The Humanities and the Curriculum - ASCD

The Humanities and the Curriculum - ASCD

The Humanities and the Curriculum BRUCE G. BARON * w ITH the establishment in 1965 of the National Council, Endowment, and Foundation for the Humani...

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The Humanities and the Curriculum BRUCE G. BARON *

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ITH the establishment in 1965 of the National Council, Endowment, and Foundation for the Humanities, the community of education has been encour aged to seek a finer understanding of the nature and role of the humanities in the life and education of man. The search for such understanding is not new. The debates com prise a span from Plato's R epublic to the current journals. Yet, there persists some sense of uncertainty and confusion. One might wish to believe that two mil lennia would have been sufficient time to re solve the questions with which we still seem plagued, and to sort out the labels and cate gories which have made the discourse diffi cult: humanism, humanize, humanness, hu manities, liberal education, as well as the operational structures (educational proc esses? designs? ) claiming to bridge the whole range. McClellan (33) has suggested that we must inquire further into what it is to "teach the humanities" in order to clarify the discussion. This paper is directed toward that goal, and seeks to deal informally with two basic questions: (a) What is the nature of the humanities in the curriculum? and (b) How can the current discourse be dealt with in curriculum terms? While the humanism of the Renaissance sought to escape the dogmatism and scholasDecember 1969

ticism of the Middle Ages, educational con cerns with the humanities in recent discourse have involved a wider spread of difficulties, including the whole content-process spec trum. Some writers sense a threat to their domain of inquiry, or to the place of the humanities in the curriculum, from the social and natural sciences, or simply from an overly "cognitive" or "technical" (rather than "humane"?) orientation. They have sought to assert distinctions among the humanities, social (human) sciences, and natural sci ences, both in an effort to demonstrate the humanities' worth and to appeal for place and emphasis in education. Eisner sum marizes this position: American schools, so long concerned with helping children become competent in the "cog nitive" fields, are now beginning to turn their attention to the arts and humanities. . . . edu cators . . . who once pressed for a heavier dose of the "solids," are now beginning to suspect that something has been missing in this emphasis. Perhaps they are now willing to consider that the study of man's perennial problems as exem plified in the humanities and the education of man's sensibilities as developed through the arts might be a needed counter-thrust to the empha sis placed upon the sciences and upon mathe matics over the past 15-year period (22). * B ruce G. Baron. University Fellow. Temple University. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 287

Along these same lines, there has also been some appeal for more discussion of the role of the humanities, in a functional or instrumental sense, over and above their intrinsic worth ( 18, 2 3, 25, Combs in 31, 35, 36, 37). Frye (40) has suggested that the humanities are distinguished from the sciences not so much by their subject matter as by some peculiar method and mental atti tudes. The inquiry into the nature of this method and these attitudes reflects a wide range of conceptualizations of learning and of the humanities. Bruner (18) and others have emphasized the humanities as inference pools of human experience through which to study and understand the causes and conse quences of choices. Some writers (25, 29, Jenkins in 32, 39, Beardsley in 40) have underlined "cognitive" structures and devel opment. Richards (36) and others see the humanities as "mediators" through which one may come to insights. Jacobs (15) and Winthrop (43) see both "cognitive" and "noncognitive" elements in the humanities as ways to discourse and to non-discourse. Horn (quoted in 25 )' has argued, on the other side, that all these concepts of function are so much folklore. Other writers, dealing more with philo sophical and practical questions of selection and organization within the humanities them selves, at all levels of education, have sug gested that scholars must deal more directly with the problem of what it is to be "truly human." They have looked at the humani ties, as taught in the schools, and decried a wide range of conditions: tendencies to mystical abstractions and bull sessions (23, Beardsley in 40); mediocrity and a loss of taste and fundamental spiritual values (Jacobs in 15, Lippmann quoted in 20, 27); pragmatism and anarchy (37); dillettantism and a new scholasticism (36). Howard Mumford Jones has noted this last: Rather, what I am trying to do is to shock you into a sense of how the aristocratic spirit which lurks in scholarship, the samurai spirit of specialism, has carried us away from the 1 His conclusions are to some extent also shared in 17 and 19.

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rather central problem of the education of the human race (28).

In addition to these concerns with the contents of the humanities, there has also been much discussion of the humanities as process. Broudy (17) has suggested that the two are not separable if the humanities are to have any claims as means to "evaluational education." The idea of humanizing through a study of the humanities, and that of "hu manistic" education or learning, have a rich heritage from Erasmus and Montaigne to the present. Questions about becoming, awareing, involvement, and relevance have been raised by Maslow (7), Rogers (31), and others (13, 30); and for many these are as central to the task-achievement sense of "teaching the humanities" as basic cognitive skills and the structures of disciplines. This question of the process sense of the humani ties, however, has not stopped with discus sion of curricula so labeled, but rather has extended to the entire issue of "humanizing" education to the very core. Paul Goodman, Jonathan Kozol, and many others have directed public attention to the idea of a dehumanization of man, both by technology and science and by his system of education (schooling?). Goodlad has indeed reported: In schools run by humans, we have not succeeded in developing intensely humanistic learning environments not in process, not in content, and not in perspective. The schools do not, in general, foster man's more creative traits, nor grapple with his great ideas, nor relate these ideas and talents to the contemporary environ ment where man's dreams are continuously reenacted. The schools are bogged down with rou tine, trivialities, and the lesser literacies . . . schooling has lost sight of education as an end in itself and has become instrumental to the next textbook, the next grade, higher education, and the Gross National Product. And now . . . the computer comes into this human-based en vironment. . . . Will the computer dehumanize learning and teaching even more? (26)

Curriculum goals, content, and organi zation thus are seen to form only one set of factors affecting a child's educational life and the ability of the structure of the school, of the educational system, to "teach" just as Educational Leadership

forcefully. 2 While recent science and mathe matics programs have managed to fit into the existing systems with some ease, Eisner (22) wonders if the humanities and the arts can do so and still retain their integrity. Herman (15) has noted the lack of programs which deal with the humanities in this broader con text in the schools, and Wilhelms has sum marized much of this dilemma: If the schools wish to engage themselves in helping young people understand themselves and others and grow a sense of identity, if they want to help each young person face up to the great questions of ethics and values, of life and significance and commitment to purpose, then they are free to do it. If they do it with genuine relevance to life, as their students perceive life, then they will also have learners whose motiva tion is powerful. Is this what "the humanities" are about? I hope so. I hope that the thousands of unified humanities courses which are spring ing up around the country mostly in the twelfth grade are an intuitive response to the great soul-hungers. But if that is what we mean, it will take strenuous effort and a radical re thinking to capture it. ... If the idea behind the humanities is valid, then we have been talking about one of the great streams that run through the whole curriculum. . . . We are free to choose whether to design just one more "subject" or to go to the hearts of men (42).

These writers are concerned not only with changing the context in which learning occurs, but also with redirecting educational goals; and, interestingly enough, they have wide support among scholars in science and technology. 5 Concern with "humanizing" the curriculum and all education has indeed been increasing in recent years, and the discourse ranges from writing on nongraded elemen tary schools and individually prescribed in struction to pass-fail evaluation and relevant curriculum and attitudes at riot-torn colleges. Yet, these questions also seem to parallel some basic philosophical issues of our time, and that very fear of a loss of the humanities' identity to the human and natural sciences reflects an emerging conflict between a spir itual humanism and a new scientific human ism (or secular materialism?), that finds some voice in the writings of Soren Kierke gaard and Bertrand Russell (or Dwayne Huebner), in the images of 1 984 and Walden Tivo, and in many a Sunday sermon. fl

Elements of Humanities Curriculum

Buswell (4) and McDonald (8) have underlined the problem of the need for a perceived compatibility of new concepts in education with contemporary "expert" usages. 3 Huebner (6), reacting to the work of Jacques Ellul and Marshall McLuhan, has suggested that current educational, and par ticularly curriculum, thought is indeed tied to a technological, instrumental, or end-mean bias which denies man's spirit for specific learnings and technique, his destinies for simple destinations.4

Ralph Barton Perry (quoted in 21) has described the humanities as those "disciplines wiiich make man more man in the eulogistic sense of the word; which contribute to a good life based on free and enlightened choice among values." This sense of the humanities as "disciplines" is a somewhat recent devel opment. Initially, the humanities involved all inquiry by men about the nature of man, outside of the given dogmas of religions. Only gradually was this breadth of "humanistic" inquiry compartmentalized and formalized into "arts and sciences," or "the seven liberal arts," or, later, "disciplines." Throughout this period the process and content as well as the perspective of the learnings have also been

2 While Eisner is the source for these com ments, for a more detailed discussion of the effects of structural organization of schooling, see Grannis' article in 12. 3 See particularly McDonald's discussions of Thorndike, Dewey, anfl Tolman; in addition, see Kliebard on Dewey and curriculum in 12. 4 See also Maxine Greene's reactions to much the same literature, but more especially to R. Buckminster Fuller, in 12.

5 For example, Cousins, Cozart, and Mesthene in 9, as well as the journal. Technology and Culture, published at the University of Chicago. Compare these with the more formalist approach in the journal, Computers and the Humanities, published at Queens College, New York City. 0 The author recently heard Robert Peel, Edi torial Counselor of the Christian Science Church of Boston, at Princeton University Chapel, on this sub ject, April 27, 1969.

December 1969

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changing. The discourse noted above would suggest that our notions of the humanities may perhaps have come full circle. Yet, in terestingly enough, the National Council, Endowment, and Foundation for the Hu manities is distinct from that for the Arts, and indeed the content of a "liberal" or "gen eral" education still seems to puzzle most educators. Several authors have wondered about the possibilities of finding a structure of the humanities (Herman in 15 and Jacobs in 35), accepting the fact that the notion of structures is grounded in the language of the "disciplines." This notion, however, has been extended to the psychological and the devel opmental, as well as to the logical, and these further considerations may provide means for getting at the humanities beyond the for mal disciplines so subsumed. The discourse does seem to suggest at least a spectrum of tasks ascribed to learnings labeled "the hu manities" through which one might come, nevertheless, to a clearer idea of the prob lems involved in "teaching the humanities." At one level, there are the separate sub jects, the formal disciplines into which the humanities are divided: philosophy, aesthet ics, history, rhetoric and grammar, even psy chology and the arts. Frequently the course labels at this level change: witness courses labeled "comparative," "social," etc.; never theless, the course is marked by that special ized scholarship to which Howard Mumford Jones was referring (28). Much of the work in the humanities at the secondary level, as Herman has noted (15), has been attempting to bring these formal categories of inquiry from the college level into the public schools, either as separate courses or as topics in a "multi-disciplinary" humanities course. This specialism has been the natural bent of col leges, and particularly of graduate education, although even there some attempt at placing disciplines in broader divisions humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences with some courses of broader context, is evident. This too has made its way into some schools at lower levels. The knowledge explosion, however, has been a formidible force against the idea of the "compleat gentleman" (6, 290

16), both in the resulting emphasis on struc ture and heuristics and in the renewed in quiry into the meaning of a liberal or general education for students not continuing to higher (or to graduate or professional) edu cation. (The colleges have indeed taken over much of these responsibilities, which until recently were those of the high schools in a democracy.) If the separate subjects suggest the scholasticism and specialization of higher education, or the instrumentalism noted by Huebner (6), they certainly do not fully de lineate the full realm of the humanities. There are, perhaps at some different levels, what one may call fields of contemporary wisdom, which are the gleanings of those separate inquiries, the understanding of ethos, the appreciations and perspectives. This is the level of inquiry to which much of the dis course on the role of the humanities refers, and toward which public education endeavors in interdisciplinary approaches to the hu manities are often exhorted to direct their attentions. This is that level which deals with the "so what?" questions of man, with the search for meanings and relevancies within and outside seemingly sterile knowledge. One might suggest yet another level: that of the senses of meaning and of aware ness that come not only from outside but through the self. This aspect of the humani ties has traditionally been the domain of expression in the arts, but is frequently now associated with sensitivity training, medita tion, and self concept (7, 41). It is also reflected (for the crafts) in the philosophy of John Burton (especially on his NET pro grams, "The Fires of Invention"), in the edu cational ideas of Rudolf Steiner, or indeed of traditional American Indian education, as well as in the ways of the rugged individual ist, idealized in the nature-as-teacher curri cula of schools like Prescott College (Ari zona) or Life Bound (Colorado) and Outward Bound (Massachusetts). The lack of concern with the inner self in much educational dis course may reflect some behavior and learn ing theory biases, and it may well also evi dence certain cultural biases in perceiving man and his world, particularly distinctions Educational Leadership

of mysticism from formal learning, and hence from the schools (although this may be less true of religious schools). 7 The spectrum suggests (and the author makes no completeness or survey-of-the-field claims for it) that the humanities are in volved with basic questions about man and questions of knowing from the mystic to the formalistic, from an almost psychomotor sense of awareness to affective questions of valuing and to the most cognitive under standings of the structure of formal disci plines; and also that further inquiry relating these general fields of activity to senses of "teaching the humanities" is certainly needed. Each of these levels most probably has addi tional strata, or persistent interconnections. Certainly there are skill elements and appre ciations within the separate subjects; some specific knowledge needed at the bases of broader understandings; abstractions about which to contemplate and questions to ask of the universe. Bellack has noted that: Problems in the world of human affairs do not come neatly labeled. . . . They come as de cisions to be made, and force us to call upon all we know and make us wish we knew more. . . . Without adequate understanding of the various fields of knowledge, students had no way of knowing which fields were relevant to problems of concern to them. As a matter of fact, without knowledge of the organized fields, it was difficult for them to ask the kinds of questions that the various disciplines could help them answer (3).

Educators make demands on the hu manities at all of these levels, but they most often do not relate these demands to curricu lum questions. The humanities are a vast storehouse of various kinds of knowledge, which educators have dealt with only in terms of one compartment. Jordan (15) has sug gested that we must better appreciate the developmental aspect of learning in the de mands we make on children in the humani ties. Nostrand (32) believes that we must more fully understand the process and con7 For an example of a recent parochial school proposal, see 38. For some interesting comments on cultural biases and educational attitudes about man and nature, see lan McHarg's comments on the NET PEL special, "Multiply and Subdue the Earth," 1969. December 1969

tent components of these studies. The com partments we have created by our reference may be a great hindrance. We must be clearer as to our aims, and indeed our means.

Design and the Humanities Curriculum Maxine Greene (27) has written that "the problem of education is to make the pupil see the wood by means of the trees." Barring omniscience, the essential questions become those of how much of the wood and by which trees. This is the domain of educa tional and curriculum design. The signifi cance of design questions in the humanities is underscored in the discourse: All these theories are characterized by dif fering principles of curriculum organization and educational philosophy (14). Philosophers have always argued for the importance of interdisciplinary connections in the study of cultural areas, but seldom have they been successful in getting schools to remove the barriers between subjects (Hood in 15). How shall our image of ourselves as men be kept intact and instructive while the image is also kept responsive to new forms of knowledge and sensibility that come into our posses sion? (18) Yet (he) does not tell us more particularly what sort of discipline or disciplines . . . would be most effective. . . . How are we to use the classics? . . . for unless we can assume that these books will interpret themselves or that the wisdom they contain will somehow be com municated if only they are read, we cannot avoid raising the question of what, if the hu manities are to prosper in the future, is the na ture of the methods or the arts by which their values are to be realized. . . . All subject matters which we have marked out as humanistic may be studied by different methods by scientists as well as by humanists and in being thus studied differently they become in the process different objects (20). It is quite another task to identify what is worth attending to in the humanities, to justify one's selection of humanistic content, and to conceptualize and describe methods of inquiry and discussion that do not do violence to that content. . . . What constitutes humanistic con tent and for whom? Are the humanities charac291

terized by their method of production or their method of appreciation; or is their defining character the nature of the ideas they express or the emotions they elicit? (22)

On one level, these questions involve the traditional discussion of organization and patterns of curriculum: core, separate sub jects, etc., so well described by Taba (11) and others (2, 9). Yet, they are also con cerned with the nature of the learnings toward which education is directed: Do we try to teach the structures of disciplines, or to bring students to one with the infinite through their own faculties? Fox (5) has underlined the relationships between the ed ucational theorist's epistemology, psychology of learning, and curriculum design. The con sonance of specific notions of the humanities with epistemological biases should indeed not be surprising. The significance of these biases, and of the general problem of nominalistic-vs.-organismic concerns, has been discussed by Greene and Kliebard (12), and some practical issues have been neatly sum marized by Grannis: A great deal of effort is being expended today to reform the subject offerings of the cur riculum, in order to bring them more into line with the disciplines of the sciences and the hu manities. It is vital that scholars be concerned with the validity of inquiry in the disciplines but two problems must be recognized. First, the new curriculum is fast being transformed in prac tice into the same old message in a new form, as it pours vast new quantities of knowledge into the schools for students to accumulate. The no tion that there are certain fixed structures of thought to be mastered in order to have knowl edge of the disciplines may well gain the upper hand over the sophisticated entreaties of a few that these structures are man-made and that every individual must make choices and develop his own style within a discipline. The key to this problem too may be to think of the disciplines as social institutions. . . . Our second problem stands in the way of all the possibilities we have been considering for the schools. So long as college-bound students, and their teachers, per ceive that it is necessary to spend night and day preparing for college, through academic studies, they will be afraid to elect the schools' alterna tives, and rightly so (12).

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If, then, there is a developmental struc ture in the humanities, how does or need curriculum design change at the various levels; or, is there some basic structure which one may teach in some way at whatever levels; or, do the humanities not involve cog nitive structures of any sort, but rather con frontation and clarification, involvement and excitement, appreciations and valuing (a notion of the humanities one might perhaps trace from Montaigne)? One must ask then not only the nature of humanistic content, but also the nature of the knowledge which we have labeled "the humanities." Yet, even while inquiring into the nature of the knowledge we are to teach, and into the continuous problems of functional priorities (1, Phenix and Fraser in 10), one must still be concerned with the philosophical bases on which the design is built and with the per spectives which give it direction: with what gives meaning to education, what is worth knowing, for whom, where, and when. Wilhelms (31) has noted that the school cur riculum is something we teach for only 2000 days, and that often its side effects are more significant than its direct inputs: what then should we expect from the schools? Hilton (12) and others have pointed to the changing demands and perspectives of technological or cyber-cultural societies, and particularly to the impacts of generations of well educated peoples, largely liberated from the need to work. Changing social goals and perspectives of self-realization, world rela tions, and citizenship will find reflection in the curriculum, as well as make for new demands on the content and the context of the humanities. Maxine Greene (12), per haps reflecting the humanist's distrust or fear of technology, has underlined the need to avoid simple design solutions that do not deal with central human problems, comprehen sive designs that restrict more than free, and technical "fixing" or gadget worship that molds men to the means instead of the means to man's goals. Huebner (6) has emphasized a need to design humanistic educational en vironments rather than to solve particular instructional problems or to achieve only lim ited technical goals. He has indeed further Educational Leadership

suggested the role of the educator as social and political critic: The content of the school has shifted as the political process has indicated that now one group, now another, needed attention or gained control. When no one else speaks for an im portant or neglected group or set of values, then the educator must. He must represent none, yet all. To the extent that he takes unjustified sides, he ruins his effectiveness as the educational ad judicator. As dispassionately as the judge in the law court, he must listen to all sides, including the prophets, and seek to build a just educational environment. . . . The study of curriculum can be and should be a great liberal and liberating study, for through it the specialist must come to grips with the great social and intellectual prob lems of today. s

This search for the meaning of educa tion and for the educator's role reflects those same concerns, those same basic conflicts we noted above in the humanities at large. In addition, however, educators must take care not to load their discourse uncritically in favor of the spiritual humanists. Indeed, in their search for definitions of concepts like "education," "teaching," or "indoctrination," educators tend too easily to associate tech nology (or science) and technical innova tions in education with pejorative labels." The humanities raise peculiar design problems because of the varieties of our no tions of the humanities, and because of the task-achievement implications of these no tions. If the humanities are conceived as essentially program modes for some interior data processing (35), they may be directed toward symbolic manipulations of patterns of words, numbers, and statements of value, and perhaps to some sort of introspection. If the humanities are conceived as essentially a question of interpersonal relations, something quite different may result. Slaughter and Greene (12) have each stressed the need for s For a somewhat similar position, see Grannis' conclusions in 12. ' ' For some collected examples, see 6, and the journal, Studies in Philosophy and Education. I suspect that part of the problem is in separating the process from the people, and that educators do not feel comfortable with explanations of learning which do not include human, active teachers, or with psychological definitions, or with psychologists. December 1969

educators to account for what they are doing and to search for objectives around which to mold their activities and their use of tech nology. Atkins summarized one of the cen tral questions of design quite eloquently: We came to realize that all of the changes we read about today whether flexible sched uling, or flexible space, or team-teaching, or ungraded curricula, or multi-age grouping, or multi-media instructional materials are essen tially ideas, not set plans or packages, or hard ware which can be either "installed" or imple mented. The beauty of an idea is that it is pliable; it can be played with, rearranged, re structured, and readjusted to fit one's own situ ation. What works for us may not work well for someone else in our form, but the same idea in his form very well may. The form is after all not the substance. And the substance we are talking about is of course the nature of the transaction which takes place among pupils, ma terials, and teachers in the learning process (12).

Thus, one might question with Broudy (17) the relevance and practicality of com petence in the formalized humanities, espe cially in ghetto schools. Or, one might inquire further into the implications of the times and organization of the social institution that is the school: into Grannis' (12) concepts of family, factory, and corporation structural organizations and their styles. 10 Or, one might explore Bellack's (3) concepts of seminars-in-the-round, and the need for some what practical, albeit intellectualized, grap pling with broad social and cultural problems in a search for awareness of different modes of thought and discrimination in their use. 11 Future programs in the humanities must come to terms with what the label "the hu manities" means for them, and with what is involved in the teaching. These are not easy questions, and no answers are pat. Educa tors, however, too often adopt new programs or ideas uncritically, and are later dismayed when nothing works, particularly in this age of gimmickry. Indeed, Kliebard has noted that our: . . . inability to see our field in perspective 10 See also Eisner (22), cited previously. 11 Grannis has some similar, and most inter esting ideas, in his conclusions in 12. 293

also results in our tendency to repeat the rallying cries and slogans that had their origins in a different intellectual climate and a different so cial milieu as if they had an immediacy that they no longer possess (12).

We must not be content to use the luster of new labels to hide old ways, or to make claims we cannot fulfill. We must also come to grips with the implications and relevance of our choices, and should not try to make them in vacua, without some reference. The American educator's love of the eclectic and the functional is some reason for optimism; but his continual patchworking without ref erence or criticism is also reason enough for concern. References CURRICULUM ISSUES 1 Morton Alpren, editor. The Subject Cur riculum: Grades K-12 Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, 1967. 2 George A. Beauchamp. C urriculum Theory. Second edition. Wilmette, Illinois: Kagg Press, 1968. 3 Arno A. Bellack. "Conceptions of Knowl edge: Their Significance for the Curriculum." In: Glen Mass and Kimball Wiles, editors. Readings in Curriculum. B oston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1966. pp. 289-99. 4. G T Buswell. "Educational Theory and the Psychology of Learning." Journal of Educational Psychology, M arch 1956; pp. 175-84. 5. June T. Fox. "Epistemology, Psychology and Their Relevance for Education in Bruner and Dewey." E ducational Theory 1 9 (1): 58-75; Winter 1969. 6. Dwayne Huebner. "Curriculum as a Field of Study." In C. J. B. MacmiUan and Thomas W. Nelson, editors. Concepts of Teaching: Philosophi cal Essays. C hicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1968. pp. 99-118. 7. Abraham H. Maslow. "Some Educational Implications of the Humanistic Psychologies." H ar vard Educational Review 38 (4) : 685-96; Fall 1968. 8 Frederick J. McDonald. "The Influence of Learning Theory on Education (1900-1950)." In: Ernest R. Hilgard. editor Theories of Learning and Instruction The 63rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1964. pp. 1-26. 9. Edmund C. Short and George D. Marconnit, editors. Contemporary Thought on Public School Curriculum: Readings. Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Company, 1968. 294

10. Frank L. Sleeves, editor. The Subjects in the Curriculum: Selected Reading. New York: The Odyssey Press, Inc., 1968. 11. Hilda Taba. Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1962. 12. Paul W. F. Witt, editor. Technology and the Curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press, 1968.

READINGS ON THE HUMANITIES 13. Walcott H. Beatty. "The Psychology of Becoming Human." Educational Leadership 20 (4) : 247-51, 258; January 1963. 14 Patricia Beesley. The Revival of the Hu manities in American Education. New York: Co lumbia University Press, 1940. 15. Louise M. Berman. editor. The Humani ties and the Curriculum. Washington, D.C.: Asso ciation for Supervision and Curriculum Develop ment, 1967. 16. Charles F. Boewe and Roy F Nichols, editors. B oth Human and Humane: The Humanities and Social Sciences in Graduate Education. Phila delphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. 17. Harry S. Broudy. "The Educational Claims of the Humanities." Journal of Philosophy, Novem ber 6, 1958; pp. 987-97. 18. Jerome S. Bruner "How Can the Schools Provide a Liberal Education for All Youth?" NEA Addresses and Proceedings, Vol. 103, 1965; pp. 3746. 19. F. T. Cloak. "Reach Out or Die Out: The Humanities and the Evolutionary Potential of Hu manity." E ducational Leadership 26 (7): 661-65; April 1969. 20. Ronald S. Crane. The Idea of the Hu manities, and Other Essays Critical and Historical. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966. 21. Harold B. Dunkel. General Education in the Humanities. Washington, D.C.: American Coun cil on Education, 1947. 22. Elliot W. Eisner. "The Humanities: Is a New Era Possible?" Educational Leadership 26 (7): 651-54; April 1969. 23. John H. Fisher. "The Humanities in an Age of Science." Journal of General Education, Oc tober 1966; pp. 181-90. 24 Maurice Friedman. "Education and the Image of Man." The Record 70 (3): 191-97; De cember 1968. 25. Maxwell H. Goldberg. "The Impact of Technological Change on the Humanities." The Educational Record 46 (4): 388-99; Fall 1965. 26. John I. Goodlad. "The Schools vs. Edu cation." Saturday Review 52 (16): 59-61, 80-82; April 19, 1969. Educational Leadership

27. Maxine Greene. "The Humanities and the Public School: You Must Change Your Life." The Teachers College Record 67 (5): 338-42; Feb ruary 1966. 28. Julian Harris, editor. The Humanities: An Appraisal. M adison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1950. 29. Solon T. Kimball and James E. McClellan, Jr. Education and the New America. New York: Random House, Inc., 1962. 30. Clarence A. Lack. "Love as a Basis for Organizing Curriculum." Educational Leadership 26 f7): 693-701; April 1969. 31. Robert R. Leeper, editor. Humanizing Education: The Person in the Process. Washington, D.C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1967. 32. Albert H. Marckwardt e t al. "Literature in Humanities Programs." Paper for the National Council of Teachers of English Humanities Con ference, Fall 1966. 33. James E. McClellan, Jr. "Why Should the Humanities Be Taught?" Journal of Philosophy, November 6, 1958; pp. 997-1007. 34. John H. Plumb, editor. Crisis in the Hu manities. B altimore: Penguin Books, Inc., 1964

35. Howard Putnam. "The Humanities in Society and Education." School and Society 96: 7476; February 3, 1968. 36. Lewis A. Richards. "The Humanities in Modern Times." Education 87: 267-70; January 1967. 37. Sister Frances Tinucci, C.S.J. "A Ration ale for a Humanities-Centered Curriculum in a Cybernetic-Centered Society " Catholic Educational Review, January 1969; pp. 632-46. 38. Sister Mary Peter MitcheU, O.S.F. "Pat terns in Humanities, An Innovative Program." NCEA B ulletin, August 1968; pp. 112-17. 39. David H. Stevens. The Changing Human ities: An Appraisal of Old Values and New Uses. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1953. 40. Thomas B. Stroup, editor. The Humani ties and the Understanding of Reality. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1966. 41. Hobart F. Thomas. "Sensitivity Training and the Educator." NASSP B ulletin 50: 76-88; No vember 1967. 42. Fred T. Wilhelms. "The Hidden Hungers." Educational Leadership 26 (7): 643^5; April 1969. 43. Henry Winthrop. "Needed Reconstruc tion in Education for a Cybernating Society." The Educational Record 46 (4): 400-11; Fall 1965. fj

TRANSPARENCIES FOR INTRODUCING READING-THINKING SKILLS—Level B A continuation of the successful program introduced last year with Level A. Attractively illustrated transparencies planned to develop major thinking skills from the non-reading stage through sequential steps until they can be combined with reading skills. Packaged in a convenient filing box.

ARITHMETIC—STEP BY STEP—Kit A A developmental program for remedial, special education, ungraded classes, and individualized programs. Liquid duplicating masters packaged in a sturdy box for easy han dling and storage. A sequential program containing ten units, with three levels for each unit. Unit Pretests provided to determine the in structional level in each unit for every child. Write for complete information regarding these two programs. ALSO NEW THIS YEAR: 9 titles added to our list of liquid duplicating materials and READING EXERCISES IN NEGRO HISTORY, Volume 2 All new materials included in our 1969-7O Complete Catalog.

THE CONTINENTAL PRESS, INC. E LiZABETHTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA 17022 December 1969

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