, yellow varnish; broken in the back plate; hxzxz. It is unclear why these brief descriptive entries, dated 1870, should appear in the ledgers inbetween entries dating from 1914.

***** JF55.2, p. 199 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 199 [L] 1914, 17 Février: M r le D r de Rayssac, 21 rue de l’Alouette, à S t Mandé Violon A. Stradivarius, 1719 Fond de 2 pièces, larges ondes droites vives; cassure à droite formant chanteau: éclisses pareilles au fond; celle du menton remise, celle à la main brisée, très-abîmée, les autres fatiguées, petites pièces: table de 2 pièces, sapin moyen; nombreuses cassures; quart de table à gauche en bas; le violon a dû être brisé de ce côté-là: tête ayant 2 clavettes dans le milieu; usée: talon remplacé; lettres M.D, gravées dans le bas, dans les coulisses, vernis rouge vif, assez bien conservé. Vente Cail Avril 1890; oaxz, vendu par Germain. Le violon a été acheté par Samary à la vente Cail; dans une soirée il a été écrasé par un Américain, réparé, puis repris par Wimphen qui l’a repassé à Germain, puis vendu à de Rayssac pour hxoxz. A un J h Gagliano violon et un trio de Miremont: violon, alto, basse: offert aoxzx le 17.2.14 pour Gagliano et Stradivarius. 1914, 17 February: M. le Docteur de Rayssac, 21 rue de l’Alouette, St. Mandé [Paris] Antonio Stradivari violin, 1719 The back plate is made from two pieces; wide flames, straight, bright; a split on the right-hand side suggests a width-insert. The [wood of] the ribs is similar to that of the back plate; the rib at the chin has been re-made; the rib at the hand has been broken, badly damaged; the other [ribs] 285

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are ‘tired’, with small patches. The front plate is made from two pieces; medium [-width?] spruce; numerous splits in the lower-left quadrant of the front plate; the violin must have been broken on that side. The head having two ‘locking pins’ in the middle; worn. The neck-foot has been replaced; the letters M.D [Maucotel & Deschamp?] are engraved at the bottom, in the flutings. The varnish is bright red, fairly well conserved. At the Cail sale, April 1890, oaxz, sold by [Emile] Germain. The violin was bought by Samary at the Cail auction. During an evening party the violin was crushed by an American, repaired, then re-acquired by Wimphen who passed it back to Germain, who then sold it to de Rayssac for hxoxz. [?Rayssac also] possesses a Joseph [Giuseppe] Gagliano violin and a trio of instruments [made by?] [Claude-Augustin] Miremont – violin, viola, cello; [we?] offered aoxzx on 17 February 1914 for the Gagliano and the Stradivari [violins]. No further information for the 1719 Stradivari violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 200 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 200 [U] 1914: M r Legrand, 15 rue de Prony Violon A. Stradivarius, 1710 See JF55.2, p. 45 [L].

***** JF55.2, p. 200 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 200 [L] 1915: Wilson, à New York J h Guarnerius del Gesù, 1738 Fond d’une pièce, belles ondes moyennes, vives, descendant à gauche; 2 chevilles sur le tasseau du bas; talon remis; belles éclisses à larges ondes; large pièce d’ébène au bouton; table de 2 pièces, sapin large, pièce au coin droit en bas; belle tête un peu lourde, à larges ondes; vernis rouge, par petites tâches au fond et au éclisses, tout-à-fait disparu à la table et à la tête presque aussi: sans pièce d’âme; taille 354mm. Offert en Mai 1915, oxzx $ soit aoxzx (ex Fountain). 1915: Wilson, from New York Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1738 The back plate is in one piece; beautiful flames, medium, bright, descending to the left; two locating pins on the lower block. Modified neck-foot. Beautiful ribs with wide flames; there is a wide patch of ebony at the end pin. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] wide; with a patch at the lower [C-bout] corner on the treble side. Beautiful head, slightly heavy, having wide flames. The varnish is red, with small black marks on the back plate and on the ribs, these marks being entirely absent from the front plate and almost entirely absent from the head; no soundpost patch. The body length is 354mm. Offered in May 1915, oxzx dollars, equivalent to aoxzx [francs?]. ex Fountain. The name ‘Fountain’ is assumed to refer to Andrew Fountaine (c.1809-1872) of Narford Hall, Norfolk, whose extensive collection of artworks was dispersed in 1884; see also JF55.2, p. 10 [U].

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This violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 47065) as the Fountaine. The associated photographs confirm the description of the back plate flames, but the presence of two locating pins at the lower block is not discernible. There is no photograph of the tail-piece rib so the existence of a ‘wide patch of ebony’ cannot be confirmed. The photograph of the violin’s front plate suggests that almost all of the rings are very narrow; the treble-side C-bout lower-corner patch cannot be visually identified.

***** JF55.2, p. 201; EF/JF55.4, p. 201 1915: Wilson, à New York Violon Antonius Stradivarius, 1719 Fond de 2 pièces, ondes larges, douces, descendant légèrement vers les bords; bord à la main usé; très-belles éclisses, ondes larges, celle du bas d’un seul morceau; table de 2p., sapin large; longues cassures à l’âme, à la barre, aux f petites cassures; très-jolie tête, ondes larges; vernis rouge orange clair doré, très-frotté, perdu à la table; table doublée; taille 353mm, vaut hoxzx. Strad. 1698, joli fond de 2p., beau vernis orange; éclisses érable uni; table revernis, tête refait, vaut axzx. 1915: Wilson, from New York Antonio Stradivari violin, 1719 The back plate is made from two pieces; the flames are wide, mild, gently descending towards the edges; the plate-edge at the hand is worn. Very beautiful ribs, wide flames; the rib at the bottom is in one piece. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] wide; long splits at the sound-post and at the bass-bar; at the fs there are small splits. Very attractive head; wide flames. The varnish is golden red/light-orange; very abraded; the varnish has been lost from the front plate; the front plate has been doubled. The body length is 353mm. Worth hoxzx. [Antonio] Stradivari [violin?], 1698; attractive back plate made from two pieces with beautiful orange varnish. The ribs are made from plain maple-wood. The front plate has been revarnished. The head has been re-made. Worth axzx. No further information about these two instruments has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 202; EF/JF55.4, p. 202 1915: Havenmayer, à New York Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, 1737 (on l’appelle le King Joseph) ex Hauly Fond d’une pièce, splendide, à contresens; larges ondes vives; talon original; éclisses de toute beauté, à ondes très-vives, très-larges, celle du bas d’une seule pièce; table de 2 pièces, sapin large, régulier, magnifique, nuances de bois en longueur; à gauche, en bas, près de bord, tâches noires pareilles à des trous de vers, mêmes tâches plus petites, en haut à l’f droite; une des plus belles têtes de Guarnerius, bois à ondes larges: vernis orange ambré doré, splendide; taille 353mm; pièce d’âme, assez large en ovale. acheté en 1902 chez Lyon & Healy, 12,000 $, les vaut à acheter vu en Mai 1915. 1915: Havenmayer, from New York Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù, 1737 (the one which is called the ‘King Joseph’) ex Hauly

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The back plate is in one piece; splendid; cut against the grain; wide bright flames. Original neck-foot. The ribs are exceedingly beautiful, having flames which are very bright, very wide; the rib at the bottom is in one piece. The front plate is made from two pieces; wide spruce, regular, magnificent; longitudinal variations in the colour of the wood. To the left, at the bottom, near the edge, there are black blemishes which look like worm tracks; the same type of blemishes (but smaller) can be found above the treble f. One of the most beautiful heads made by Guarneri, the wood having wide flames. The varnish is golden orange-amber; splendid. The body length is 353mm. There is a patch at the sound-post, fairly large, in an oval shape. Bought in 1902 at Lyon & Healy, 12,000 dollars, a fair price[?], seen in May 1915. ‘Havenmayer’ is Horace Havemeyer (1886-1956). ‘Hauly’ is Royal Forest de Hawley (1834-1893). The firm of Lyon & Healy was based in Chicago. In 1904 the firm published a brochure – The Hawley Collection of Violins – prior to the dispersal of the collection. An extensive evaluation of the King Joseph violin appears in Chiesa et al. (1998), Vol. One, p. 65, where it is indicated that the head was made by Giuseppe Guarneri filius Andreæ.

***** JF55.2, p. 203; EF/JF55.4, p. 203 Sénateur Markevitch, à Petrograd Basse de A. Stradivarius, 1709 Fond de 2 pièces à larges ondes droites, fort belles, brisé à la place de l’âme, nombreux petits felipeaux, filipots, et tâche noirâtre, en longueur, mince; doublure d’estomac sur le fond; bord du bas usé, refait, talon remis; bouton de procession; éclisses pareilles au fond; brisées et doublées en partie; table de 2 pièces, sapin moyen, régulier, très-beau; quelques cassures; doublure en carré, du joint au bord, côté de l’âme; bords en partie refaits; très-belle tête en érable, larges ondes douces; trous rebouchés; vernis rouge orange doré, transparent, trèsbeau, très brun là où il reste: taille 750mm; n’a pas été recoupée du haut ni du bas, mais a dû être rétrécie. Porte sur l’f gauche, gravé en petit, S.M.; a appartenue au Comte Goudovitch, grand-oncle du Sénateur Markevitch, donné en cadeau à ce dernier en 1863, légué par le Sénateur à son fils Nicolas, acheté par nous en 8bre 1915 (rhxzx). La basse a mis 3 mois à venir de Petrograd à Paris, par Tornéa, Tronkje, Hul, Dunkerque. Vendu hxzxzx à M r Rateau, à Paris, en Février 1916. Courvoisier 1933, uttttt. Senator Markevitch, from Petrograd [St. Petersburg] Antonio Stradivari cello, 1709 The back plate is made from two pieces, with wide and straight flames; really beautiful; broken at the sound-post; numerous small covering pieces of wood, and a blackish stain, longitudinal, thin. There is a doubling of the chest area of the back plate; the lower edge is worn, re-made. Modified neck-foot. A [suspension-strap] button [projecting peg?]. The wood of the ribs is similar to that of the back plate; breaks and doublings in various places. The front plate is made from two pieces; medium [-width?] spruce, regular, very beautiful; some splits. There is a square-shaped doubling at the edge-joint by the side of the sound-post; the edges have been remade in places. Very beautiful head, made of maple, with wide and mild flames; the peg-holes have been bushed. The varnish is golden red-orange, transparent, very beautiful, very brown

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where it remains. The body length is 750mm. The cello has not been cut down [i.e. reduced in length] in the upper bout or in the lower bout but it has been reduced in width. At the bass f, there is a small engraving, the letters ‘S.M.’; [the cello] belonged to Count Goudovitch, great-uncle of Senator Markevitch; given as a present to the last-named in 1863; bequeathed by the Senator to his son Nicolas; bought by us in October 1915 (rhxzx). It took three months for the cello to travel from Petrograd to Paris, via Tornio [northern Finland], Trondheim [Norway], Hull [England], and Dunkerque [France]. Sold for hxzxzx to M. Rateau, from Paris, in February 1916. Courvoisier, 1933, uttttt. This cello appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41288, the Markevitch/Delphino. The website’s associated Notes refer to a description written by Il Conte Ignazio Alessandro Cozio di Salabue on 5 June 1816. Count Cozio’s manuscript is archived at the Biblioteca Statale di Cremona, Italy (BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 47, folio 32v; present author’s translation). 1 Piede = 324.84mm, 1 Pollice = 27.07mm, 1 Ponto = 2.26mm. The measurements of the violoncello of Antonio Stradivari, owned by Signor Professore Alessandro Delfini, known as ‘Brescianino’, of 1709, already listed in my Register […] [the measurements] made by using the ‘Foot of Paris’ [Piede di Pariggi] taken on the arching: The maximum width of the upper bout, including the borders 1 Piede, [0 Pollici], 92/3 Ponti = 346.6mm The minimum width of the C-bout, including the borders [0 Piede], 8 Pollici, 8½ Ponti = 235.7mm The maximum width of the lower bout, including the borders 1 Piede, 4 Pollici, 32/3 Ponti = 441.4mm The total length of the front plate, including the borders 2 Piede, 4 Pollici, 1½ Ponti = 761.3mm The length from the bridge (or the inside notches of the fs) as far as the upper border – towards the neck – is 1 Piede, 2 Pollici, 11 Ponti = 403.8mm [i.e. the ‘stop’ length]. The equivalent measurements of the Markevitch cello which are provided by David Rattray (2000), p. 82, are: 340.0mm, 228.0mm, 435.7mm, and 758.0mm; the ‘stop’ is specified as 400.0mm (likewise in Biddulph/Chaudière, p. 57). The three width measurements, when compared to Count Cozio’s measurements, confirm the descriptive text: the cello had been reduced in width. The measurements specified on the CzAr/Tarisio website are: 332mm, 218mm, 427.5mm, and 756mm. Photographic evidence (Rattray, pp. 82-85) does not reveal the engraved letters ‘S.M.’ near the bass f of the Markevitch cello; however, the plugged back-plate hole for a suspension-strap hook is clearly visible, level with the C-bout upper corners.

***** JF55.2, p. 204; EF/JF55.4, p. 204 Mai 1916: Madame de Boeck; 16 Chemin d’Eysives à Caudéran (Gironde) Violon Stradivarius, 1720, avec date grattée qui était de 1727 Fond’d’une pièce à belles ondes descendant à gauche, serrées et fines; très-belles éclisses, ondes plus larges qu’au fond: table de 2 pièces, beau sapin large sur les bords, fin au milieu: cassure à l’f droite allant au bord du bas; 2e petite cassure à droite de la 1ère: tête très-belle, un peu lourde. Vernis rouge feu, splendide; très-beau violon: taille 356mm; acheté par le frère, Dupuis, chez S. & M. en 1912: mxzxz, vient de chez Hill. 289

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On peut le payer ce prix-là: violon de J. B. Ruggeri vaut valeur rxzx Demander à M me Joseph Thibaud le nom de la sœur de Charles Dupuis, l’ancien propriétaire (M me Nelly … [no further text] Acheté en 1924 et revendu à Maucotel, baptisé le Titan (vendu à Prosper Maurel, 400,000 francs, en 1933, par Maucotel. This final line of the JF55.2 text is replaced with the following in EF/JF55.4:

Acheté par nous en 1923, hoxzxz, vendu à M.D. par l’intermédiaire de Friedmann, aexzxz, en 1923 – baptisé le Titan par Deschamp (le 2 de l’étiquette originale a été refait par moi, l’étiquette était trouée à cette place. 1933: vendu Prosper Maurel, 400,000 francs. May 1916: Madame de Boeck; 16 Chemin d’Eysives, Caudéran (Gironde) Antonio Stradivari violin, 1720, with the date – which was originally 1727 – abraded. The back plate is in one piece, with beautiful flames descending to the left; tight/narrow and thin. Very beautiful ribs, the flames wider than on the back plate. The front plate is made from two pieces; beautiful spruce, [?the rings are] wide at the edges, thin at the middle; there is a split at the treble f extending to the lower edge [of the front plate]; there is a second small split to the right of the first. Very beautiful head, slightly heavy. The varnish is fiery-red, splendid. A very beautiful violin; body length is 356mm. Bought by the brother – [Charles] Dupuis – from S[ilvestre] & M[aucotel] in 1912; mxzxz; [the violin] comes from the Hills [of London]. That price can be paid; violin of J B Ruggeri, worth, value, rxzx. Ask Mme. Joseph Thibaud for the name of the sister of Charles Dupuis, the original owner (Mme. Nelly … [no further text] Bought [by Albert Caressa?] in 1924 and re-sold to Maucotel; baptised the ‘Titan’ (sold to Prosper Maurel, 400,000 francs, in 1933, by Maucotel. Bought by us [Albert Caressa?] in 1923, hoxzxz, sold to Maucotel & Deschamp through the intermediary Friedmann, aexzxz, in 1923 – baptised the ‘Titan’ by Deschamp (the numeral ‘2’ of the original label has been re-made by me [Emile?]; there was a gap in the label at that place. 1933: sold to Prosper Maurel, 400,000 francs. [EF/JF55.4 only]

The EF/JF55.4 comment about the ‘re-making’ of the third numeral (‘2’) sits against the JF55.2 comment that the fourth numeral (‘7’) had been scratched out (yet the numeral was still identifiable) and replaced with a nought (‘0’). This violin may be that which is shown on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41154, the General Dupont/Grumiaux violin. The associated photographs show a one-piece back plate with narrow-ish flames descending steeply to the left, and a front plate with ring-widths which narrow towards the centre-joint; from the photograph it is impossible to confirm the existence of two splits in the lower-right quadrant. The names of Boeck and Dupuis are not mentioned on the website (which identifies the sale of the General Dupont/Grumiaux violin to ‘L Maurel’ in 1927 rather than to ‘P. Maurel’ in 1933). This Titan violin is not related to the Titian violin of 1715 (for which see JF55.2, p. 52 [U]). No further information for the Titan violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 205 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 205 [U] 1917: Baron Vita, à Lyon (ex Francisque Alday) J h Guarnerius del Gesù, à Crémone, année 1730 Fond de 2 pièces, très-belles ondes vives moyennes, descendant légèrement aux bords; éclisses fort belles, à larges ondes, celle du bouton en une seule pièce; table de 2 pièces, magnifique 290

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sapin serré, très-fin au joint; cassure du bas de l’f gauche au bord du menton; petite cassure même trou d’f au bord du C; petite cassure à la patte f droite; tête en bois dur, faisant paraître le vernis plus jaune, terreux; vernis rouge orange doré superbe; pas de pièce d’âme; taille 352mm; f un peu courtes. Vendu J. L. Courvoisier, banquier, 15 rue Richer, Paris, 1918, ioxzx Senn, Bâle. 1917: Baron Vita, from Lyon (ex Francisque Alday) [Violin by] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù, from Cremona, year 1730 The back plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful flames; bright, medium, descending gently to the edges. The ribs are really beautiful, with wide flames; the rib at the end-pin is in one piece. The front plate is made from two pieces; magnificent tight/narrow spruce, [?the rings are] very thin at the centre-joint. There is a split from the bottom of the bass-side f down to the edge of the chin; there is a small split from the same f to the edge of the C; there is [another] small split at the wing of the treble f. The head is made of hard wood, making the varnish seem more yellow, muddy. [Elsewhere] the varnish is golden red-orange; superb. There is no patch at the sound-post. The body length is 352mm; the fs are slightly short. Sold [to?] J L Courvoisier, banker, 15 rue Richer, Paris, 1918, ioxzx Senn, from Basle [Switzerland]. Francisque Alday (1800-1846) was a violinist. For ‘Baron Vitta’ see JF55.2, p. 214 [U]. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 205 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 205 [L] 1917: Prosper Maurel, à Paris, proprietaire du (Malt Kneipp) Violon Antonius Stradivarius, daté de 1708 (doit être de 1701 ou 1703) Fond d’une pièce, érable à belles ondes vives moyennes, serrées; éclisses à larges ondes vives; table de 2 pièces, sapin fin, régulier; jolie tête, fine, pure, érable à veines douces; vernis rouge vif très-usé; taille 355mm. ex-Impératrice de Russie, Griberski et Poniatowski nxzxz Juillet 1917 repris pour nroxz, vendu à Venise à M r Léo Guetta le 7-7-21 – uzxzx 1937 Exposition de Crémone, no 72 du catalogue ex Tsarine Elisabetta Petrowna. 1917: Prosper Maurel, from Paris, proprietor of the Malt Kneipp company [producers of malted milk] Antonio Stradivari violin, dated 1708 (must be from 1701 or 1703) The back plate is made in one piece, the maple having beautiful flames, bright, medium, tight/narrow. The ribs have wide bright flames. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] uniformly thin. Attractive head, slender, pure, the maple having mild flames. The varnish is bright red, heavily worn. The body length is 355mm. ex Empress of Russia, Griberski, and Poniatowski nxzxz [paid by Prosper Maurel?] in July 1917 Re-acquired for nroxz, sold to Venice, to M. Léo Guetta, 7 July 1921; uzxzx 1937 Cremona Exhibition, number 72 in the catalogue ex Tsarina Elisabetta Petrovna. 291

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This violin is ID 41340 on CzAr/Tarisio. A brief account of the violin appears in Henley (p. 47) and a much longer account in Thöne (Vol. II, p. 300).

***** JF55.2, p. 206; EF/JF55.4, p. 206 1920: M me Glückstadt, à Copenhague, 2 Christians borggade; à Paris, 42 Avenue Marceau Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, Crémone, 1734 (étiquette fausse) Fond d’une pièce, à petites ondes vives, serrées, descendant à gauche; 2 chevilles noires sur le tasseau du haut; une sur celui du bas. Eclisses à larges ondes douces, presqu’unies. Table de 2p.; sapin très-serré, surtout à droite; jolies f; celle de gauche, a le cran de droite plus ouvert; cassures à l’âme (doublure en œuf) et une petite du trou du bas, allant au bord du C; tête superbe à larges ondes, très-belle de facture; vernis orange clair doré, assez dépouillé, mais pur; taille 353mm, attribué hoxzxz comme valeur!! Vendu à de Berystann à Buenos-ayres en 1924, altttt. Acheté hoxzxz par nous à la mort de Glückstadt qui s’est suicidé après un Krach énorme (1922); vendu en 1924 à Bibanco de Beerinstayn à Buenos-Ayres qui l’a cédé à Gustavo Herter, calle 1348 Belgrano – Buenos-Ayres, lequel possède aussi le Strad – Huggins. de Berystayn, 1924, altttt. 1920: Mme. Glückstadt, from Copenhagen, 2 Christiansborggade; [when] in Paris – 42, Avenue Marceau. Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, Cremona, 1734 (false label) The back plate is in one piece, having small bright flames; tight/narrow; descending to the left. Two black locating pins at the upper block, one [pin] at the lower block. The ribs have flames which are wide and mild, almost plain. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very tight/narrow, especially on the right-hand [treble] side. Attractive fs; the bass f, at the inside ‘notch’, is more ‘open’; there are splits at the sound-post ([the wood] doubled with a oval patch) and there is a small [patch] at the lower hole [?of the treble f] extending to the edge of the C. The head is superb, with wide flames, beautiful workmanship. The varnish is golden light orange, fairly worn, but pure. The body length is 353mm. Its value is said to be hoxzxz!! [150,000 francs] Sold to de Berystann, from Buenos-Aires, in 1924, altttt. Bought by us [Albert Caressa?] for hoxzxz, at the death of Glückstadt – [she] committed suicide after the Stock Exchange crash of 1922. Sold in 1924 to Bibanco de Beerinstayn from Buenos-Aires; it then passed to Gustavo Herter, 1348 calle Belgrano, Buenos-Aires. He also owns the Huggins Stradivari [violin of 1708]. de Berystayn, 1924, altttt. As with similar descriptive entries, the expression étiquette fausse fails to clarify whether the writer was still certain that the violin was made by Guarneri del Gesù notwithstanding the falsity of the label, or whether the writer believed that neither label nor violin had any connection with del Gesù. ‘Gustavo Herten’ is identified on the CzAr/Tarisio website as the owner of the 1708 Huggins violin but there is no indication that he owned a Guarneri violin of 1734. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 207; EF/JF55.4, p. 207 1920: M me Mudocci, 139 B d S t Michel Violon de Antonius Stradivarius, 1703 292

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Modèle d’apparence large, un peu Amatisé encore; fond d’une pièce à très-larges ondes vives, descendantes à droite; petite tâche noire dans le milieu du fond, entre les deux coins du haut; talon original; veines noirâtres en longueur dans le bas; éclisses superbes, pareilles au fond, petit filetage au joint du bouton. Table d’une pièce, sapin large, mais très-fin sur les bords; à droite, en bas, sur le bord, petite tâche blanche ressemblant à un chanteau; grande cassure du bas de l’f droite [gauche?] allant au bord, à gauche du menton; grande tâche noirâtre perpendiculaire à gauche; tête splendide à larges ondes; vernis rose doré, très-beau, 355mm; (toute petite pièce d’âme ronde). Ex-violon de Ludwig Strauss de Londres (légué par lui à sa nièce M me Mudocci). 1920: Mme. Mudocci, 139 Boulevard St. Michel [Paris] Antonio Stradivari violin, 1703 The violin is of substantial appearance [but] still slightly Amatisé [in style]. The back plate is in one piece having very wide bright flames, descending to the right. There is a small black blemish in the middle of the back plate, between the two upper [C-bout] corners. The neck-foot is original. There are blackish longitudinal veins in the lower bout [of the back plate]. The ribs are superb, similar to the back plate; there is a small strip of purfling [inserted] at the end-pin joint. The front plate is in one piece; the spruce [?rings are] wide but very thin at the edges; to the lowerright, at the edge, there is a small white blemish which looks like a width-insert; there is a large split from the bottom of the treble [bass?] f to the edge, to the left of the chin. There is a large, perpendicular, blackish blemish to the left. The head is splendid, having wide flames. The varnish is golden-pink, very beautiful; 355mm; (a tiny round patch at the sound-post). ex Ludwig Strauss, of London (bequeathed by him to his niece, Mme. Mudocci). This violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41221, the Emiliani.

***** JF55.2, p. 208; EF/JF55.4, p. 208 1923: Tunsch, à Berlin, W 30 46 neue Winterfeldstrasse, associé avec Erich Lachmann, luthier, Tauentzienstrasse 8, Berlin W 50. Violon de Antonius Stradivarius, 1714 Fond d’une pièce, petites ondes vives et droites, assez irrégulières; éclisses en érable assez veinées, ondes larges plutôt douces; table de 2 pièces sapin fin, très-beau; 2 cassures parallèles du bas de l’f gauche au bord du menton; cassure à l’âme (pièce d’âme et demi-bords); l’f droite a été réparée sur l’arête côté du bord en haut;(a) jolie tête en érable à ondes douces; le derrière de la volute sur le côté gauche assez usé; joli vernis orange rouge doré, très clair (en plus jaune clair, Roi de Bavière) retouché à la table; taille 356mm; (ex-Fourchy, collectionneur parisian qui l’avait acheté chez Chardon) Vendu à Tunsch, haxzxz, le 24 Mars 1923 Baptisé par nous “Le Léonard de Vinci”, vendu par Lachmann à Seidel, virtuose à New York. 1923: Tunsch, from Berlin W 30 46 neue Winterfeldstrasse; partner with Eric Lachmann, luthier, Tauentzienstrasse 8, Berlin W 50. Antonio Stradivari violin, 1714 The back plate is in one piece; small flames, bright and straight, rather uneven. The maplewood ribs are fairly well veined, the flames wide and rather mild. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] thin, very beautiful; there are two parallel splits from below 293

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the bass-side f down to the edge of the chin; there is a split at the sound-post (a patch at the sound-post, and half edges); the treble-side f has been repaired along the edge which is adjacent to the edge [of the C].(a) Attractive head of maple having mild flames; the rear of the scroll on the left side [viewed from the rear?] is quite worn. Attractive varnish, golden orange-red, very light [in colour], (an even lighter yellow [than found on the] King of Bavaria violin); [the varnish] re-touched on the front plate. The body length is 356mm (ex Fourchy, the Parisian collector, who bought it from Chardon). Sold to Tunsch, haxzxz, 24 March 1923. Baptised by us the Leonardo da Vinci. Sold through Lachmann to [Toscha] Seidel, the New York virtuoso. (a)

At this point the JF55.2 writer has drawn a small sketch of part of the the treble f but the drawing is poor and difficult to interpret. A more precise drawing is provided in EF/JF55.4 which clearly shows the treble f with a small patch-repair to the right-hand side of the f, just above the outer ‘notch’. This violin is ID 40490 on the CzAr/Tarisio website where it is dated 1714 – ‘original label’ – and named the Da Vinci/Juif Errant. Jost Thöne (Vol. III, p. 116) identifies the same date and soubriquet, and his photographs confirm some of the descriptive detail (the repair to the treble-side f cannot be discerned). Thöne’s historical narrative includes the names of Chardon, Fourchy, Tunsch, Lachmann, and Seidel. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 169) dates his Da Vinci violin, following his personal inspection of the instrument, to 1712, as does Henley (Henley, p. 54) who also comments: ‘Purchased by Erich Lachmann from Caressa in 1924 […] subsequently sold to Toscha Seidel’. Henley (ibid., p. 58) also associates Toscha Seidel with a ‘De Vinci’ [sic] violin for which he specifies a date of 1714 and ownership by Toscha Seidel in 1930. Jost Thöne also identifies a ‘c.1725 da Vinci’ violin (Vol. IV, p. 104) which has a two-piece back plate and an unknown history.

***** JF55.2, p. 209; EF/JF55.4, p. 209 [a] 1925: de la Chesnaie, à Marseille Violon A. Stradivarius, 1687, amatisé Fond de 2 pièces à magnifiques ondes droits, vives et serrées; éclisses à ondes vives, larges, très-belles; celle du bouton d’une seule pièce; table de 2p., sapin régulier, plutôt fin, surtout au joint; pièce d’âme; 2 cassures à droite, de l’f au bord; tête en érable uni; renforcée intérieurement à droite; vernis rouge clair doré, très-beau; taille 353mm. Acheté en 1869 à Léon Reynier, 3,500 f Acheté par nous en 1925, ltttt Vendu en 1925, J. Wanamacker, N. Y., bmlttt, Wurlitzer Joseph [b] 1923: M me Samazeuilh à Bordeaux Violon Stradivarius, 1735, intact; vendu Elman Misha en 1923, aulttt (Theo Ysaye, atttt). [c] 1966 Janvier, il existe parait il un V on AS 1717 joué par Regis Pasquier [a] 1925: de la Chesnaie, from Marseille [Comte de Lachenais] Antonio Stradivari violin, 1687, Amatisé The back plate is made from two pieces, having magnificent straight flames; bright and tight/narrow. The ribs have bright flames, wide, very beautiful; the rib at the end pin is in one piece. The front plate is made from two pieces, regular spruce, [?the rings are] rather thin, especially at the joint; there is a patch at the sound-post; there are two splits to the right, from 294

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the f to the edge. The head is made from plain maple, reinforced internally [?inside the pegbox] on the right [on the treble side]. The varnish is light golden red, very beautiful. The body length is 353mm. Bought [by Comte de Lachenais?] in 1869 from Léon Reynier, 3,500 francs Bought by us [Albert Caressa?] in 1925, ltttt Sold in 1925, to J. Wanamaker, New York, bmlttt, Wurlitzer Joseph. [b] 1923: Mme. Samazeuilh, from Bordeaux Stradivari violin, 1735, intact; sold to Mischa Elman, in 1923, aulttt (Theo Ysaÿe, atttt). [c] January 1966; it seems that there is a 1717 Antonio Stradivari violin which is played by Regis Pasquier [born 1945]. [a] A Reynier/Comte de Chesnais violin is listed on the CzAr/Tarisio website (ID 40675) with the label-date specified as 1681; Ernest Doring (Doring, pp. 44-45) also dates the Reynier violin to 1681; Jost Thöne (Vol. I, pp. 120-127) identifies the Count de Lachenais/Reynier violin as 1681 and as having a body length of 353.5mm (front) and 354mm (back). The detail of the JF55.2 descriptive text is confirmed by the Thöne photographs, including the reinforcement of the treble wall of the pegbox. Although the date of 1687 is written entirely unambiguously in the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 ledgers it seems as if a mistake was made by Albert Caressa, the final ‘1’ on the violin’s label being mis-read as a ‘7’. However, William Henley (Henley, p. 25) identifies the Comte La Chesnale [sic] violin as dated 1687 and ‘acquired by R. Wanamaker of New York in 1925’. Walter Kolneder states (Kolneder, p. 139) that Léon Reynier (1833-1895) was presented with a 1681 Stradivari violin by Napoleon III (1808-1873); Henley (p. 21) makes the same claim and dates the presentation to 1847. [b] The Hills (Hill (1902), p. 89) list ‘Some of the most representative [late period] specimens known to us’ and include a violin of 1735 ‘owned by Mr. Hartmann’. In the 1909 second edition of their monograph the ownership is changed to ‘M. Samazeuilh’. The CzAr/Tarisio listing of the owners of the 1735 Elman/Hartmann/Samazeuilh violin (ID 40547) includes the Count de Chaponay, Arthur Martinus Hartmann, Madame J Samazeuilh, and Mischa Elman. The website quotes from a letter in which the violinist Mischa Elman states: The Stradivarius violin known as the ‘Count Chapponey’ dated 1735 has been in my possession since July 1923 and I have used it at all my concerts for two decades. I consider it one of the best Stradivarius instruments for tone quality and it is in an excellent state of preservation. It is unclear why, if Mischa Elman bought the 1735 ‘Count Chapponey’ violin in July 1923 (and used that violin for all his concerts for 20 years), he also bought a 1717 Stradivari violin from Albert Caressa in 1925 (paying 26,000 dollars for the instrument); see JF55.2, p. 28 [U]. Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 330) writes: 1735 ex HARTMANN, ex SAMAZEUILH. Although lacking confirmation of the present existence of this violin, it is included in this tabulation. A 1722 Stradivari de Chaponay violin is identified on CzAr/Tarisio (ID 40291); see also an ex-Chaponay violin of 1718 at JF55.2, p. 25 [U], and another ex-Chaponay violin, of 1713, at JF55.2, p. 187.

***** JF55.2, pp. 210-211; EF/JF55.4, pp. 210-211 1931, Juillet: Hamma à Stuttgart Violon Joseph Guarnerius del Gesu, 1733, ex Hamerlee, de Vienne, étiquette dont la première partie manque, très abimée, non originale. 295

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Fond d’une pièce en érable ondes vives moyennes descendant transversalement vers la droite, talon remis, filets fins, onglets courts, vernis très dépouillé, marbré rouge cerise sur fond doré très usé et frotté. Table de 2 pièces en sapin assez fin, très régulier, s’élargissant légèrement vers les bords, jolies f, pures, diapason des f normal, 2 coins du bas aux C refaits, petite cassure partant du sillet le long du cordier côté gauche longue de 3cm ½, une autre petite cassure 4cm ½ près du coin du haut au C droit. Pièce à l’enclavement du manche, rayure horizontale de 3 cms ½ sous le trou du bas de l’f droite allant jusqu’au filet, morceau de bord sur trois flancs; ½ bords partiels emplacement de tasseau en haut, tout petite morceau de bord à la mentonnière, le vernis plus foncée qu’au fond et aux éclisses, moustache brune, très dépouillé. Eclisses en érable à larges ondes très douces, celle du bas d’une seule pièce, le vernis rouge cerise aussi très dépouillé et marbré. Tête en érable, ondes vives plus serrées et plus fines que celles du fond, trou du Mi rebouché, forte usure sur l’arête extérieure côté droit à l’arrondi de la tête à la hauteur de la volute. Jolie tête pure et caracterisée, vernis mieux conservé que sur le reste de l’instrument. Taille 353mm faibles. Voûtes plates. Chez Fridolin qui en demande sltttt. 1931, July: Hamma, from Stuttgart Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1733, ex Hamerlee [Hämmerle?], of Vienna; the first part of the label is missing, badly damaged, not original. The back plate is in one piece of maple; the flames are bright, medium, descending across the plate to the right. The neck-foot has been modified. The purfling [of the back plate] is thin and the mitres are short; the varnish is very worn, marble-like, cherry-red on a golden ‘undercoat’, very worn and abraded. The front plate is made from two pieces of spruce; [?the rings are] quite thin [but] very consistent, widening slightly towards the edges. Attractive fs, pure; the ‘stop’ length is normal. The two lower corners of the C-bout [on the front plate?] have been re-made. There is a small split starting from the tail-piece saddle, alongside the tail-piece, on the left, 3.5cms in length; there is another small split 4.5cms [long] next to the treble C-bout upper corner. There is a patch where the neck is inserted, and a horizontal scratch, 3.5cms in length from underneath the lower hole of the treble f to the purfling. There is a very small edge-patch on three flanks. There are half-edges in places at the upper block and a very small patch at the edge of the chin. The varnish [on the front plate] is darker than on the back plate and the ribs; there is a brown moustache [?in the centre]; very worn. The ribs are made from maple with wide but very mild flames; the [end pin] rib is in one piece; the cherry red varnish is also very worn and ‘marbled’. The head is made from maple, the bright flames are tighter/narrower and thinner than those on the back plate; the E-peg hole has been bushed; [the head] is very worn on the right-hand edge [viewed from the front or the back?] on the upper curves of the scroll. Attractive head; pure, and characteristic; the varnish is better conserved than on the rest of the instrument. The body length is 353mm, barely. The [plate-] arching is flat. The violin is with Fridolin [Hamma] who wants sltttt for it. This violin is listed on the CzAr/Tarisio.com website (ID 47475) as the Hämmerle (named after Theodor Hämmerle (1859-1930) who was an Austrian industrialist). The website’s associated photographs confirm the left-to-right downward slope of the one-piece back-plate flames as well as the crowning of the neck-foot and the horizontal scratch underneath the treble-side f.

*****

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JF55.2, pp. 212-213; EF/JF55.4, pp. 212-213 1931: Juillet, Huberman Bronislaw Violon A. Stradivarius, anno 1713 See JF55.2, p. 195 [U].

***** JF55.2, p. 214 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 214 1933: M me Ed. Foa, 65 Av e H ri Martin, Paris, 16 e Violon A. Stradivarius, très-Amatisé, vers 1680, porte fausse étiquette de 1711 Fond de 2p., érable à petites ondes droites, vives, serrées et inégales; table de 2p., sapin pores moyens, bois splendid; petite cassure à l’âme, pièce affleurant presque l’f. Eclisses ondes un peu plus vives qu’au fond, splendides, double-filet au joint sous le bouton. Tête finement traitée, en érable, à petites ondes assez vives; arêtes sans usures. Vernis rouge clair marron, trèsambré; intact partout; sans noir même à la table. Taille 354mm (ex Comte Cozio de Salabue, Tarisio, Baron Vitta (à Lyon) père de M me Foa. Parlé en Juin 1933 de 400,000 f en dépôt. 1933: Mme. Ed. Foa, 65, Avenue Henri Martin, Paris, 16 Antonio Stradivari violin, very Amatisé in style, made around 1680, but it contains a false label dated 1711. The back plate is made from two pieces; the maple has small straight flames; bright, tight/narrow, and unequal. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce pores are medium; splendid wood. There is a small split at the sound-post and a surface-mounted patch near the [treble side] f. The flames of the ribs are slightly brighter than those on the back plate; splendid. A piece of double purfling is [inserted] at the rib-joint underneath the tail-piece end pin. The maple-wood head is a fine piece of workmanship, having small flames which are moderately bright; the edges [of the scroll] have not been worn down. The varnish is light red/chestnut-brown, very amber; the varnish is not damaged anywhere; [the violin] is not blackened, even on the front plate. The body length is 354mm. (ex Count Cozio di Salabue, Tarisio, Baron Vitta (from Lyon) the father of Mme. Foa. [This violin was] discussed in June 1933; 400,000 francs; on deposit. The CzAr/Tarisio website has no information for Madame Foa, nor have the Hills (1902). Baron Vitta is listed on the website as having been an owner of Stradivari’s Dancla/Marquis de Villars violin of 1691 (ID 41450) for which see JF55.2, p. 20 [L], as well as a Guarneri violin of ‘c.1730’ (ID 40391) for which see JF55.2, p. 205 [U] where the Baron’s name is spelled ‘Vita’. The identification of Il Conte Cozio di Salabue and Luigi Tarisio as previous owners of the c.1680 (1711) violin is unsupported by any documentary evidence.

***** JF55.2, p. 214 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 214 [recto] 1933: C sse Monti de Rezé (Joseph de), 30 avenue d’Eylau, Paris Violon de A. Stradivarius 1728 (étiquette originale) Fond de 2p., érable à ondes vives, moyennes, droites, régulières, talon original; éclisses, érable pareil au fond ; cassure irrégulière à celle à gauche du bouton. Table de 2 pièces, sapin très fin au milieu, un peu plus large aux bords; petite meutrissure à droite en haut près du bord, comme une tâche de fer, légèrement chevillé au menton; cassure fine, à droite du cordier; pas

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de pièce d’âme;(a) belle tête, ondes très-vives; trous non-rebouchés; taille 356mm. Vernis orange clair doré, très-beau. [JF55.2 only] Appartient à Willy Thunis Appartient à M me Lalemant. (Tête venant de Fridolin, étiquette provenant de Strad. de M r J. A. W. Hack de la Haye, acheté chez Hill en 1902; numero 1803 sur leurs livres) Donné par la C sse à Willy Thunis, créateur à Paris de l’opérette ‘Le Pays de Sourire’, gros succès). Vient de Courvoisier. Vendu à la C sse ottttt; acheté avant à des Russes. 1933: Comtesse Monti de Rezé (Joseph de), 30 avenue d’Eylau, Paris Antonio Stradivari violin, 1728 (original label) The back plate is made from two pieces; the maple-wood has bright flames, medium, straight, regular. The neck-foot is original. The ribs are made from maple which is similar to the wood of the back plate; there is an irregular split in the rib which is to the left of the [tail-piece] end pin. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] very thin in the middle, slightly wider at the edges. There is a small bruise in the upper-right bout near the edge – as if made with a [branding] iron. [The plate] is lightly pinned at the chin; there is a thin split to the right of the tail-piece; no sound-post patch.(a) The head is beautiful, the flames very bright; the peg holes have not been bushed. The body length is 356mm; the varnish is golden light orange, very beautiful. Owned by Willy Thunis. Owned by Mme. Lalemant. The head is from Fridolin [Hamma], the label obtained from the Stradivari [violin] belonging to M. J A W Hack, of The Hague, which was bought from the Hills in 1902; the violin was number 1803 in their ledgers. Gifted by the Comtesse to Willy Thunis, the Parisian creator of the operetta Le Pays de Sourire [‘The Land of Smiles’] – huge success. [?The violin came from] Courvoisier. Sold to the Comtesse, ottttt; previously bought from some Russians. (a)

pas de pièce d’âme appears only in JF55.2 and is crossed out with red crayon.

The Comtesse Monti de Rezé was Renée Marie Amélie Butler O’Madden (1887-1972) who, in 1908, married Joseph Henri Marie Augustin de Monti de Rezé (1885-1948). Willy Thunis was a tenor, particularly associated during the 1930s and 1940s with romantic operettas. The operetta Le Pays de Sourire (1929) was composed by Franz Lehár. No further information for Mme. Lalemant has been located. The EF/JF55.4 annotation – that the ‘original label’ of 1728 within the violin owned by the Comtesse Monti de Rezé was sourced from another Stradivari violin, a violin which had previously been owned by J A W Hack, (i.e. the Artot/Godowsky violin which is described at JF55.2, p. 17 [U]) is extraordinary. Was Hack’s violin then left without a label? It is unclear whether it was Emile Français, or Albert Caressa, or Fridolin Hamma who, it seems, removed the 1728 label from Hack’s violin, and then glued it inside an otherwise unidentified violin and sold the resultant instrument to the Comtesse Monti de Rezé. Ernest Doring (p. 290) itemises another Stradivari 1728 violin (following his personal inspection of the instrument). Doring’s use of the word ‘claimed’ may be significant: 1728: A specimen claimed to be certified by Hart, Maucotel, Caressa, and Hamma, was in the possession of Willy Thunis […] while in America about 1939. For further information and high-quality photographs see Thöne, Vol. IV, pp. 186-193.

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JF55.2, p. 215 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 215 [U] Mai 1934 : Directeur Kurt Heinecke, à Stockholm Violon J h Guarnerius del Gesù, usé rechargé de vernis, acheté à un particulier à Oslo, avec, dit-il, des certificats de Möckel et Hill, qu’il n’a pas fait voir, qu’il n’a pas montrè ; vaut slttt. May 1934: Director Kurt Heinecke, from Stockholm Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin; worn, re-varnished. Bought privately in Oslo with, he says, certificates from Möckel and from Hill which he did not show [to us]; worth slttt. No further information about this violin has been located.

***** JF55.2, p. 215 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 215 [L] 1934: Ernest Walker, à St. Louis (Missouri) Violon A. Stradivarius, 1716, chiffres encre rouge (dit le Colosse) Fond 2 pièces, érable larges ondes régulières, descendant légèrement vers les bords; couronne au talon, bord à la main, bord en bas usé. Table 2p., sapin fin, régulier, bords usés, coins remis, plusieurs cassures, nombreuses meurtrissures noires. Éclisses érable à ondes un peu plus vives qu’au fond; légèrement rehaussées des deux côtés. Tête en érable, ondes larges, abîmée par une enture mal mise; vernis inexistant, ce qu’il en reste, rouge décoloré; 369mm. Ex Momus, J. Thibaud, Lyon & Healy, payé par Walker 18,000 dollars en 1929. 1934: Ernest Walker, from St. Louis, Missouri Antonio Stradivari violin, 1716, the numerals written in red ink (called the Colossus) The back plate is made from two pieces, the maple-wood having wide and regular flames which descend gently towards the edges. The neck-foot has been crowned. The plate-edge at the hand, and the lower edge – both have been worn. The front plate is made from two pieces; thin spruce, regular; the edges are worn; the [C-bout] corners have been re-made; several splits, numerous black bruises. The maple-wood used for the ribs has flames which are a little brighter than on the back plate; [the ribs] have been slightly raised on both sides. The head is made in maple, wide flames, damaged by a badly made graft. The varnish is non-existent; where any remains it is a faded red colour. [The body length is] 369mm. ex Momus, J Thibaud, Lyon & Healy; Walker paid 18,000 dollars for the violin in 1929. This violin is briefly mentioned by Doring (Doring, p. 208); it is ID 40066 on CzAr/Tarisio where its body length is specified as 358mm. The JF55.2 specification of 369mm (a measurement which, surprisingly, is repeated in EF/JF55.4) is likely a simple error of transcription and should have been 359mm. The website states that the pre-Thibaud owners of the violin were G B Viotti and Pierre Baillot.

***** JF55.2, p. 216 [U]; EF/JF55.4, p. 216 1936: Monsieur Pening, consul de Hollande à Paris; confié à Candela, 10 A ve Daumesnil Violon de Joseph Guarnerius del Gesù, 1749, étiquette originale Fond 1p., érable ondes moyennes vives, régulières, descendant à droite, cheville en haut et en bas; talon originale a été arraché. Table 2p., sapin moyen au joint, plus large sur les bords; la partie gauche ayant souffert; grande fracture le long de la barre; grandes cassures dans la partie gauche, avec trous de vers rebouchés; diverses pièces remises; ½ bords, pièce d’âme; pièces en dents de scie sous chevalet; éclisses érable pareil au fond; cassure à celle en 299

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haut à gauche, à celle du bas côté droit. Tête en érable, à veines douces, très-pure; oreilles de cochon, points aux boutons;(a) les 4 trous chevilles rebouchés, divernie. Beau vernis orange; rechargé à la table, aux éclisses et à la tête. Taille 354mm (ex-Bonjour). [JF55.2 only] 1934 Miguel Candèla. (a)

the text oreilles de cochon, points aux boutons does not appear in the EF/JF55.4 ledger.

1936: M. Pening, the Dutch Consul in Paris; entrusted to Candela, 10 Avenue Daumesnil [Paris] Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù violin, 1749, original label The back plate is in one piece; the maple-wood flames are medium, bright, regular, descending to the right. There is a locating dowel at the top and at the bottom [of the plate]. The neck-foot is original [but at some point] has been torn off. The front plate is made from two pieces; the spruce [?rings are] medium at the centre-joint, wider at the edges; the left part [the bass side of the front plate] having suffered – there is a large split for the length of the bass-bar and large splits in the left part with plugged worm tracks; various [strengthening] patches [have been] added. There are half-edges, a patch at the sound-post, patches [which look like] the teeth of a saw under the bridge. The ribs are made from maple which is similar to the back plate; there is a split in the upper-left rib and in the lower-right rib. The head is made from maple, with mild flames; very pure; [the curls of the scroll are like the] ears of a pig; there are marks [spots?] at the [central] ‘ear’; the four peg-holes have been bushed; unvarnished. Beautiful orange varnish, renewed on the front plate, on the ribs, and on the head. The body length is 354mm (ex Bonjour). 1934 Miguel Candèla. The names of M. Pening and Miguel Candèla are unknown to the CzAr/Tarisio website. Given Albert Caressa’s indication that this Guarneri del Gesù violin had an original label perhaps this is an instrument that was completed by Giuseppe Guarneri’s wife following the death of her husband in October 1744; on Giuseppe’s burial certificate (see Hill (1931), p. 96) the wife is identified as ‘Cattharina Roda’. This is the final entry in the EF/JF55.4 ledger.

***** JF55.2, p. 216 [L] 1937: Pierre Fau, à Mazamet Basse de A. Stradivarius, vers 1705 Gros trou de ver à l’éclisse de la main, non-rebouché; la tête a été cassée, bien réparée; fond et éclisses en peuplier, beau vernis rouge; vu la basse en 1929; demandait 1 million; possède un alto superbe de Goffriler, vernis rouge vif; le croit de del Gesù; demandait 500,000 f, vaut 30,000. Inst ts achetés autrefois chez J. B. Vuillaume. 1937: Pierre Fau, from Mazamet [southern France] Antonio Stradivari cello, around 1705 A large worm track in the rib of the hand [upper right when viewed from the front], not plugged [i.e. not excavated and filled with a wood insert]. The head has been broken [but] well repaired. The back plate and the ribs are made of poplar wood. Beautiful red varnish. We saw the cello in 1929; [Pierre Fau] wanted 1 million [francs] for it. He has a superb viola by [Matteo] Goffriller, the varnish bright red; [He] thinks it is by del Gesù; he wanted 500,000 francs for it; it is worth 30,000. These instruments bought in the past from J B Vuillaume. 300

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Mazamet and Castres are linked communes in the Tarn region of southern France. Pierre Fau was the son of Eugène Fau, a collector to whom (in 1865) Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume had offered his Le Messie violin for 10,000 francs; Fau declined to buy the violin. The Goffriller viola is almost certainly that which was sold by Vuillaume to Eugène Fau in 1874, the viola falsely identified by Vuillaume as a unique Guarneri del Gesù. In an article published in The Strad (September 2002) John Dilworth identified the viola as having been made by Alessandro Gagliano c.1710 but modified by John Lott (a close collaborator to Vuillaume) to look like a Guarneri; the price paid by Eugène Fau was 4,000 francs. Pierre Fau’s cello has a confused history and identity, the confusion being exacerbated by an uncertainty with the 1937 descriptive text: was the writer (Albert Caressa?) remembering – or, possibly, mis-remembering – a cello which he had not seen since 1929, or was the 1937 text written because Pierre Fau, in that year (and perhaps with one eye on events in Germany), had brought the cello to Paris for a second time, hoping to sell it for a huge sum of money – money which, unlike a cello, could be hidden away from marauding eyes and hands? Three descriptive details are of critical importance: 1) the non-repaired worm track in the treble-side upper rib; 2) the well-repaired breakage in the head; 3) the specification that the Fau cello’s back plate and ribs were made of poplar wood. All these distinguishing features are to be found in the 1697 Castelbarco cello currently owned by the Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA, as part of their Gertrude Clarke Whittall Collection of Stradivari instruments. However, the identification of ‘beautiful red varnish’ on Pierre Fau’s cello seems not to accord with the LoC cello which has varnish of an orange-brown colour (according to the Library’s photographs). It is possible that the histories of the Pierre Fau cello and the LoC Castelbarco cello have been tangled together. A historical study by the present author of the Castelbarco cello (and the Fau cello) will appear in due course on the www.themessiahviolin.uk website.

***** JF55.2, p. 217 [U] 1938: Henry Werro à Berne V on A. Stradivarius, étiquette originale 1728 Fond de 2 pièces, érable gris quadrillé et veiné (côté pied de l’arbre) petites ondes vives entre lacées régulières, serées horizontales, celui des éclisses assorti, plus uni à la tête, sapin fin au centre s’élargissant légèrement dans les flancs, vernis rouge brun doré comme du miel, petite pièce d’âme, admirablement conservé; très bonne sonorité, puissante; beau violon, beau modèle. 1820 Baron Delcambre de Champvert 1900 Dechaussoy – Paris 1920-25 M r Marques, à Santos, Brésil 1937 Hill et Sons 1938 H. Werroy demande olttt francs Suisses; soit F francs oolttt. 1938: Henry Werro, from Berne [Switzerland] Antonio Stradivari violin, original label, 1728 The back plate is made from two pieces; the maple is drab/lacklustre, cross-hatched and streaked ([the wood] taken from the foot of the tree); small bright flames among evenlydistributed ‘slash’ marks; tight/narrow and horizontal. The flames of the ribs are more varied, [the wood is] plainer at the head. The [front plate] spruce [?rings are] thin at the centre, widening slightly at the flanks. The varnish is golden red-brown, like honey; there is a small patch at the sound-post. [The violin] is admirably conserved; very good sonority, powerful; a beautiful violin, beautiful model. 1820 Baron Delcambre de Champvert 301

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1900 Dechaussoy – Paris 1920-1925 M. Marques, from Santos, Brazil 1937 Hill & Sons 1938 H Werro is asking olttt Swiss Francs for the violin; equivalent to oolttt French Francs. This violin appears on the CzAr/Tarisio website as ID 41547.

***** JF55.2, p. 217 [L] 1968, Novembre: Jack Morrison – Angleterre – serait propriétaire de l’Ovomaltine Von A. Stradivarius – bon état de conservation sauf la table. Le vernis du fond serait magnifique; très bel instrument, acheté aux enchères chez Sotheby, 264,000 francs. ex Battista Viotti (1755-1824). 1968, November: Jack Morrison – England – the proprietor of Ovomaltine [‘Ovaltine’ in the UK]. Antonio Stradivari violin – in a good state of conservation apart from the front plate. The varnish of the back plate is magnificent; very beautiful instrument; bought at a Sotheby’s auction for 264,000 francs [£22,000 GBP]. ex Battista Viotti (1755-1824). This 1709 violin appears on the Tarisio.com website as the Marie Hall/Viotti (ID 41348). In 1988 the violin was auctioned for a second time, being bought for £473,000. According to Toby Faber (Five Violins, One Cello, and a Genius, Pan Books (2005), pp. 220-221 and 230-233) ‘Viotti probably never even played the violin’, and the mistaken association with Viotti was as a result of confusion between two violins, both of which were in London in 1905, one with the Hills, the other with George Hart, and both claiming a provenance which included Viotti. The violinist Marie Hall bought Hart’s violin. The current owner of the violin, the Chi Mei Foundation of Taiwan, identifies the violin as the Marie Hall. This is the final entry in the JF55.2 ledger.

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Appendix ‘Fortissimo di voce, e quasi tenore’ ‘Very strong of voice, and like a viola’ An evidence-based investigation into the historical reality of the Stradivari violin which Il Conte Cozio di Salabue sold to Niccolò Paganini in 1817

JF55.2, p. 126 [L]; EF/JF55.4, p. 126 [L] 1894: M r Nicolini, à Ystradgynlais Violon Stradivarius, année 1727, 13p. 3l., Fond de 2 pièces, ondes douces descendant, belles éclisses pareilles, table de 2 pièces, trèsbeau sapin; petite cassure à l’f droite, et 2 petits trous de ver au fond; beau vernis rouge doré bien conservé; très-belle tête. Ex Paganini Ex Comte de Vireille 30,000 francs 1894: M. Nicolini, from Ystradgynlais Antonio Stradivari violin, year 1727, 13 pouces 3 lignes [358.7mm] The back plate is made from two pieces; mild flames, descending [from the centre-joint]; the beautiful ribs are similar [the wood used for the ribs is similar to that used for the back plate]. The front plate is made from two pieces; very beautiful spruce. There is a small split at the treble f and two small worm tracks at the bottom. Beautiful varnish, golden red, well conserved. Very beautiful head. ex Paganini ex Comte de Vireille 30,000 francs. Ernesto Nicolini (1834-1898) was the second husband of the soprano Adelina Patti (1843-1919); Adelina bought a country house in Ystradgynlais (Powys, Wales) overlooking the river Tawe. Ernest Doring (How many Strads? (1945), pp. 281-283) identifies the following violin: 1727* The PAGANINI, ex Salabue. Our plates indicate the visual characteristics of this famous violin. It is in a perfect state of preservation and almost fully covered with its original varnish of rich dark-red color. [Doring’s asterisk indicates his personal inspection of the violin.] Doring’s monochrome plates illustrate the same violin as that which appears on the Cozio Archive/Tarisio.com website (ID 40048) as well as in Claude Lebet’s publication Le Quatuor Stradivarius “Niccolò Paganini” (Les Amis de la Musique, 1994). In both locations the violin is identified as the ‘Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue’. Doring quotes from a text (the author of the text is not identified) which was published in ‘a British journal’ in 1896: It is one of the finest and most perfect of this maker [Stradivari]; its date is 1727. It is of the grand pattern, covered with beautiful soft red varnish. The instrument is of peculiar interest, having been in the possession of the great Paganini, who bequeathed it to his son, Baron Achille. J. B. Vuillaume acquired it from the Baron and sold it in 1853 to the Comte de Vireille, (a) who in turn disposed of it to Messrs. Gand & Bernardel, of Paris; thereafter it passed into the hands of Signor Nicolini, from whom it was purchased by Messrs. Hart & Son. With the violin there is an interesting letter from Vuillaume, dated 1853, fully authenticating its former possession by Paganini and his [Vuillaume’s] purchase of it from the former’s son. (a)

No details of identification for the Comte de Vireille have been located.

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No specific details from Vuillaume’s 1853 letter are reported and thus the evidence for the bequest of the 1727 Stradivari violin by Niccolò to his son Achille is unknown. Doring reports (also from the 1896 article) that George Hart sold the 1727 violin to the Dutch violinist Jan van Oordt in 1896 in advance of the latter’s appearance with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra; this event is confirmed by the Chicago Tribune newspaper, 8 November 1896, p. 37: Mr. Jan Van Oordt, the young Dutch violinist, will make his first American appearance [Brahms’ Violin Concerto] with the Chicago Orchestra this week. Colour photographs of the ‘Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue’ violin (Lebet, pp. 26-28) reveal a back plate with slightly indistinct flames of moderate width, the flames descending from the centre joint; Lebet (ibid., p. 25) defines the flames as ‘medium-curled maplewood’. On the Tarisio.com website the back plate is described as ‘Two piece[s] of plain maple, marked by a faint curl slanting downwards from the center.’ The condition of the back plate plausibly reflects Gustave Bernardel’s description: fond de 2 pièces, ondes douces descendant. Lebet’s colour photograph of the front plate also reveals two short longitudinal blemishes at the bottom edge of the lower bout to the right of the tail-piece; these would seem to correspond with Bernardel’s comment: 2 petits trous de ver au fond. Lebet specifies the violin’s varnish as rouge-brun; Doring offers ‘rich dark-red’; the Tarisio.com website states ‘dark red’; Bernardel writes rouge doré. Lebet characterises the form of the violin as large et puissant but does not provide any measurements; Bernardel’s measurement of the violin’s body-length – 358.7mm – is certainly ‘large’. Claude Lebet identifies the Bernardel/Nicolini violin as having ‘an original label from 1724; the experts are agreed on 1727 as the date of its manufacture’ (Ce magnifique instrument porte une étiquette originale de 1724; les experts, eux, s’accordent sur la période de construction de 1727). Lebet does not indicate which physical and/or stylistic features of the violin underpin the agreement of ‘the experts’, nor does he identify the experts or specify where their agreement is published. Ernest Doring’s aforementioned commentary does not suggest that his identification of ‘1727’ is anything other than the date which he saw on the violin’s internal label. If the Bernardel/Nicolini violin is today’s Nippon Foundation violin, then, in 1894 and 1896 it was label-dated 1727; seemingly it was still dated 1727 when inspected (prior to 1945) by Ernest Doring. In the summer of 1945 the violin – as part of a complete quartet of Stradivari/Paganini instruments – was purchased by Mrs A E Clark of New York (Lebet dates this purchase to January 1946); subsequently, ownership passed to the Corcoran Gallery of Arts and then to the Nippon Music Foundation. On the Nippon Foundation (Instruments) website (accessed January 2017) the violin is dated 1727 with no mention of a 1724 label. ***** ‘Previous to Paganini’s ownership, it is an established fact that the [1727] violin was one of Count Cozio di Salabue’s choice possessions.’ (Doring, p. 283) Documents written by Il Conte Ignazio Alessandro Cozio di Salabue (1755-1840) – the documents are archived at the Biblioteca Statale di Cremona, Italy – demonstrate that the only Stradivari instrument sold by the Count to Niccolò Paganini was a violin with yellow varnish, dated 1724, this violin being one of twelve which the Count had obtained in 1774/75 from Paolo Stradivari in Cremona (Paolo being the youngest son born of Antonio Stradivari’s second marriage). Count Cozio sold the 1724 violin to Paganini in July 1817, using Carlo Carli (a Milanese banker who was known to both men) as an intermediary. There are no known documents within the archive at the Biblioteca Statale which indicate that Count Cozio owned a 1727 Stradivari violin or ever sold more than the one violin, of 1724, to Paganini. Count Cozio’s earliest manuscript text (BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 41, written in late 1774 or early 1775) for his 1724 Stradivari violin is here transcribed and translated by the present author: Fondo giunto, bosco diversa, piutosto larga e bella, il covino più rotondo, quasi al cerchio, il rizzo belle e col contorno nero, travagliate come

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l’antecedente ma la vernice più gialla di tutti. Il biglietto come gli altri anno 1724 e bolate. Jointed [two-piece] back plate, different wood, [the flames] rather wide and beautiful. The [neck-foot] button is more rounded [than is usual], almost a circle, the scroll is beautiful and with black edging. The workmanship is like the previous [violin within the Count’s sequence of descriptions – a 1716 violin] but the varnish is the yellowest of all. The label [in its appearance] is like the others, anno 1724, and stamped [i.e. with Stradivari’s monogram]. Left margin annotation:

2da, il più forte, si hà Number 2; the stronger [in tone]; I have it.

Added no earlier than July 1817:

venduto dal Cavaliere Carlo Carli al celebre suonat Genovev Paganini per Luigi cento ma da togliere cinque disconto. Sold by Signor Carlo Carli to the celebrated player from Genoa, Paganini, for 100 Luigi [100 Louis d’or 20-franc coins] but deduct 5 [Luigi] as a discount.

The reason for the discount is unknown. In 1801 Count Cozio wrote a new inventory of his instruments (BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 42): 1801, 8 Aprile: Violini di Stradivario Antonio da molti anni accomperati dal suo nipote a Cremona 1801, 8 April: Violins of Antonio Stradivari, of various years, obtained from his grandson at Cremona The same 1724 violin is now described in more detail: Come sovra: anno 1724: fortissimo di voce, tonda e pastosa sebbene paja ancora interna, di forma più grande, segnata, vernice rosso chiara tirante nel giallino: fondo, fascie, e manico di bellissima vena larga: e fondo in due pezzi cosi al solito del coperchio, che ha la vena piùtosto larga. Di forma delle più grandi con panza corta al fondo ben tirata, ed al coperchio anche ben spianata: benissimo profilato, e di finissimo lavoro, ed ff ben fatte e scavate, con manico dato indietro dal G. B. Guadagnini: intatto pero con una piciol marca di fissura nel coperchio a destra vicino al cordile: vale cento trenta. As above: anno 1724: very strong of voice, rounded and mellow, although [paja?] still constricted [?not sounding freely]; of larger type, marked [?lettered in the pegbox]; the varnish is light red shading into yellow. The back plate, the ribs, and the neck – all have the most beautiful wide flames. The back plate is in two pieces; likewise, as usual, the top plate, which has rather wide veins [rings]. [The violin] is of the larger type with the barrel[?] arching on the back plate being well graduated, and the top plate is also well smoothed out. Excellent purfling of the finest workmanship, and the fs nicely made and [the wings] hollowed; with a neck which has been [raised, lengthened and] tilted backwards by G. B. Guadagnini. Undamaged; however there is one small fissure in the top plate, to the right of, and next to, the tailpiece. Worth 130 zecchini. Left margin annotation:

zecchini 130. Viglietto stampato e bollo sudetto 130 zecchini. The label is printed and stamped as above [i.e. as with the previous instruments described in this inventory]

Added no earlier than July 1817:

1817 Luglio venduto al Signor Professore Niccolò Paganini di Genoa per mezzo del Signor Cavaliere Carlo Carli di Milano. 1817 July, sold to Signor Professor Niccolò Paganini of Genoa through Signor Carlo Carli of Milan.

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The following features are noteworthy: 1: the violin is of ‘larger type’ 2: the violin is ‘marked’ 3: the varnish is ‘light red shading into yellow’ 4: the back plate, ribs, and neck ‘all have the most beautiful wide flames’. In 1808 Count Cozio once again returned to his 1724 Stradivari violin and wrote yet another description (BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 46). Although his manuscript does not contain a margin annotation identifying the sale of the violin to Paganini the descriptive details agree with the previous (and subsequent) texts: 1808, 16 Gennajo, Milano. Inventaro delli instromenti nella guardaroba alta di noce nel gabinetto. 1808, 16 January, Milan. Inventory of the instruments in the tall walnut wardrobe in the closet Violino di d’Anto Stradiuario del 1724, forma più grande P.G. anche b[..?] fino per modello, vernice rosso chiara, fondo giondo vena larga viva, fascie di vena più fina bella, e così il manico fascia doppiamente gionta al fondo con due profili intieri, coperchio pura vena larga eguale forastiero. Fortissimo di voce, e quasi tenore, con solo picol crepatura in fine a destra nel coperchio. Colle pontine nel fondo vicino alli profili, e nel profilo dei CC, per la sua rarità di voce – Luigi 140. Covino più grande a tre quarti di circolo. Violin of the aforementioned Antonio Stradivari, of 1724, [derived from] the larger ‘P.G.’ mould, also […?]. The varnish is light red, the back plate is jointed, with wide bright flames; the ribs have narrower flames, beautiful; likewise the neck. The rib is double-jointed at the bottom [at the tailpiece end pin] with two inserted pieces of purfling. The top plate also having wide and consistent rings; foreign wood. Very strong of voice and like a viola; with one small crack at the [bottom] end, to the right of the top plate. With [?top and bottom] locating pins in the back plate which are adjacent to the purfling and [additional pins which are] within the purfling of the C-bouts. For its rarity of voice – 140 Luigi. The [back-plate] button is larger [than usual] at three-quarters of a circle. Note: 1: the violin is associated with ‘the larger P.G. mould’ 2: the reiteration regarding the ‘wide, bright flames’ of the back plate (cf. both previous documents) 3: the expression – ‘very strong of voice and like a viola’ – which finds an echo at the end of the Count’s text from May 1816 (see below) 4: the single crack (to the right of the tail-piece) which was identified in the April 1801 text (see earlier) and is here identified again. One descriptive detail found in this 1808 text, but not mentioned previously, is the identification of two vertical slivers of purfling inserted into the rib at the tail-piece end pin (probably to restore the bottom ribs, after shrinkage, to their original curvature). It is unclear why Count Cozio did not mention this feature in his 1774/75 and 1801 texts. An explanation might be that between 1801 and 1808 the Count had this 1724 violin restored – possibly by one of the Mantegazza family in Milan – and the purfling inserts were added on that occasion. A second newly-identified feature concerns the locating pins in the violin’s back plate, specifically those ‘within the purfling of the C-bouts’. These pins may have been original but not previously observed by Count Cozio within the dark colouring of the purfling, or they may have been fitted when the lower ribs were expanded (to ensure the structural security of the back plate). Photographic information received by the present author demonstrates that the Stradivari ‘1727 Paganini’ violin currently owned by the Nippon Foundation of Japan does not have any slivers of purfling inserted at the tailpiece end pin. It has not been possible to confirm or deny the presence of pins within the violin’s C-bout purfling. In 1816, one year before selling the 1724 violin to Paganini, Count Cozio comprehensively measured the instrument’s various dimensions (BSCr, LC, ms. Cozio 47, folio 15r); the Count used the French Pied du Roi measurement system in which one pollici is equivalent to 27.07mm and one ponto is equivalent to 2.26mm.

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Since the Count still possessed a 1716 Stradivari violin which he had defined in his 1774/75 documents as ‘number 1’ he uses that violin as a point of comparison with the ‘number 2’ 1724 violin: 1816, 19 Maggio, Milano Misure del mio violino Antonio Stradivari, nella cassa marcato: forma P.G., più forte, vernice giallo, dell’anno 1724 Left margin annotation:

N.B. questo violino l’ho venduto al Signor Proffessore Paganino Maggiore larghezza superiore polici sei e un terzo, 6. 0. 1/3, nel fondo e poco più nel coperchio Maggiore larghezza inferiore polici sette, ponti sei, 7. 6. -. In mezzo alli CC ossia il petto è questo più grande d’un ponto, ma nel fondo è eguale al sudetto. La longhezza totale è eguale, ma questo e longo dell’altro d’un ponto e mezzo inferiormente e più corto di un ponto e mezzo superiormente. E pure eguale nella distanza delle ff in mezzo al petto [...] così le ff di questo violino sono più in piedi dell’altro di due ponti e sono più vicini li occhietti di sotto [sopra?] alle ff di un ponto. Le altezza delle fascie di questo sono pure eguali a quelle. Li bordi sono eguali ma le ponte del [?] più grande [?] e così sostanzialmente la forma e eguale all’altro più bello rosso ma non sta nel medesimo sito nella cassetta. [...] Questo ha la voce più forte, e da tenore. 1816, 19 May, Milan Measurements of my violin, Antonio Stradivari, marked in the [?peg] box, P.G. mould, the stronger [of the two violins], yellow varnish, of the year 1724.

Left margin annotation:

N.B. this violin I sold to Signor Professor Paganini Maximum width of the upper bout is 6 polici and 1/3 of one ponto [163.2mm], measured on the back plate; a little wider on the top plate. Maximum width of the lower bout is 7 polici and 6 ponti [203.1mm] [Measuring] across the mid-point of the C-bout, also termed the ‘chest’, and this [the 1724 violin] is wider [than the 1716 violin] by 1 ponto, but on the back plate the two measurements are the same. The total [body-] length is the same [on both violins] but this [1724 violin] is longer than the other by 1½ ponti in the lower part [i.e. from the bridge to the lower edge of the plate] and shorter by 1½ ponti in the upper part [bridge to upper edge].

[i.e. the inside f notches – which define the location of the bridge – were further up the plate on the 1724 violin than on the 1716]

And, also, [the two violins] are equal in the distance [between] the fs at the mid-point of the chest […] the fs of this violin [1724] are more [i.e. wider] at the feet [at the lower eyes] than the other [1716] by two ponti, and are closer at the [upper?] eyes by one ponto. [i.e. the fs on the 1724 violin were angled outwards more than on the 1716 violin]

The height of the ribs on this [1724 violin] is also the same as on the 1716 violin. The edges are the same but the [locating] pins of [?] are larger [?] and thus the form [of the 1724 violin] is substantially the same as the other [the 1716, which is] a more beautiful red but is not identified as being made by this maker [Stradivari] in the [peg-] box. [i.e. the 1724 violin had identifying letters marked in its peg-box whereas the 1716 violin did not]

[…] This [1724 violin] has the stronger voice, and [like] a viola.

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In 1828 Niccolò Paganini consigned to Carlo Carli a collection of his instruments which were to be kept safe while Paganini was travelling and performing around Europe. On 4 March 1828 Carli sent Paganini a letter itemising the instruments which he had received: Un Violino di Antonio Stradivario di forma grande, vernice gialla col biglietto del 1724. A violin by Antonio Stradivari, of large form, yellow varnish, with label of 1724. Un Violino con vernice rossa col biglietto di Giuseppe Guarnerio del 1724, con arco in una cassa da due. Un Violino di Andrea Guarnerio col biglietto del 1675, in una cassa da uno, quadrata, dipinta in verde, con arco. Una Viola di Antonio e Girolamo Amati col biglietto del 1612, in cassa da uno, coperta di bulgaro. Un Violino piccolo senza biglietto con arco, borsa, e cassa di legno in bianco. Una Chitarra di Napoli con cassa di legno. Un Violoncello con vernice rossa col biglietto di Antonio Stradivario del 1728, in cassa usata. (Grisley R., Niccolò Paganini: Epistolario, Vol. 1, 1810-1831, Skira, Milan, 2006; letter 218, pp. 340-341.)

In the final few months of his life, Paganini, with his son Achille, took up residence in Nice (southern France) where he was befriended by Comte Hilarion Spitalieri de Cessole (1776-1845). In the early months of 1840 Paganini gathered together many of the instruments which he had bought on various occasions and stored them with a M. Brun, of Marseilles, in an attempt to hide them from his Parisian creditors. In a letter of 8 January 1840, to Vincenzo Merighi, Paganini acknowledged the delivery of a quartet of Stradivari instruments, and in a letter of 17 January 1840 to Luigi Germi, his Italian lawyer, Paganini identified his ownership of eleven violins, one viola, and four cellos. On 18 January 1840 Paganini wrote again to Germi: I have neither touched my music nor an instrument, other than the two Stradivari violins recently received from Milan via Genoa – one of which cost me 95 Louis which I shall have to let Conte de Cessole (a great enthusiast) have for 4,500 francs, though I could get 5,000 for it in Paris. But it is necessary to make a sacrifice for such a friend. (Neill E., Paganini: Epistolario, Edizione speciale per il Comune di Genova; letter 366, p. 297; present author’s translation.)

Given that Carli, in 1828, lists only one Stradivari violin as having been deposited with him it must be the case that, at a later date, Paganini sent another Stradivari violin to Milan for safe-keeping. Further descriptive entries within the JF55.2 and EF/JF55.4 sales ledgers identify a Guarneri del Gesù violin of 1740, known as the Boissier/Paganini/Arbos, as having been owned by Paganini (see 180 [U]) as was a 1672 Stradivari violin (101 [L]), a 1712 Stradivari violin (198), and a 1726 violin, the Hubay (50 [L]). The Tarisio.com/Cozio Archive website identifies a 1720 Carlo Bergonzi violin which also belonged to Paganini (ID 47169). Paganini himself, in a letter of 15 February 1840, identifies his ownership of an Amati viola and ‘My Amati cello, or Rugeri, or whatever make it is […]’. In April 1840 Paganini instructed Vincenzo Merighi to buy six Guadagnini violins (and a Stradivari violin from Count Castelbarco) as part of ‘our enterprise’ but whether these instruments were bought and delivered to Paganini before his death in May 1840 is unknown. The Hills (Antonio Stradivari (1902), p. 276) cautiously write: ‘Paganini had a quartet of Stradivaris, which were sold, after his death, we believe, to Vuillaume. We can trace three of these instruments’ (identical text appears in the 1909 second edition of the Hills’ monograph). Elsewhere in their 1902 publication the Hills identify the following ‘Paganini’ instruments (which may or may not be the three instruments which the Hills had traced): p. 105: a viola of 1731, sold by the dealer George Corsby (1790-1872) to Paganini in 1832-33, ‘the viola remaining with the great violinist until he died.’ This instrument is now known as the Mendelssohn viola. p. 132: the ‘Stanlein’ (Stainlein) cello of 1707 which was sold by Vincenzo Merighi to Paganini ‘about 183435’; Paganini ‘sold it to J. B. Vuillaume, who resold it in 1854 to the late Count Stanlein.’ p. 145: a cello of the 1730 period; ‘Vuillaume stated that it came from Paganini.’ This instrument is now known as the Paganini/Ladenburg cello.

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Paganini died on 27 May 1840; an inventory of his estate was compiled two months later, on 24 July 1840. Claude Lebet (Lebet, p. 18) indicates that the inventory documents are located in the ‘Mandozzi Collection’ in Locarno, Switzerland; access to these documents has not been possible. Geraldine I C de Courcy, in her two-volume biography, Paganini: the Genoese (University of Oklahoma Press, 1957) provides a List of Instruments in Paganini’s possession at the time of his death (Vol. II, pp. 388-391). The documentary source for de Courcy’s information is not identified but is assumed to be the Mandozzi inventory; de Courcy does not indicate whether her information is the result of her personal inspection of the inventory documents. Her List of Instruments identifies seven Stradivari violins, three Guarneri del Gesù, one Andrea Guarneri, two Niccolo Amati, one Carlo Tononi, and one Ruggeri – fifteen violins in total. In addition there were two Stradivari violas (1721 and 1731) and two Stradivari cellos (1708 and 1736), as well as an Andrea Guarneri cello (1642) and a Pietro Rogeri cello (1714) (which is probably the instrument being referred to by Paganini in his letter of 15 February 1840). The seven Stradivari violins are dated by de Courcy to 1680,* 1692, 1695, 1724 (two such violins), 1725, and 1726 (this last may be the Hubay violin). The first of the two 1724 violins is identified by de Courcy – without any documentary support – as that which is now known as the Bentinck/Stucki; this violin has a one-piece back plate and is therefore not the 1724 violin which Count Cozio sold to Paganini. It is the second 1724 violin which is identified by de Courcy as the Cozio-Paganini instrument (but, again, without any supportive documentary evidence); de Courcy’s historical narrative for this violin closely echoes that which was published by Ernest Doring in 1945 (Doring’s narrative being extended by Claude Lebet in 1994): Achille Paganini, J-B Vuillaume, Comte de Vireille, Gustave Bernardel, Ernesto Nicolini … Emil Herrmann, Mrs Anna E Clark, Jacques Francais, Nippon Foundation – i.e. the historical narrative for the Bernardel/Nicolini violin of 1727. * Courcy’s date appears to follow the 1945 opinion of Ernest Doring (Doring, p. 40) which is that the violin has a 1696 label but actually dates from 1680; Doring appears to be following the opinion of the Hills (Hill (1902), p. 35).

***** There can be no doubt that the Cozio/Paganini violin was label-dated 1724 and had yellow varnish; it had the same dimensions as Count Cozio’s large 1716 violin and was ‘marked’ in the peg-box; it had two slivers of purfling inserted in the rib of the end-pin, had ‘wide bright flames’ on the back plate, and a crack on the front plate to the right of the tail-piece. This 1724 violin is not Gustave Bernardel’s 1727 violin, notwithstanding Bernardel’s annotations regarding Paganini and the Comte de Vireille. Achille Paganini (1825-1895) was 15 years of age when his father died in 1840. In the years immediately thereafter Achille apparently enjoyed full control of his father’s instruments. With respect to his father’s Cannone Guarneri del Gesù violin this was held by Achille for several years despite Niccolò’s Last Will and Testament stating that the violin was bequeathed to the city of Genoa. Only in July 1851 ‘when the city insisted on its delivery’ (de Courcy, II, p. 298) did Achille hand over ‘a’ Guarneri violin to the Genoese authorities. According to de Courcy’s List no Stradivari violin of 1727 was registered in the posthumous inventory. Might Achille, in the two months following his father’s death, have collected together some scattered instruments and placed them out of view of the executors? In 1846 Achille deposited a quartet of his father’s Stradivari instruments with Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, in Paris, for repair, restoration, and sale. Perhaps Achille also passed to Vuillaume a 1727 Stradivari violin, with golden red varnish, the instrument being identified – deliberately mis-identified? – by Achille as the violin which his father had bought from Count Cozio. With Carlo Carli, Niccolò Paganini, Count Cozio, and Comte Hilarion de Cessole all having died, there would have been no-one from whom Vuillaume could obtain independent confirmation of Achille’s information. By 1894, when Gustave Bernardel wrote his descriptive text, Vuillaume had also died. The current location of the 1724 Stradivari violin which Il Conte Ignazio Alessandro Cozio di Salabue sold to Niccolò Paganini in July 1817 is unknown. ******************

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Bibliography Beare C., Stradivari, The Cremona Exhibition of 1987, J. & A. Beare Ltd., London, 1993. Beare C., Beare P., Chiesa C., Whiteley J., Stradivarius (catalogue for the 2013 Ashmolean Museum exhibition), University of Oxford, 2013. Biblioteca Statale di Cremona, Deposita Libreria Civica, Il Conte I A Cozio di Salabue manuscript archive. Biddulph P., Chaudière F., Antonio Stradivari (catalogue for the 2008 Musée Fabre exhibition), Montpellier. Broadley A., The Violoncello: its history, selection and adjustment, Horace Marshall & Son, London, 1921. Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments, (South Kensington Museum), John Strangeways, London 1872. Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments, (South Kensington Museum), John Strangeways, London 1873. Chiesa C., Dilworth J., Hargrave R. G., Pollens S., Rosengard D., Wen E., Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù, 2 vols., Biddulph, London, 1998. Davidson P., The Violin: a concise exposition of the general principles of construction theoretically and practically treated, Porteous Brothers, Glasgow, 1871. Coover J., Music at Auction, Detroit Studies in Music Bibliography, Harmonie Park Press, 1988. Doring E., How Many Strads? Our Heritage from the Master, William Lewis & Son, Chicago, 1945. Doyen L., Le Violon et les grands Luthiers Italiens, Paris, nd, [1900?] Faber T., Stradivarius: One cello, five violins and a genius, Pan Books, 2005. Fétis F-J., Antoine Stradivari, Luthier Célèbre, Vuillaume, Paris, 1856. Francais J., The Dr. Herbert Axelrod Stradivari Quartet, J Francais, New York, 1985. Haddock G., Some early musical recollections, Schott & Co., London, 1906. Henley W., Antonio Stradivari: Master Luthier, Amati Publishing, Sussex, 1961. Heron-Allen E., Violin making as it was, and is, Ward Lock, London, 1885. Herriot E., Madame Récamier, G P Putnam’s Sons; William Heinemann, London; 1906. Hill W. H., Hill A. F., Hill A. E., Antonio Stradivari: his life & work (1644-1737), W. E. Hill & Sons, London, 1902. A second edition, with amendments, was published in 1909. Hill W. H., Hill A. F., Hill A. E., The Violin-Makers of the Guarneri family (1626-1762), W. E. Hill & Sons, London, 1931. Hooker A., Mr Black’s Violins, Cozio Publishing, Boston, MA, 2009. Ingles T., Four centuries of violin making: fine instruments from the Sotheby’s archive, Cozio Publishing, Boston, MA, 2006. Jalovec K., Italian Violin Makers, Paul Hamlyn, London, 1964 Kolneder W., The Amadeus book of the violin, Amadeus Press, NJ, 1998. Laurie D., The Reminiscences of a Fiddle Dealer, T. Werner Laurie Ltd., London, nd. Lebet C., Le Quatuor Stradivarius “Nicolò Paganini”, Les Amis de la Musique, Spa, Belgium, 1994. Luyster I. M. (translator and editor), Memoirs and Correspondence of Madame Récamier, Roberts Brothers, Boston, 1878.

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Orcutt W. D., The Stradivari Memorial at Washington, the National Capital, Library of Congress, Gertrude Clarke Whittall Foundation, 1938. Pierre C., Les Facteurs d’Instruments de Musique, Ed. Sagot, Paris, 1893. Rattray D., Masterpieces of Italian Violin Making (1620-1850), Outline Press Ltd. London, 2000. Reade C., Four Letters to the Pall Mall Gazette (19, 24, 27, 31 August 1872), British Newspaper Archive. Robinson L. B., A Living Legacy: Historic Stringed Instruments at The Juilliard School, The Juilliard School, New York, 2006. Sackman N., The ‘Messiah’ violin: a reliable history?, N Sackman, Nottingham, England, 2015 Sackman N., The Stradivari ‘Chant du Cygne’ violin: a question of labelling, Galpin Society journal, 2017. Schoenbaum D., The Violin: a social history, W. W. Norton & Co., New York, 2013. Stradivarius Memorial Concert [brochure], The Stradivarius Memorial Association, 1937. Thöne J., Röhrmann J., Antonius Stradiuarius, Vols. I-IV, Jost Thöne Verlag, 2010. Vidal A., La Lutherie et les Luthiers, Maison Quantin, Paris, 1889. Violons/Vuillaume, 1798-1875: un maître luthier français du XIXe siècle (catalogue for the Vuillaume Exhibition, Cité de la Musique/Musée de la Musique, Paris, 1998-1999, ed. Rémy Campos). Wurlitzer R., Rare Violins, Violas, Violoncellos of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries of the Wurlitzer Collection, The Rudolph Wurlitzer Company, New York, 1931. Yokoyama S., Antonio Stradivari in Japan, Gakken, Japan, 1984.

*****

Acknowledgements My thanks go to Ms Kay Peterson of the Smithsonian Institution (Museum of American History), Washington DC, USA, for permission to undertake this study and to publish my results. Particular thanks go to Ms Christine Windheuser, at the Museum’s Archives Center; without her tireless efforts in responding to my frequent enquiries, and her good-natured willingness to locate and supply documents, this project would not have been possible. My thanks also go to Bastien Terraz who was most helpful in clarifying the more archaic examples of the French language which appear within the descriptive texts. Nicholas Sackman Nottingham England 2017

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