Reconstruction Activity packet - gcalella

Reconstruction Activity packet - gcalella

Reconstruction Activity packet Directions   • Read and take notes on Chapter 16. Complete this handout as you go. You must carefully read and take not...

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Reconstruction Activity packet Directions   • Read and take notes on Chapter 16. Complete this handout as you go. You must carefully read and take notes on Chapter 16 in order to complete this handout. • Review each of the following excerpts and answer the corresponding questions in your notes. • Next, for one or more of the excerpts on each page of this packet, write 2 discussion questions. Thus, you are writing 2 discussion questions for each page of this handout. Your questions will be used during class discussion.    

Lincoln’s 2nd inaugural address, march 4, 1865      

With  malice  toward  none,  with  charity  for  all,  ...let  us  strive  on  to  finish  the  work   we  are  in,  ...to  do  all  which  may  achieve  and  cherish  a  just  and  lasting  peace   among  ourselves  and  with  all  nations.      

 

1. From reading this excerpt, what type of Reconstruction Plan do you think Lincoln had planned? Explain your answer. Lincoln’s 10% plan, December 1863        

Under  the  plan,  Southern  states  could  come  back  into  the  Union  by  getting  10%  of  the  state   population  to  take  an  oath  of  loyalty  to  the  Union.      Lincoln  also  wanted  to  give  full  pardons  to   rebels  who  renounced  secession  and  accepted  emancipation.    The  pardon  would  restore  all   property  and  political  rights  to  ex-­‐rebels,  and  ex-­‐rebels  were  not  required  to  give  political  rights   or  social  assistance  to  free  blacks.  

2. If you were a Southerner during this time, what would you have thought of this plan? Why? 3. If you were a freed African American living in the North during this time, how would you have viewed this proposal? The wade-Davis bill, July 1864          

Radical  Republicans  felt  that  Lincoln’s  plan  was  too  moderate;  they  felt  that  Congress  should  call   the  shots  as  to  Reconstruction.    Henry  Davis  and  Benjamin  Wade  proposed  a  Reconstruction  bill   in  response  to  Lincoln’s  plan.    The  bill  required  51%  of  a  Southern  state’s  population  to  take   oath  of  allegiance,  and  it  barred  all  of  those  who  took  up  arms  against  the  Union  from   participating  in  drafting  new  state  constitutions.    Moreover  the  Wade-­‐Davis  bill  guaranteed   equality  for  all  freedmen,  and  it  repudiated  Confederate  debts  (i.e.,  you  could  not  get  your   money  back  if  you  invested  in  the  Confederate  States  of  America).    Lincoln  “pocket  vetoed”  the   bill  (bill  was  given  to  him  with  less  than  10  days  remaining  in  congressional  session).  

4. Should the president or Congress control Reconstruction? Explain.   Why do you think this Radical Republican was drafted in this way? What do you think 5. the Radical Republicans had in mind for the South with this bill?   1    

Assassination of President Lincoln, April 15, 1865

 

6. Why did the South’s hope for a mild and peaceful Reconstruction die that same day Lincoln died? 7. Why do you think John Wilkes Booth became a hated man in both the North and the South? 13th Amendment, December 6, 1865    

"Neither  slavery  nor  involuntary  servitude...shall  exist  within  the  United  States."      

8. Rewrite the 13th Amendment in your own words. 9. Explain why some argue that the 13th Amendment was the first step of the Civil Rights Movement. Do you agree or disagree? Explain.

President Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan        

Johnson  stressed  reconciliation  with  the  South  and  the  rapid  restoration  of  civil  government  in   the  South.    He  recognized  all  Southern  states  that  were  admitted  by  Lincoln.    For  the  remaining   states,  he  required  the  following  3  measures  for  being  readmitted  into  the  Union:  citizens  to   renounce  the  right  to  secede,  accept  the  13th  Amendment,  and  repudiation  of  Confederate   debts.        

10. From what you read about Johnson’s background, explain why you think he included the terms that he did. 11. Does Johnson’s plan look more like Lincoln’s 10% Plan or the Wade-Davis Plan? Explain your answer. 12. Later on, Johnson nonetheless accepts state governments even when they failed to satisfy the above 3 demands. Why? (hint see page 563) 13. The Radical Republican critiqued Johnson’s plan as being too much like “status quo antebellum.” What did they mean by this criticism? 2  

 

The Mississippi Black Code      

"Negroes  must  make  annual  contracts  for  labor  in  writing;  if  they  should  run  away  from  their   tasks,  they  forfeited  their  wages  for  the  year.  Whenever  it  was  required  of  them  they  must   present  licenses  (in  a  town  from  the  mayor;  elsewhere  from  a  member  of  the  board  of  police  of   the  beat)  citing  their  places  of  residence  and  authorizing  them  to  work.  Fugitives  from  labor   were  to  be  arrested  and  carried  back  to  their  employers.  Five  dollars  a  head  and  mileage  would   be  allowed  such  negro  catchers.  It  was  made  a  misdemeanor,  punishable  with  fine  or   imprisonment,  to  persuade  a  freedman  to  leave  his  employer,  or  to  feed  the  runaway.  Minors   were  to  be  apprenticed,  if  males  until  they  were  twenty-­‐one,  if  females  until  eighteen  years  of   age.  Such  corporal  punishment  as  a  father  would  administer  to  a  child  might  be  inflicted  upon   apprentices  by  their  masters.  Vagrants  were  to  be  fined  heavily,  and  if  they  could  not  pay  the   sum,  they  were  to  be  hired  out  to  service  until  the  claim  was  satisfied.  Negroes  might  not  carry   knives  or  firearms  unless  they  were  licensed  so  to  do.  It  was  an  offence,  to  be  punished  by  a  fine   of  $50  and  imprisonment  for  thirty  days,  to  give  or  sell  intoxicating  liquors  to  a  negro.  When   negroes  could  not  pay  the  fines  and  costs  after  legal  proceedings,  they  were  to  be  hired  at   public  outcry  by  the  sheriff  to  the  lowest  bidder...."      14. How were these laws unfair? Why were they passed? What effect did they have on ex-

slaves in the South? 15. Was life for blacks under the Black Codes better than slavery? Did the Black Codes violate the 13th Amendment? 16. Why did Johnson refuse to stop the Black Codes being passed by Southern state governments? 17. Congress outlawed the Black Codes when it passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which declared that blacks had rights equal to those of whites. Johnson vetoed the bill, but it was passed into law nonetheless. Explain how a bill might become law even if a president vetoes it. The 14th Amendment, congress passes in June, 1866 and ratified in 1868

  All  persons  born  or  naturalized  in  the  United  States,  and  subject  to  the  jurisdiction  thereof,  are   citizens  of  the  United  States  and  of  the  State  wherein  they  reside.  No  State  shall  make  or  enforce     any  law  which  shall  abridge  the  privileges  or  immunities  of  citizens  of  the  United  States;  nor  shall     any  State  deprive  any  person  of  life,  liberty,  or  property,  without  due  process  of  law;  nor  deny  to   any  person  within  its  jurisdiction  the  equal  protection  of  the  laws.    The  Amendment  also  gave   Congress  the  power  to  reduce  congressional  representation  of  states  that  withheld  suffrage  from   black  males.  

18. Rewrite the above in your own words. 19. From whom did the 14th Amendment protect blacks from? Why did they need protecting? 20. The 14th Amendment decreased state power and provided for more national supervision. So why do you think Southern states were upset with it? (Think about some of the causes of the Civil War) 21. Why did President Johnson tell Southern states not to ratify the 14th Amendment? 3    

   

The Military Reconstruction Acts, 1867   Congress  wins  the  power  struggle  for  reconstruction  by  passing  these  acts.    In  essence,  the  acts   imposed  martial  law  upon  the  South  by  dividing  it  into  5  military  districts,  each  under  the  supreme     supervision  of  a  Union  general.    In  order  to  free  itself  from  martial  law,  each  state  had  to  complete   th   the  following:    ratify  the  14  Amendment,  guarantee  black  suffrage  in  the  state  constitution,  and   disenfranchise  of  thousands  of  ex-­‐Confederates.    Southern  states  slowly  fulfilled  the  requirements   and  were  readmitted  to  the  Union;  all  elected  Republican  governments  

 

22. Do you think the Radical Republicans in the North overstepped their bounds by passing the Military Reconstruction Acts? Were the Acts too severe upon the South? 23. How do you think the South viewed the North after these Acts were passed? How did Democrats view the Republicans? 24. Compare and contrast the Military Reconstruction Acts to the other reconstruction plans which were not passed (i.e., 10% Plan, Wade-Davis Bill, and Johnson’s Plan) President Johnson is Impeached, 1867   President  Andrew  Johnson  was  impeached  by  the  House  of  Representatives  and  tried  by  Senate  for   breaking  the  Tenure  of  Office  Act  when  he  fired  Secretary  of  War  Edwin  M.  Stanton.    The  Senate     was  1  vote  short  of  the  required  2/3s  for  removal.    Republican  Ulysses  S.  Grant  wins  1868    

Election.      

25. What is impeachment? Who was the only other president to be impeached? 26. If you were representing Johnson during the trial before the Senate, how would you argue that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional? 27. Even though Johnson survived removal from office, why was political career in essence over? 28. Who was Ulysses S. Grant again? The 15th Amendment, February, 1869

15th  Amendment-­‐  Section  1  The  right  of  citizens  of  the  United  States  to  vote  shall  not  be  denied  or   abridged  by  the  United  States  or  by  any  State  on  account  of  race,  color,  or  previous  condition  of   servitude.  

     

29. Rewrite the 15th Amendment in your own words. 30. Why did Radical Republicans place such an emphasis on protecting black suffrage? 31. Who was left out of 15th Amendment protection? 32. Does the Amendment absolutely grant guarantee black males the right to vote? Explain.  

4    

The 3 Elements of the Southern Republican Party

33. What were the 3 elements of the Southern Republican Party? (hint-572-573) 34. Why was the Republican Party in the South a coalition party? 35. What was a “carpetbagger”? Is the above depiction a positive or negative one? Why? Who do you think drew this political cartoon?

Ku Klux Klan “The  Klan  broke  my  door  open,  took  me  out  o f  bed,  took  me  to  the   woods  and   whipped  me  three  hours  or  more  and  left  me  for  dead.    They     said  to  me  ‘Do  you  think  you  will  ever  vote  another  damned  radical  ticket?’     They  set  in  and  whipped  me  a  thousand  licks  more,  with  sticks  and  straps   that  had  buckles  on  them.”   –   Abram  Colby,  served   on  Georgia  legislature     on  Georgia  legislature   36. How and why was the KKK founded? What the KKK’s main goal? Tactics?   37. Why do you think the KKK was so effective in the South during Reconstruction? 38. What groups do you think the KKK targeted during Reconstruction?  

39. Was this advertisement meant to intimidate blacks in the South?   Why or why not? 5    

 

40. What does the poster tell you about Southern society and culture during the Reconstruction?

41. Write observations regarding the symbolism used in the above Reconstruction Era political propaganda poster.

The sharecropping and Crop-Lien Systems Blacks  had  few  work  options  in  post-­‐war  South  due  mostly  to  the  legalization  of  segregation  by  way   of  Jim  Crow  laws.    One  option,  and  most  times  the  only  option,  was  working  for  their  former     masters.    Planters  tried  hiring  gangs  of  workers,  but  this  technique  did  not  work  because  there  was   a  shortage  of  cash  in  the  South.    Instead,  planters  broke  their  farms  down  into  smaller  units  and     gave  each  unit  to  a  black  family  along  with  seeds  and  tools.    The  black  family  would  then  give  the   planter  50%  of  its  harvest  as  rent.    In  order  to  pay  for  food,  clothing  and  anything  else,  black   families  would  allow  the  local  merchants  to  make  liens  on  future  harvests.    

42. Why was it so difficult for blacks to make a living on their own? 43. Why did sharecropping and the crop-lien system keep blacks poor and bound to the land? 44. Why is it economically dangerous to allow merchants to make liens on your future crop harvests?

Grant wins 1868 election

45. Why  couldn’t  Texas,  Virginia  and  Mississippi  vote?   46. What impact will these scandals have on the Republicans and their goals for Reconstruction?   47. How  did  the  Grant  administration  scandals  and  the  Panic  of  1873  affect  the  plight  of  southern   blacks?     6    

 

Home Rule and Redemption The  Southern  Democrats  achieved  their  long-­‐desired  goals  of  “home  rule”  and  “redemption.”  

 

  Home  Rule-­‐  the  ability  to  run  state  governments  without  federal  intervention.       Redemption-­‐Democrats  retaking  power  in  the  South.    By  1875,  only  3  southern  governments  are     run  by  Republicans  (SC,  LA,  and  FL)  

48. Home Rule was considered a huge victory for what groups? 49. What types of changes do you think will be made as a result of Home Rule? 50. What does redemption mean for southern blacks?

Supreme Court Decisions Slaughterhouse  Cases-­‐  Decided  that  state  citizenship  contained  most  of  American’s  basic  civil  rights   not  their  US  citizenship.  

   

51. Why would the Slaughterhouse Cases weaken the 14th Amendment? 52. What groups would support these Supreme Court decisions? Why?   U.S.  v.  Cruikshank-­‐    Decided  that  the  14th  Amendment  did  not  grant  the  federal  government  power   to  punish  whites  who  oppressed  blacks.  

   

53. What did this Supreme Court case accomplish? 54. What impact do you think this decision will have on Reconstruction?

 

U.S.  v.  Reese-­‐  Decided  that  the  15th  Amendment  was  determined  not  to  grant  voting  rights  to  anyone,     but  rather  to  restrict  types  of  voter  discrimination.    

55. What did this decision allow states to do in relation to voting rights?  

7    

The Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction

56. Describe the results of the 1876 Election. 57. What was the Compromise of 1877? 58. How did the Compromise of 1877 establish full “home rule”? 59. Why did the Compromise of 1877 end Reconstruction and what did this mean for blacks in the south?

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