Reconstruction Activity packet Directions • Read and take notes on Chapter 16. Complete this handout as you go. You must carefully read and take notes on Chapter 16 in order to complete this handout. • Review each of the following excerpts and answer the corresponding questions in your notes. • Next, for one or more of the excerpts on each page of this packet, write 2 discussion questions. Thus, you are writing 2 discussion questions for each page of this handout. Your questions will be used during class discussion.
Lincoln’s 2nd inaugural address, march 4, 1865
With malice toward none, with charity for all, ...let us strive on to finish the work we are in, ...to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.
1. From reading this excerpt, what type of Reconstruction Plan do you think Lincoln had planned? Explain your answer. Lincoln’s 10% plan, December 1863
Under the plan, Southern states could come back into the Union by getting 10% of the state population to take an oath of loyalty to the Union. Lincoln also wanted to give full pardons to rebels who renounced secession and accepted emancipation. The pardon would restore all property and political rights to ex-‐rebels, and ex-‐rebels were not required to give political rights or social assistance to free blacks.
2. If you were a Southerner during this time, what would you have thought of this plan? Why? 3. If you were a freed African American living in the North during this time, how would you have viewed this proposal? The wade-Davis bill, July 1864
Radical Republicans felt that Lincoln’s plan was too moderate; they felt that Congress should call the shots as to Reconstruction. Henry Davis and Benjamin Wade proposed a Reconstruction bill in response to Lincoln’s plan. The bill required 51% of a Southern state’s population to take oath of allegiance, and it barred all of those who took up arms against the Union from participating in drafting new state constitutions. Moreover the Wade-‐Davis bill guaranteed equality for all freedmen, and it repudiated Confederate debts (i.e., you could not get your money back if you invested in the Confederate States of America). Lincoln “pocket vetoed” the bill (bill was given to him with less than 10 days remaining in congressional session).
4. Should the president or Congress control Reconstruction? Explain. Why do you think this Radical Republican was drafted in this way? What do you think 5. the Radical Republicans had in mind for the South with this bill? 1
Assassination of President Lincoln, April 15, 1865
6. Why did the South’s hope for a mild and peaceful Reconstruction die that same day Lincoln died? 7. Why do you think John Wilkes Booth became a hated man in both the North and the South? 13th Amendment, December 6, 1865
"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude...shall exist within the United States."
8. Rewrite the 13th Amendment in your own words. 9. Explain why some argue that the 13th Amendment was the first step of the Civil Rights Movement. Do you agree or disagree? Explain.
President Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
Johnson stressed reconciliation with the South and the rapid restoration of civil government in the South. He recognized all Southern states that were admitted by Lincoln. For the remaining states, he required the following 3 measures for being readmitted into the Union: citizens to renounce the right to secede, accept the 13th Amendment, and repudiation of Confederate debts.
10. From what you read about Johnson’s background, explain why you think he included the terms that he did. 11. Does Johnson’s plan look more like Lincoln’s 10% Plan or the Wade-Davis Plan? Explain your answer. 12. Later on, Johnson nonetheless accepts state governments even when they failed to satisfy the above 3 demands. Why? (hint see page 563) 13. The Radical Republican critiqued Johnson’s plan as being too much like “status quo antebellum.” What did they mean by this criticism? 2
The Mississippi Black Code
"Negroes must make annual contracts for labor in writing; if they should run away from their tasks, they forfeited their wages for the year. Whenever it was required of them they must present licenses (in a town from the mayor; elsewhere from a member of the board of police of the beat) citing their places of residence and authorizing them to work. Fugitives from labor were to be arrested and carried back to their employers. Five dollars a head and mileage would be allowed such negro catchers. It was made a misdemeanor, punishable with fine or imprisonment, to persuade a freedman to leave his employer, or to feed the runaway. Minors were to be apprenticed, if males until they were twenty-‐one, if females until eighteen years of age. Such corporal punishment as a father would administer to a child might be inflicted upon apprentices by their masters. Vagrants were to be fined heavily, and if they could not pay the sum, they were to be hired out to service until the claim was satisfied. Negroes might not carry knives or firearms unless they were licensed so to do. It was an offence, to be punished by a fine of $50 and imprisonment for thirty days, to give or sell intoxicating liquors to a negro. When negroes could not pay the fines and costs after legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to the lowest bidder...." 14. How were these laws unfair? Why were they passed? What effect did they have on ex-
slaves in the South? 15. Was life for blacks under the Black Codes better than slavery? Did the Black Codes violate the 13th Amendment? 16. Why did Johnson refuse to stop the Black Codes being passed by Southern state governments? 17. Congress outlawed the Black Codes when it passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which declared that blacks had rights equal to those of whites. Johnson vetoed the bill, but it was passed into law nonetheless. Explain how a bill might become law even if a president vetoes it. The 14th Amendment, congress passes in June, 1866 and ratified in 1868
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. The Amendment also gave Congress the power to reduce congressional representation of states that withheld suffrage from black males.
18. Rewrite the above in your own words. 19. From whom did the 14th Amendment protect blacks from? Why did they need protecting? 20. The 14th Amendment decreased state power and provided for more national supervision. So why do you think Southern states were upset with it? (Think about some of the causes of the Civil War) 21. Why did President Johnson tell Southern states not to ratify the 14th Amendment? 3
The Military Reconstruction Acts, 1867 Congress wins the power struggle for reconstruction by passing these acts. In essence, the acts imposed martial law upon the South by dividing it into 5 military districts, each under the supreme supervision of a Union general. In order to free itself from martial law, each state had to complete th the following: ratify the 14 Amendment, guarantee black suffrage in the state constitution, and disenfranchise of thousands of ex-‐Confederates. Southern states slowly fulfilled the requirements and were readmitted to the Union; all elected Republican governments
22. Do you think the Radical Republicans in the North overstepped their bounds by passing the Military Reconstruction Acts? Were the Acts too severe upon the South? 23. How do you think the South viewed the North after these Acts were passed? How did Democrats view the Republicans? 24. Compare and contrast the Military Reconstruction Acts to the other reconstruction plans which were not passed (i.e., 10% Plan, Wade-Davis Bill, and Johnson’s Plan) President Johnson is Impeached, 1867 President Andrew Johnson was impeached by the House of Representatives and tried by Senate for breaking the Tenure of Office Act when he fired Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. The Senate was 1 vote short of the required 2/3s for removal. Republican Ulysses S. Grant wins 1868
25. What is impeachment? Who was the only other president to be impeached? 26. If you were representing Johnson during the trial before the Senate, how would you argue that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional? 27. Even though Johnson survived removal from office, why was political career in essence over? 28. Who was Ulysses S. Grant again? The 15th Amendment, February, 1869
15th Amendment-‐ Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
29. Rewrite the 15th Amendment in your own words. 30. Why did Radical Republicans place such an emphasis on protecting black suffrage? 31. Who was left out of 15th Amendment protection? 32. Does the Amendment absolutely grant guarantee black males the right to vote? Explain.
The 3 Elements of the Southern Republican Party
33. What were the 3 elements of the Southern Republican Party? (hint-572-573) 34. Why was the Republican Party in the South a coalition party? 35. What was a “carpetbagger”? Is the above depiction a positive or negative one? Why? Who do you think drew this political cartoon?
Ku Klux Klan “The Klan broke my door open, took me out o f bed, took me to the woods and whipped me three hours or more and left me for dead. They said to me ‘Do you think you will ever vote another damned radical ticket?’ They set in and whipped me a thousand licks more, with sticks and straps that had buckles on them.” – Abram Colby, served on Georgia legislature on Georgia legislature 36. How and why was the KKK founded? What the KKK’s main goal? Tactics? 37. Why do you think the KKK was so effective in the South during Reconstruction? 38. What groups do you think the KKK targeted during Reconstruction?
39. Was this advertisement meant to intimidate blacks in the South? Why or why not? 5
40. What does the poster tell you about Southern society and culture during the Reconstruction?
41. Write observations regarding the symbolism used in the above Reconstruction Era political propaganda poster.
The sharecropping and Crop-Lien Systems Blacks had few work options in post-‐war South due mostly to the legalization of segregation by way of Jim Crow laws. One option, and most times the only option, was working for their former masters. Planters tried hiring gangs of workers, but this technique did not work because there was a shortage of cash in the South. Instead, planters broke their farms down into smaller units and gave each unit to a black family along with seeds and tools. The black family would then give the planter 50% of its harvest as rent. In order to pay for food, clothing and anything else, black families would allow the local merchants to make liens on future harvests.
42. Why was it so difficult for blacks to make a living on their own? 43. Why did sharecropping and the crop-lien system keep blacks poor and bound to the land? 44. Why is it economically dangerous to allow merchants to make liens on your future crop harvests?
Grant wins 1868 election
45. Why couldn’t Texas, Virginia and Mississippi vote? 46. What impact will these scandals have on the Republicans and their goals for Reconstruction? 47. How did the Grant administration scandals and the Panic of 1873 affect the plight of southern blacks? 6
Home Rule and Redemption The Southern Democrats achieved their long-‐desired goals of “home rule” and “redemption.”
Home Rule-‐ the ability to run state governments without federal intervention. Redemption-‐Democrats retaking power in the South. By 1875, only 3 southern governments are run by Republicans (SC, LA, and FL)
48. Home Rule was considered a huge victory for what groups? 49. What types of changes do you think will be made as a result of Home Rule? 50. What does redemption mean for southern blacks?
Supreme Court Decisions Slaughterhouse Cases-‐ Decided that state citizenship contained most of American’s basic civil rights not their US citizenship.
51. Why would the Slaughterhouse Cases weaken the 14th Amendment? 52. What groups would support these Supreme Court decisions? Why? U.S. v. Cruikshank-‐ Decided that the 14th Amendment did not grant the federal government power to punish whites who oppressed blacks.
53. What did this Supreme Court case accomplish? 54. What impact do you think this decision will have on Reconstruction?
U.S. v. Reese-‐ Decided that the 15th Amendment was determined not to grant voting rights to anyone, but rather to restrict types of voter discrimination.
55. What did this decision allow states to do in relation to voting rights?
The Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction
56. Describe the results of the 1876 Election. 57. What was the Compromise of 1877? 58. How did the Compromise of 1877 establish full “home rule”? 59. Why did the Compromise of 1877 end Reconstruction and what did this mean for blacks in the south?